Dateien im Anhang
Irregular Migration between Georgia and Greece: Everyone can cross a low fence
[04/07/2013] [Griechenland] [Forschungsarbeit] [Englisch]
Beitrag von : Country Coordinator Greece
Autoren : Michaela Maroufof
Georgians are one of the largest immigrant groups residing in Greece. In fact, Greece is one of the most important destinations for Georgian migrants. However, few studies have been devoted to Georgian migrants, who are usually examined along with other groups within broader studies.
In general, most scholars separate the trends of Georgian migration into three periods that more or less coincide with the periods of the country’s socio-political and economic development. During the first period, up to 1995, migration outflows were mainly triggered by ethnic motivations and those migrating for financial reasons were significantly fewer in numbers. The second wave, between 1996 and 2004, was smaller in size and driven mainly by economic motives. As for the current phase, starting in 2004, despite the improvement in the country’s economical and political situation, poverty does continue to beset the Georgian population, thus motivation to migrate or remain abroad remains strong.
Georgian labor migration to Greece followed the repatriation of Georgian co-ethnics in the early 1990’s. What is particularly interesting in the case of Georgian migrants in Greece is the fact that they cover the entire spectrum of residence statuses of third country nationals: there are significant numbers of repatriates, residence permit holders, asylum seekers as well as persons of irregular status.
In the following section, I will discuss the methodology used for the purposes of this background report. In the third section I will summarize the most important information on Georgia as a country of emigration from the early 1990’s until today, drawing from the relevant literature. I will start by providing a basic historical, political and economic overview of the country, followed by a presentation of its different phases as a country of emigration. I will then continue by discussing the gender issues that arise with regards to Georgian migration and the socio-economic impact of migration and remittances. In the fourth section I will present Greece as a destination country for Georgian migrants mainly focusing on the trends of migration from Georgia to Greece and exploring the reasons that rendered Greece an attractive destination to Georgians. In the fifth section, I will focus on the Georgian population residing in Greece and its access to the labour market. Finally, in the sixth section I will look into the obstacles faced by Georgians in the process of migrating and remaining in Greece and the strategies they have developed in order to cope with them.
Source : IRMA ELIAMEP