Labour market

National Accounts What is it about?

Labour market data comprise a key set of indicators for the assessment of the cyclical situation and for macroeconomic and social policy making. Both the unemployment and labour cost indices play an essential role in the compilation of key indicators for the analysis of long-term economic equilibria and the movements around it, e.g. through the Beveridge curve (relationship between the unemployment rate and the job vacancy rate) and the Phillips curve (the relationship between inflation and unemployment).

What information can I find here?

Labour market data in this section contain information on harmonised unemployment, labour cost and job vacancies. PEEIs data on employment come from national accounts.


According to the International Labour Office definition, unemployed persons are all persons 15 to 74 years of age who were not employed during the reference week, had actively sought work during the past four weeks and were ready to begin working immediately or within two weeks.

Data are presented in thousands of persons, as percentage changes, and as a share of the economically active population (i.e. the unemployment rate). Data can be broken down by sex and age and is presented both non-seasonally and seasonally adjusted.

For more detailed information, please see the dedicated section on the Eurostat website.

Labour cost

The quarterly Labour Cost Index (LCI) is an indicator which measures the cost pressure arising from the production factor "labour". The data covered in the LCI relate to total average hourly labour costs (with and without bonuses) and to the labour cost categories "wages and salaries" and "employers' social security contributions plus taxes paid minus subsidies received by the employer".

Data are provided in nominal terms and broken down by cost items and economic activity. Labour cost index statistics are also available after adjustment for calendar and/or seasonal effects and as percentage changes.

For more detailed information, please see the dedicated section on the Eurostat website.

Job vacancies

A job vacancy is defined as a paid post that is newly created, unoccupied, or about to become vacant, and for which the employer is taking active steps and is prepared to take further steps to find a suitable candidate from outside the enterprise concerned; and which the employer intends to fill either immediately or within a specific period of time.

The Job vacancy rate (JVR) measures the proportion of total posts that is vacant according to the definition of job vacancy above, expressed as a percentage as follows: JVR = number of job vacancies / (number of occupied posts + number of job vacancies). Eurostat publishes quarterly and annual data on job vacancy statistics.

For more detailed information, please see the dedicated section on the Eurostat website.


Below you can access the data either using our ready-made tables or datasets. The latter provide some more detailed information and give you the possibility to customise your data extraction. Data is also disseminated via news releases which are listed below; please see also the release calendar.

Access to the data via ready made tables (Main tables)

Access to more detailed data (database)