An exchange rate is the price of a currency in terms of another currency. The Eurostat collection on exchange rates covers the following datasets:
- Exchange rates between the euro/ECU and other currencies. This is in the form '1 euro (ECU before 1 January 1999) = … units of the other currency'. Daily data are available, as well as monthly, quarterly, and annual. Source is the European Central Bank (euro exchange rates) and European Commission (ECU exchange rates).
- Conversion factors for euro fixed series into euro/ECU. These are factors devised to help users in converting national time series of euro area countries expressed in euro ('euro fixed') into euro/ECU and vice versa.
- Former euro area national currencies vs. euro/ECU. Historical data – the exchange rates of the former currencies (Belgian Franc, Deutsche Mark, etc.) of those countries which joined the euro area.
- Effective exchange rate indices. Source - European Commission. This dataset comprises:
- Industrial countries' effective exchange rates including new Member States
- Industrial countries' effective exchange rates excluding new Member States (historical data - to 2011 only).
The effective exchange rate indices are of two types:
- Nominal effective exchange rates (NEER). These measure changes in the value of a currency against a trade-weighted basket of currencies. A rise in the index means a strengthening of the currency.
- Real effective exchange rates (REER). These measure the change in competitiveness of a country, by taking into account the change in costs or prices relative to other countries. A rise in the index means a loss of competitiveness.
The compilation and dissemination of monetary and financial indicators at the European level is chiefly the responsibility of the European Central Bank. A wide range of detailed European and natonal monetary and financial indicators can be found in the ECB's Statistical Data Warehouse.