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Integration in different policy areas

Legal migration


Some European legislation and instruments in the field of legal migration also impact the integration of immigrants in European societies. This work is coordinated by the European Commission’s Directorate General for Home Affairs.

Legislative developments

Instruments

European Migration Network

The European Migration Network (EMN) was established in 2003 to meet the information needs of EU institutions and of Member States’ authorities by providing up-to-date, objective, reliable and comparable information on migration and asylum, with a view to supporting policy making in the European Union in these areas.

The EMN is co-ordinated by the European Commission, in co-operation with National Contact Points (EMN NCPs, not to be confused with the National Contact Points on Integration) established in each Member State. These, in turn, develop a national network with relevant stakeholders.

The EMN responds to information needs through specific reports, studies and ad-hoc queries.
All the EMN’s relevant work is available through the European Web Site on Integration.

EU Immigration Portal

In November 2011, the Commission launched the EU Immigration Portal, a website with hands-on information for foreign nationals interested in moving to the EU. The site is also directed at migrants who are already here and would like to move from one EU State to another. It provides specific information about procedures in all 28 EU States for each category of migrants.”

Fundamental rights

Some European legislation and instruments in the field of fundamental rights and non-discrimination also impact the integration of immigrants in European societies. Children's rights are an integral part of the EU's fundamental rights policy as set out in the EU Agenda for the Rights of the Child. This work is coordinated by the European Commission’s Directorate General for Justice.

Legislative developments

  • Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation. The purpose of this Directive is to lay down a general framework for combating discrimination on the grounds of religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation as regards employment and occupation, with a view to putting into effect in the Member States the principle of equal treatment. This Directive applies to all persons, as regards both the public and private sectors, including public bodies, in relation to:
    • conditions for access to employment, to self-employment or to occupation, including selection criteria and recruitment conditions, whatever the branch of activity and at all levels of the professional hierarchy, including promotion;
    • access to all types and to all levels of vocational guidance, vocational training, advanced vocational training and retraining, including practical work experience;
    • employment and working conditions, including dismissals and pay;
    • membership of, and involvement in, an organisation of workers or employers, or any organisation whose members carry on a particular profession, including the benefits provided for by such organisations.
  • Council Directive 2000/43/EC of 29 June 2000 implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin. The purpose of this Directive is to lay down a framework for combating discrimination on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, with a view to putting into effect in the Member States the principle of equal treatment. This Directive applies to all persons, as regards both the public and private sectors, including public bodies, in relation to:
    • conditions for access to employment, to self-employment and to occupation, including selection criteria and recruitment conditions, whatever the branch of activity and at all levels of the professional hierarchy, including promotion;
    • access to all types and to all levels of vocational guidance, vocational training, advanced vocational training and retraining, including practical work experience;
    • employment and working conditions, including dismissals and pay;
    • membership of and involvement in an organisation of workers or employers, or any organisation whose members carry on a particular profession, including the benefits provided for by such organisations;
    • social protection, including social security and healthcare;
    • social advantages;
    • education;
    • access to and supply of goods and services which are available to the public, including housing.
  • Council Directive 2006/54/EC implementing the principle of equal treatment between men and women in the field of employment and occupation.
  • Council Directive 2010/41/EU ensuring equality for self-employed workers.
  • Council Framework Decision 2008/913/JHA on combating certain forms and expressions of racism and xenophobia by means of criminal law. The aim of the Framework Decision is to fight against racist and xenophobic speech and crime, by means of criminal law. Due to the unfortunate rise of racism and xenophobia across the EU, this instrument is of key importance. The Commission is committed to monitoring closely its implementation at the national level. One of the reasons behind this Framework Decision is the need to define a common criminal law approach across the EU to racism and xenophobia, so that the same behaviour constitutes an offence in all EU countries. This way, effective, proportionate and dissuasive penalties are provided for natural and legal persons having committed or being liable for such offences.
    Offences exist when directed against a group of persons (or a member of such a group) defined by reference to race, colour, religion, descent or national or ethnic origin.
    They include the following intentional actions:
    • publicly inciting to violence or hatred, including by public dissemination or distribution of tracts, pictures or other material;
    • publicly condoning, denying or grossly trivialising the crimes defined in Article 6 of the Charter of the International Military Tribunal appended to the London Agreement of 8.08.1945, as well as crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes as defined in Articles 6, 7 and 8 of the Statute of the International Criminal Court, ‘when the conduct is carried out in a manner likely to incite violence or hatred against such group or member of a group’.

With regard to natural persons, EU countries shall make these offences punishable with criminal penalties of between at least 1 and 3 years of imprisonment. For legal persons, penalties shall include criminal or non-criminal fines, and may be complemented with other penalties such as exclusion from public benefits or aid; disqualification to practice commercial activities; judicial supervision or judicial winding-up order.

For criminal offences other than those covered by the Framework Decision, EU countries are obliged to ensure that racist and xenophobic motivation is considered as an aggravating circumstance; or may be taken into account in the determination of the penalties.

EU countries were obliged to transpose the Framework Decision into their national laws by 28 November 2010. The Commission will publish an implementation report in 2013.

Non-discrimination in the Renewed Social Agenda

Drawing on the implementation of the 2005 Framework Strategy against Discrimination and the 2007 European Year of Equal Opportunities for All, the Commission adopted under its Renewed Social Agenda on 2 July 2008 a non-discrimination package comprising:

  1. A proposal for a new Directive on equal treatment prohibiting discrimination on grounds of age, disability, sexual orientation and religion or belief outside the employment sphere (also known as the ‘horizontal directive’). This proposal is currently debated at the Council of the European Union  and at the European Parliament.
  2. A Communication  which presents a comprehensive approach to step up action against discrimination and promote equal opportunities. This Communication is currently debated at the European Parliament.
  3. A Commission Decision creating a non-discrimination governmental experts group.

Institutional Instruments

EU action in this field benefits from the expertise of the European Network of Legal Experts in the Non-discrimination Field, a network composed of country experts that provide independent advice to the Commission on all grounds covered by the two directives described above.

 

In November 2011, the Commission presented a proposal regarding funding EU policies in the justice area (including non-discrimination) beyond 2013.

Financial instruments

PROGRESS

PROGRESS is an EU programme to promote more and better jobs and a fairer, more inclusive society.

Anti-discrimination is one of five priority areas of the programme, which invests a total of €700 million in new studies, awareness raising and events between 2007 and 2013.

An annual plan of work lists all activities that will be put in place through publication of calls for tenders and calls for proposals.

PROGRESS focuses on activities with a strong European dimension to guarantee an EU added value. These activities are designed to inform policy analysis and development. In this respect, PROGRESS differs from the European Social Fund, which invests in the implementation of employment and social inclusion policies in the Member States.

In the anti-discrimination field, examples of what PROGRESS can support include the funding of EU networks of NGOs fighting social exclusion and discrimination on grounds of racial origin, the network of national equality bodies and the EU’s ‘For Diversity. Against Discrimination’ campaign.

Fundamental Rights and Citizenship Programme

The Specific Fundamental Rights and Citizenship Programme is part of the General Programme "Fundamental rights and justice". The general objectives of the programme include (a) to promote the development of a European society based on respect for fundamental rights, (b) to strengthen civil society and to encourage an open, transparent and regular dialogue with it in respect of fundamental rights, (c) to fight against racism and antisemitism and promote better interfaith and intercultural understanding and improved tolerance in the EU, and (d) to improve contacts, exchange of information and networking between legal, judicial and administrative authorities and the legal professions, for a better mutual understanding.

The budget for the programme is € 93.8 M over the period 2007-2013. The type of actions supported include (a) specific actions taken by the Commission, (b) specific transnational projects of Union interest involving at least two Member States (action grants following call for proposals), (c) support to activities of non-governmental organisations or other entities pursuing an aim in line with the general objectives of the programme (operating grants following call for proposals), and (d) operating grants to co-finance expenditure associated with the permanent work programme of the Conference of the European Constitutional Courts and the Association of the Councils of State and Supreme Administrative Jurisdictions of the European Union.

For further information: http://ec.europa.eu/justice/funding/rights/funding_rights-en.htm

European Social Fund

The European Social Fund (ESF) is one of the EU's Structural Funds, set up in 1957 to reduce differences in prosperity and living standards across EU Member States and regions, and therefore promoting economic and social cohesion.

The ESF is devoted to promoting employment in the EU. It helps Member States make Europe's workforce and companies better equipped to face new, global challenges. In short:

  • Funding is spread across the Member States and regions, in particular those where economic development is less advanced.
  • Over the period 2007-2013 some €75 billion will be distributed to the EU Member States and regions to achieve its goals.

The ESF is supporting activities in the Member States that fight discrimination in access to employment and in the workplace, including projects that:

  • Create pathways to re-entry and reintegration into employment for groups suffering discrimination, including immigrants and ethnic minorities;
  • Build acceptance of diversity in the workplace to combat discrimination and raise awareness;
  • Encourage support for active ageing and the reintegration of older workers; and
  • Increase the participation of migrants in employment and thereby strengthen their social integration.

Relevant projects financed by the ESF can be found by using the ESF Project Search Engine. Results of the relevant projects are also available through the European Web Site on Integration.

Europe 2020, a strategy for growth

As explained in ‘The mandate to promote integration’, the Europe 2020 Strategy is articulated around a set of EU-wide targets and promoted through Integrated Guidelines.

The Europe 2020 Strategy is implemented through seven Flagship Initiatives. Three of them are directly relevant to the integration of immigrants.

  • An agenda for new skills and jobs. This Initiative is designed to better equip people – including immigrants – with the right skills for employment, for instance through anticipating skills needs and improving the recognition of skills and qualifications.
  • Youth on the move. This Initiative is designed to respond to the challenges young people face – including immigrant youngsters – and to help them succeed in the knowledge economy by promoting learning and training opportunities as well support to find a first job.  This includes widening access and participation in higher education for disadvantaged groups, including migrants. The ‘Youth on the move’ Initiative benefits from a dedicated website.
  • European platform against poverty and social exclusion. This Initiative aims at contributing to the combat against poverty and social exclusion by identifying best practices and promoting mutual learning; setting up EU-wide rules; and making funding available for actions in this field.

Employment

European Employment Strategy

The European Employment Strategy (EES) is a mechanism designed to coordinate the employment policies of the EU Member States. While the objectives, priorities and targets are agreed at EU level, the national governments are fully responsible for formulating and implementing the necessary policies.

The EES is implemented through the Open Method of Coordination and acts as the main platform for implementing the employment dimension of the Europe 2020 Strategy.

Every year, national governments (through the Employment Committee) and the European institutions produce the "employment package":

  • The guidelines for national employment policies,  proposed by the Commission and agreed by the national governments, set out common priorities and targets
  • The national reports delivered by the national governments and describing their employment policies, which are analysed by the Commission for compliance with the Europe 2020 targets and flagship initiatives
  • A Commission report, accompanied if appropriate by recommendations to national governments. The latest report, published in early 2011 as an annex to the Annual Growth Survey, calls Member States to develop more targeted policies towards the employment and social inclusion of migrants.

Institutional instruments

European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (EUROFOUND)

EUROFOUND is an EU agency which was set up to contribute to the planning and establishment of better living and working conditions in Europe. It provides findings, knowledge and advice from independent and comparative research, to governments, employers, trade unions and the European Commission.

One of the EUROFOUND’s areas of expertise is diversity issues in employment. An example of relevant work in this area is the report on equality and diversity in municipal employment and service provision of the European network of cities for local integration policies for migrants (CLIP).

Relevant EUROFOUND work, including CLIP reports and case studies, can be found on the European Web Site on Integration.

Financial instruments

PROGRESS and the European Social Fund are the instruments that the EU currently uses in order to promote the employment of immigrants and facilitate their access to the labour market.

EQUAL is a major programme operated between 2001 and 2008 with a view to finding new ways of tackling discrimination and inequality experienced by those in work and those looking for a job. It functioned as a laboratory (principle of innovation) and put the emphasis on active co-operation between Member States. Since the end of the programme, the spirit and experience of EQUAL were transferred to the transnational cooperation activities of the European Social Fund.

Results of EQUAL projects that are relevant to the integration of immigrants are available on the European Web Site on Integration, as well as on the EQUAL Common Database.

Social protection and inclusion

EU action on social protection and inclusion is coordinated by the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion.

In the field of social protection and inclusion, the EU’s role is limited to coordination, support and promotion of policies.

EU social protection and inclusion policies are implemented through the Open Method of Coordination. As such, they are based on agreed common objectives and common indicators, which show how progress towards these goals can be measured.

National governments translate the common objectives into national plans – submitted as national strategic reports.

Among the common objectives, which are based on a Commission’s Communication, some are directly relevant to the integration of immigrants in European societies, such as:

  •  “Ensure the active social inclusion of all by promoting participation in the labour market and by fighting poverty and exclusion among the most marginalised people and groups.
  • Guarantee access for all to the basic resources, rights and social services needed for participation in society, while addressing extreme forms of exclusion and fighting all forms of discrimination leading to exclusion.
  • Guarantee access for all to adequate health and long-term care and ensure that the need for care does not lead to poverty and financial dependency. Address inequities in access to care and in health outcomes.”

The national reports are assessed by the Commission and Council in joint reports. These reflect what EU-level initiatives have achieved in individual countries.

Peer reviews are one of the main tools for developing mutual learning in the field of social protection and inclusion. Specific peer reviews have dealt with immigrant integration:

However, other peer reviews are indirectly relevant to immigrant integration.

Education and training

Work in this field is coordinated by the European Commission’s .Directorate-General for Education and Culture

The EU support to education and training policies is governed by the Strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (known as "ET 2020").

ET 2020 is implemented through the Open Method of Coordination.

ET 2020 makes several references to the educational dimension of immigrant integration:

  • Strategic objective 2 – improving the quality and efficiency of education and training: under this objective, Member States are encouraged to “provide migrants with opportunities to learn the language of the host country”.
  • Strategic objective 3 – promoting equity, social cohesion and active citizenship: this objective states that “education and training systems should aim to ensure that all learners — including those from disadvantaged backgrounds, those with special needs and migrants — complete their education, including, where appropriate, through second-chance education and the provision of more personalised learning”. Member States are therefore encouraged to develop cooperation on “mutual learning on best practices for the education of learners from migrant backgrounds”.

Alongside ET 2020 acting as overarching agenda, specific policy frameworks have been developed for the different educational environments and fields (schools, higher education, adult education, etc). These include specific policies towards migrants, or make reference to migrants as target groups to be considered under general policies, as required by the Education, Youth and Culture Council in November 2009.

  • Early childhood education. In its 2011 Communication on Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC), the Commission encourages Member States in “widening access to quality ECEC for (…) migrants (…) (such as incentives for participation for disadvantaged families, adapting provision to the needs of families and increasing accessibility and affordability)”.
  • School education. In this field, the Commission has opened the debate on how school education policies may better address the challenges posed by immigration by adopting a Green Paper on Migration and Mobility in 2008. The Migration and Education page of the Directorate-General’s website contains useful information regarding the consultation with civil society on the Green Paper and follow-up actions.
  • Higher education. The Commission released a Green Paper on Promoting the Learning Mobility of Young People in 2009 in view of boosting the opportunities for young people in Europe to develop their knowledge and skills by spending time abroad. The Green Paper specifically mentions that “any measures to increase mobility ought to aim in particular at including those already struggling with specific difficulties, e.g. (…) underprivileged migrant populations”. However several obstacles to learning mobility still remain. Therefore the Commission proposed in 2010 a Council Recommendation on Learning Mobility as a basis for a new concerted campaign among Member States to finally remove obstacles to mobility. Furthermore the Commission has developed a Guide to the Rights of Mobile Students in the EU informing students about their rights when studying abroad in an EU-country. Facilitating learning mobility and promoting the attractiveness of Europe as a study destination, as well as other priorities to support the modernisation of higher education will be outlined in a new Commission Communication in autumn 2011.
  • Vocational education and training. In its 2010 Communication on vocational education and training in the context of the Europe 2020 strategy, the Commission presses Member States to promote continuing vocational education and training “to increase the labour market participation of groups at risk through (…)guidance services and validation of prior learning, particularly for migrants in order to facilitate their integration into society”.
  • Adult education. The Commission released a Communication on Adult Learning in 2006, which affirms that “Member States should ensure sufficient investment in the education and training of (…) migrants, but above all ensure efficiency by designing education and training which matches the needs of the learner. They should also raise awareness of the important role of migrants (…) in society and in the economy”. This includes, for instance, “speeding up mechanisms for assessment of capacities and recognition of formal, non-formal and informal learning of arriving migrants”. Furthermore, in its May 2008 conclusions, the Council invited the Commission to “identify good practice in the assessment of learning outcomes, particularly those (…) of migrants acquired mainly outside the formal learning system”.

Institutional instruments

The EU’s policy in the fields of education and training benefit from the work carried out by two key specialist bodies: Eurydice and the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (known as CEDEFOP).

Eurydice

Eurydice is a network of education ministries which provides information on and analyses of European education systems and policies.

The following publications are examples of Eurydice’s relevant work on immigrant integration. All Eurydice relevant work is accessible through the European Web Site on Integration.

European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training

The CEDEFOP is an EU agency that helps promote and develop vocational education and training in the European Union.

The 2011 publication on Employment-related mobility and migration, and vocational education and training is an example of CEDEFOP work that is relevant to immigrant integration. All CEDEFOP relevant work is available through the European Web Site on Integration.

Financial instruments

Under the Lifelong Learning Programme, there are four financial instruments that correspond to the different educational environments and fields, as indicated in the table below.

The legal bases and annual work plans of the Lifelong Learning Programme and the sub-programmes make numerous references to the integration of immigrants.

Results of relevant projects funded under the Lifelong Learning Programme are available on the European Web Site on Integration.

Sub-programme name

Sector

Projects databases*

Key documents

Comenius

Schools

Click here

·      Legal basis

·      Programme Guide

·      Strategic priorities 2011

Erasmus

Higher Education

Click here

Leonardo da Vinci

Vocational education and training

Click here

Grundtvig

Adult education

Click here

*Bear in mind that not all funded projects are relevant to the integration of immigrants

Enterprise

The European Commission’s Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry is responsible for EU action in the field of entrepreneurship policies.

The Commission’s Communication ‘A “Small Business Act” for Europe’ was adopted by the Internal Market, Industry and Research Council in December 2008 (EN only). It states that the “potential for entrepreneurship among immigrants” is “unexploited”. To remedy this situation, the Communication invites Member States to “provide mentoring and support for immigrants who wish to become entrepreneurs”.

In the same year, the Commission's Network Ethnic Minority Businesses – which was created in 2003 and is composed of national administrators, researchers and representatives from business organisation – released its final report.

Still in 2008, the Commission organised a major conference on “Entrepreneurial Diversity in a Unified Europe”, during which an EC-commissioned study on good practices in ethnic minority entrepreneurship was presented.

Instruments

A number of programmes have been developed in the field of entrepreneurship, but they do not target immigrants explicitly. However, nearly all programmes are accessible on grounds of residence (and therefore to legally-residing immigrants), such as the Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs.

Cohesion policy

The European Commission’s Directorate-General for Regional Policy is responsible for EU action in the field of cohesion policy.

The EU’s cohesion policy has three key objectives:

  • The ‘Convergence objective’, which aims at promoting growth-enhancing conditions and factors leading to real convergence for the least-developed Member States and regions.
  • The ‘Regional Competitiveness and Employment objective’, which aims at strengthening competitiveness and attractiveness, as well as employment.
  • The ‘European Territorial Co-operation objective’ which aims at strengthening cross-border co-operation through joint local and regional initiatives, trans-national co-operation aiming at integrated territorial development, and interregional co-operation and exchange of experience.

These key objectives are further detailed in the Community Strategic Guidelines on Cohesion 2007-2013, which contain the principles and priorities of cohesion policy. Under the employment and social inclusion heading, the Guidelines state that special attention should be paid to “specific action to strengthen access of migrants to the labour market and facilitate their social integration, through training and validation of competences acquired abroad, personalised guidance, language training, appropriate support for entrepreneurship and raising awareness among employers and migrant workers of their rights and obligations, and strengthening the enforcement of anti-discrimination rules”. Furthermore, “in general, integrated support services and programmes should have a focus on those groups which are most in need, such as immigrants”.

Instruments

The EU’s cohesion policy uses three main instruments: the European Fund for Regional Development, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund.

In addition, use can be made of the JASMINE programme, which aims at reinforcing the development of micro-credit in Europe. Furthermore, the EU’s cohesion policy also benefits from the URBACT programme, the Union’s flagship programme for sustainable urban development.

  • Relevant projects funded under the EU’s cohesion policy can be found here.
  • Relevant URBACT projects can be identified here.

Please note however that results of projects that are relevant to immigrant integration and funded by the above programmes are also available on the European Web Site on Integration.

Health

The European Commission’s Directorate-General for Health and Consumers is responsible for EU action in the field of health.

A central element of the current EU health strategy is the reduction of health inequalities. To this end, the Commission released a specific Communication on ‘Solidarity in health: reducing health inequalities in the EU’, which was adopted by the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council in June 2010.

The Communication states that “addressing health inequalities effectively requires policies which include both actions to address the gradient in health across the whole of society as well as actions which are specifically targeted to vulnerable groups”, including “disadvantaged migrant and ethnic minority groups”. It recommends launching “initiatives in collaboration with Member States to raise awareness and promote actions to improve access and appropriateness of health services, health promotion and preventive care for migrants and ethnic minorities and other vulnerable groups, through the identification and exchange of good practice supported by the health and other programmes”.

Instruments

The Second Programme of Community Action in the Field of Health 2008-2013 is the main instrument the European Commission uses to implement the EU Health Strategy. The programme is managed by the Commission with the assistance of the Executive Agency for Health and Consumers (EAHC).

An Annual Work Plan is adopted each year, in line with the strategy’s objectives and priorities.

The list of funded projects that are relevant to the integration of immigrants is available here. However, results of relevant projects are also available through the European Web Site on Integration.

Culture

The European Commission’s Directorate-General for Education and Culture is responsible for EU action in the field of culture.

The EU’s policy on culture was developed in 2007 when the Commission-proposed European Agenda for Culture was adopted by the Council through a Resolution. The inter-relationships between the European Agenda for Culture and the Europe 2020 Strategy were confirmed in December 2010 by the Council in its Conclusions on the Work Plan for Culture 2011-2014.

The European Agenda on Culture is implemented through the Open Method of Coordination, and along the lines of the Work Plan for Culture.

Both documents stress that “as we live in increasingly multicultural societies, (…) we need therefore to promote and strengthen intercultural competences and intercultural dialogue, in particular by developing 'cultural awareness and expression', 'social and civic competences' and 'communication in foreign languages'”. The policy is therefore directly relevant to the integration of immigrants in European societies.

Instruments

The Culture Programme

The Culture Programme is the main EU instrument in the field of culture. The programme includes support for cultural actions, cultural bodies and for policy analysis and dissemination activities.

Relevant projects from the Culture Programme are accessible through the EVE Platform, the programme’s search engine. However, results of relevant projects are also accessible through the European Web Site on Integration.

2008 Year of Intercultural Dialogue

Another key EU instrument in the field of culture has been the 2008 Year of Intercultural Dialogue (EYID). Users can learn more about the European national projects funded under the EYID in the EYID highlights document.

Other instruments

Other relevant instruments of the EU’s policy on culture include the Intercultural Cities project in partnership with the Council of Europe, as well as the Platform for Intercultural Dialogue, through which a continuous dialogue with civil society organisations is conducted.

Youth

The European Commission’s Directorate-General for Education and Culture is responsible for EU action in the field of youth.

The current EU Youth Strategy was developed in 2009 on the basis of the Commission’s Communication ‘An EU Strategy for Youth: Investing and Empowering’, and adopted by the Youth and Culture Council in November 2009 through a Council Resolution.

The EU Youth Strategy includes eight fields of action. The majority of these fields are directly relevant to the integration of immigrants in many aspects. For instance, the ‘social inclusion’ field of action makes reference to the need to “address issues related to teenagers and young adults, in particular those with fewer opportunities, in social protection and inclusion policies”; and to the development of “intercultural awareness and competences for all young people”.

The EU Youth Strategy is implemented through the Open Method of Coordination

Instruments

The main EU instrument in the field of youth policy is the Youth in Action programme, for which €885 million have been allocated for the period 2007-2013.

The programme is relevant to immigrant integration and its legal basis states for example that “the general objectives of the Programme shall contribute to the development of the EU policies, in particular with regard to the recognition of cultural, multicultural and linguistic diversity in Europe, to fostering social cohesion and combating all discrimination based on sex, race or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation”.

Relevant Youth in Action projects are accessible through the EVE Platform, the programme’s search engine. However, results of relevant projects are also accessible through the European Web Site on Integration.

Sport

The European Commission’s Directorate-General for Education and Culture is responsible for EU action in the field of sports.

One of the EU policies pursued in this area is the link between sport and social inclusion, integration and equal opportunities. This policy is formulated in the 2007

 
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