Bilateral agreements with countries outside the EU
The EU has 2 types of fishing agreements with non-EU countries:
- fisheries partnership agreements – the EU gives financial and technical support in exchange for fishing rights, generally with southern partner countries.
- northern agreements – joint management of shared stocks with Norway, Iceland and the Faeroe Islands.
Sustainable fisheries partnership agreements
Tuna agreements – allow EU vessels to pursue migrating tuna stocks as they move along the shores of Africa and through the Indian Ocean.
Mixed agreements – provide access to a wide range of fish stocks in the partner country's exclusive economic zone.
In exchange, the EU pays the partner countries a financial contribution composed of 2 distinct parts:
- access rights to the EEZ
- "sectoral" financial support which aims to promote sustainable fisheries development in the partner countries, by strengthening their administrative and scientific capacity through a focus on sustainable fisheries management, monitoring, control and surveillance.
The EU has currently 13 active SFPAs protocols in force with third countries:
- 10 tuna agreements: Cape Verde, Ivory Coast, Sao Tomé and Principe, Gabon, Madagascar, Senegal, Comoros, Seychelles, Mauritius and Kiribati
- 3 mixed agreements: Morocco, Greenland and Guinea-Bissau
The EU has also 6 "dormant" agreements with Mozambique, Micronesia, Solomon Island, Mauritania, Gambia and Equatorial Guinea. "Dormant agreements" stand for countries which adopted a fisheries partnership agreement without having a protocol into force, for structural or conjonctural reasons. EU vessels are therefore not allowed to fish in waters under the regime of the dormant agreements.
EU fishing activities in the North Sea and north-east Atlantic are closely linked to those of our neighbours – Norway, Iceland and the Faeroe Islands. With many of the targeted stocks shared across boundaries, it makes good sense for all 4 parties to coordinate their activities, especially as the different fleets aren’t necessarily interested in the same stocks.
So many of the stocks concerned are jointly managed, and quotas are exchanged to ensure they’re not wasted. Some of these stocks are managed through the intergovernmental North-East Atlantic Fisheries Convention set up to manage fish stocks in the region, while others are managed through agreements between the coastal states.
These agreements are extremely important to a large section of the EU fleet, especially the agreement with Norway, which covers quotas worth over €2bn.
List of fisheries agreements
|Country||Expiry date||Type||Total contribution from the EU budget per year||Earmarked for fisheries policy development|
|Cape Verde||22.12.2018||Tuna||550 000 €/ 500 000 €||275 000 €/ 250 000 €|
|Comoros||31.12.2016||Tuna||600 000 €||300 000 €|
|Cook Islands||n/a||Tuna||385 000 / 350 000 €||350 000 €|
|Côte d'Ivoire||30.6.2018||Tuna||680 000 €||257 500 €|
|Gabon||23.7.2016||Tuna||1 350 000 €||450 000 €|
|Greenland||31.12.2015||Mixed||17 847 244 €||2 743 041 €|
|Guinea- Bissau||23.11.2017||Mixed||9 200 000 €||3 000 000 €|
|Kiribati||No protocol in force since 16.09.2015|
|Liberia||8.12.2020||Tuna||715 000 €/ 650 000 €/ 585 000||357 500/ 325 000/ 292 500|
|Madagascar||31.12.2018||Tuna||1 566 250/
1 487 500 €
|700 000 €|
|Mauritania||15.11.2019||Mixed||59 125 000 €||4 125 000 €|
|Mauritius||27.1.2017||Tuna||660 000 €||302 500 €|
|Micronesia||No protocol in force since 25.2.2010|
|Morocco||27.2.2018||Mixed||30 million €||14 million €|
|Mozambique||Protocol expired on 31 January 2015|
|São Tomé and Principe||22.5.2018||Tuna||710 000/
675 000 €
|325 000 €|
|Senegal||19.11.2019||Tuna (+ hake component)||1 808 000/
1 668 000 €
|750 000 €|
5 350 000 € in 2014
|2 600 000 €|
|Solomon Islands||No protocol in force since 9.10.2012|
|Faeroe Islands||2006 - 2012|
|Norway||2009 - 2015|
Historical and legal context of the bilateral agreements
The European Economic Community concluded its first bilateral fisheries agreements in the late 1970's. More than 30 other bilateral agreements were concluded until today mainly with developing States in Africa or in the Pacific. The negotiation of fisheries bilateral agreements resulted from the adoption of the UN Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) which establishes a legal sovereignty for coastal states over living marine resources in maritime zones within 200 nautical miles from their baselines (the "Exclusive Economic Zone"). As a result, the conclusion of bilateral agreements with third countries appeared necessary to give European Union fleets access to fish stock surplus that are not used by the coastal states' local fleets.
The Common Fisheries Policy, especially its external dimension, establishes a legal framework for EU fishing activities outside the European waters.