Statistics on young people neither in employment nor in education or training

Data extracted in July 2017. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database. Planned article update: July 2018.
Figure 1: Employment, education and training status of young people, by age and sex, EU-28, 2016
(%)
Source: Eurostat (edat_lfse_18)
Figure 2: Employment, education and training status of young people (aged 20–34), EU-28, 2006–16
(%)
Source: Eurostat (edat_lfse_18)
Figure 3: Share of young people neither in employment nor in education and training, by age, EU-28, 2006–16
(%)
Source: Eurostat (edat_lfse_20)
Figure 4: Share of young people (aged 20–34) neither in employment nor in education and training, by sex, 2016
(%)
Source: Eurostat (edat_lfse_20)
Table 1: Share of young people neither in employment nor in education and training, by sex and age, 2016
(%)
Source: Eurostat (edat_lfse_20)
Table 2: Activity status of young people neither in employment nor in education and training, by age and sex, 2016
(%)
Source: Eurostat (edat_lfse_20)
Figure 5: Share of people aged 20–24 neither in employment nor in education and training, by educational attainment level, 2016
(%)
Source: Eurostat (edat_lfse_21) and (lfsa_pgaed)
Figure 6: Share of people aged 25–29 neither in employment nor in education and training, by educational attainment level, 2016
(%)
Source: Eurostat (edat_lfse_21) and (lfsa_pgaed)
Figure 7: Share of people aged 30–34 neither in employment nor in education and training, by educational attainment level, 2016
(%)
Source: Eurostat (edat_lfse_21) and (lfsa_pgaed)
Figure 8: Share of young people (aged 20–34) neither in employment nor in education and training, by degree of urbanisation, 2016
(%)
Source: Eurostat (edat_lfse_29)

This article presents an overview of European Union (EU) statistics related to young people neither in employment nor in education or training (NEET). It provides information on the transition from education to work and focuses on the number of young people who find themselves disengaged from both education and the labour market.

As one of a set of statistical articles forming part of an online publication on education and training, this article provides a complement to information on early leavers from education and training, as well as employment rates of recent graduates and participation of young people in the labour market.

Main statistical findings

The transition from education to work

One of the most important decisions in life concerns the choice of when to make the move from education to the world of work. Given that the vast majority (90.2 %) of young people in the EU-28 between the ages of 15 and 19 continued to participate in some form of education and training (either formal or non-formal), the following analysis mainly focuses on the population aged 20 to 34.

The analysis shown in Figure 1 is complicated somewhat by the emergence of new patterns of transition from education to work. Traditionally, most young people only started work once they had completed their highest level of education or training, and they rarely combined education with a job. The transition has, in recent years, become more prolonged and increasingly unpredictable, with young people switching jobs more frequently and taking longer to become established in the labour market, either by choice or necessity. It has also become increasingly common to find tertiary education students taking part-time or seasonal work to supplement their income, or for young people already in employment to seek a return to education and training in order to improve their qualifications (for example, through evening classes or distance learning). As a result, the transition between education and work has become less clear, with a growing share of students also working and a rising proportion of people in employment also studying (for example, apprentices are generally considered to be employed and in formal education). In 2016, some 11.9 % of young people aged 15–19 in the EU-28 made use of this more flexible transition from education to work, a share that rose to 17.2 % among those aged 20–24, before falling somewhat for older age groups — 13.6 % among those aged 25–29 and 10.4 % for those aged 30–34.

There were almost 17 million young people aged 20–34 who were neither in employment nor in education and training

The final group of young people, shown at the base of the distribution in each bar in Figure 1, are the focus of this article: those who were neither in employment nor in education and training, abbreviated as NEET. With the vast majority of young people aged 15–19 in the EU-28 remaining within education and training (either in formal education or non-formal education and training), it is not surprising to find that relatively few people of this age were NEETs — 6.1 % in 2016. The situation was quite different among those aged 20–34, as almost one in five (18.3 %) of this subpopulation were neither in employment nor in education and training; this corresponded to approximately 16.9 million young people. The remainder of this article therefore focuses on those aged 20–34, where the NEETs phenomenon is most prevalent.

Neither in employment nor in education and training: NEET

Statistics for employment and unemployment have traditionally been used to describe labour markets, in other words, providing data on people who have a job and those who are actively looking for one. However, an analysis of the labour market participation of younger people is somewhat different, especially when:

  • a large proportion of young people are still attending school, college, university, other higher education establishment or training, and;
  • another group of young people are neither in employment (unemployed or economically inactive), nor in education or training (NEETs).

The share of young people neither in employment nor in education and training is an indicator that measures the proportion of a given subpopulation who are not employed and not involved in any further education or training; these people may be subdivided into those who are unemployed and those who are considered economically inactive (in other words, they do not have a job and they are not actively seeking employment).

Young people neither in employment nor in education or training

The share of young people neither in employment nor in education and training rose during the financial and economic crisis …

The NEET rate for young people is closely linked to economic performance and the business cycle. Figure 2 provides an analysis over time for young people aged 20–34 and shows that the share of NEETs in the EU-28 fell from 17.6 % in 2006 to a relative low of 16.5 % by 2008, but then jumped to 18.5 % the following year, after the onset of the global financial and economic crisis. The rate then rose at a more modest pace through to 2013, when it reached 20.1 %, before decreasing to 18.3 % in 2016.

With a record number of NEETs following the financial and economic crisis, there have been concerns among policymakers that a whole generation of young people in the EU could remain out of the labour market for years to come. The implications of this are two-fold: on a personal level, these individuals are more likely to become disenfranchised and to suffer from poverty and social exclusion, while at a macro-economic level they represent a considerable loss in terms of unused productive capacity and a considerable cost in terms of welfare payments.

… while an increasing proportion of young people remained within education or training

While the NEET rate for young people in the EU-28 rose by 1.8 percentage points between 2008 and 2016, Figure 2 shows that over the same period there was a considerable reduction (-3.4 percentage points) in the proportion of young people who were employed and had completely left education or training. This was largely counterbalanced by an increase in the share of young people aged 20–34 who were in some form of education or training, including both those who spent their time exclusively in education and training and those who combined a job with education or training. This development may reflect a growing desire on the part of young people to obtain higher levels of qualification in the face of increased competition in labour markets, but may also reflect a lack of full-time employment opportunities during a period of economic downturn.

Figure 3 shows EU-28 NEET rates for three different age groups of young people. During the period 2006–16, all three groups posted similar developments: a reduction in rates through to the onset of the financial and economic crisis in 2008; followed by a rapid turnaround in 2009; a more gradual increase through to 2012 or 2013; and a reduction in the rate from 2014 onwards (the NEET rate for people aged 20–24 fell from 2013 onwards). The latest data available for 2016 shows that NEET rates in the EU-28 were 16.7 % for people aged 20–24, 18.8 % for those aged 25–29, and 19.1 % for those aged 30–34.

The proportion of 20–24 year-olds who were NEETs remained systematically lower than the corresponding rates for people aged 25–29 or 30–34 during the whole of the period 2006–16, probably reflecting, at least to some degree, the relatively high proportion of students who remained in education and training at this age. It is also interesting to note there was a somewhat higher degree of fluctuation in the NEET rate for people aged 25–29 than for those aged 30–34, and that the fluctuations in this rate appeared to be closely linked to the business cycle. This pattern may be linked to the ease with which employers can hire/fire staff as economic conditions change: for example, recent labour market entrants may have lower wages while the costs associated with firing staff may be lower for people who have been with an enterprise for a relatively short period of time.

Greece and Italy recorded the highest proportions of young people who were neither in employment nor in education and training

Across the EU Member States there was a wide variation in NEET rates in 2016. For people aged 20–34, the lowest rates in 2016 were below 10.0 % in Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Sweden; this was also the case in Iceland and Switzerland. There were 11 Member States that recorded NEET rates above the EU-28 average of 18.3 %. Among these, by far the highest rates were recorded in Italy and Greece, where approximately one third of all young people aged 20–34 were neither in employment nor in education and training (30.7 % and 30.5 % respectively); there were also very high NEET rates in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (37.7 %) and Turkey (34.0 %).

A comparison between Italy and Sweden — the EU Member States with the highest and lowest NEET rates in 2016 — reveals that the proportion of young people who were NEETs was almost four times as high among young Italians as among young Swedes.

NEETs: analysis by sex and age

Young women are more likely to be neither in employment nor in education and training

Figure 4 shows that there is a considerable difference between the sexes in relation to the proportion of young people who were neither in employment nor in education and training. In 2016, almost one quarter (22.7 %) of young women (aged 20–34) in the EU-28 were NEETs, while the corresponding share among young men was 8.7 percentage points lower, at 14.0 %.

There are a range of factors that may explain this gender gap, among which:

  • social conventions or pressures, which tend to place a higher importance on women’s role within the family and on men’s role in the workplace;
  • careers advice, which may reinforce gender segregation and direct women into a relatively narrow range of occupations;
  • labour market issues, such as: employers preferring to hire young men over young women; young women facing assimilation difficulties when returning to work after childbirth; young women being more likely to have low-paid jobs or precarious employment.

In 2016, there were ten EU Member States where the proportion of young female NEETs was at least 10.0 percentage points higher than the corresponding share for young men. Among these, the difference between the sexes was within the range of 10–12 percentage points in the United Kingdom, Poland and Malta, rising to 13–15 points in Greece, Estonia, Romania and Hungary, before peaking at 17.2 in Slovakia and 20.0 points in the Czech Republic; an even wider gender gap was recorded in Turkey (38.3 points).

As young women become older they are more often neither in employment nor in education and training

An analysis for three different age groups of young people (aged 20–24; aged 25–29; aged 30–34) shows that the EU-28 gender gap for NEETs increased as a function of age in 2016. For people aged 20–24, NEET rates for young women were 2.0 percentage points higher than those for young men. The gap between the sexes widened to 9.8 points among people aged 25–29, and peaked at 13.3 points for those aged 30–34. This pattern may be linked, at least in part, to the growing number of women who postpone childbirth, the low share of men who interrupt their careers to help raise a family, and a range of difficulties faced by women who wish to integrate a professional career with their maternal role.

In 2016, the NEET rate for young people aged 20–24 was lower for women than it was for men in 12 of the EU Member States. Female rates were 0.3–2.2 percentage points lower than male rates in Portugal, Austria, Ireland, Sweden, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Lithuania and Finland, with the gap between the sexes rising to 3.2 points in Slovenia, 4.3 points in Latvia and 4.8 points in Croatia.

Among people aged 25–29 and those aged 30–34, female NEET rates were consistently higher than male NEET rates in all of the EU Member States. For the first of these two age groups, the biggest gender gaps were recorded in Estonia, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, where NEET rates for women were 18.9–23.2 percentage points higher than those for men. The differences between the sexes were generally more pronounced among people aged 30–34, as gender gaps of more than 20.0 percentage points were recorded in Slovakia, Hungary and Malta, while the gap in the Czech Republic rose to 28.4 percentage points.

NEETs: analysis by activity status

Young female NEETs were more likely to be inactive, while young male NEETs were more likely to be unemployed

A higher proportion of young (aged 20–34) female NEETs in the EU-28 were economically inactive (not actively seeking work) compared with young male NEETs of the same age, who were predominantly unemployed. This gender difference may be attributed, in part, to family structures, as a higher proportion of young women (than young men) spend time caring for children and/or other family members.

In 2016, the share of young (aged 20–34) male NEETs in the EU-28 who were unemployed was 57.9 %, while 42.1 % of young male NEETs were inactive. In contrast, the share of young female NEETs who were unemployed was 30.8 %, while 69.2 % were inactive; as such, almost twice as many young female NEETs were inactive. This ratio — between the share of female NEETs who were inactive compared to the share who were unemployed — rose considerably higher in a number of the EU Member States: with more than four times as many young female NEETs being inactive in the United Kingdom, Germany, Estonia, Bulgaria, Malta and Hungary and up to 5.6 times as many in Romania and the Czech Republic.

Table 2 provides an analysis of the population who were neither in employment nor in education and training, by activity status and by sex. It concentrates on two specific groups — people aged 20–24 and those aged 30–34. In 2016, the activity status of young NEETs among those aged 20–24 in the EU-28 was relatively evenly split between those who were unemployed (49.1 %) and those who were inactive (50.9 %). Among NEETs who were aged 30–34 there was a higher proportion of inactive persons (65.1 % of all NEETs of this age), while the unemployed accounted for a smaller share (34.9 %) than among their younger counterparts.

To some extent these patterns can be linked to gender differences: the relatively high unemployment rate among young NEETs aged 20–24 in the EU-28 was particularly notable among men, with almost three fifths (58.9 %) of young men neither in employment nor in education and training being unemployed in 2016. In contrast, over 7 out of every 10 (74.8 %) young women aged 30–34 who were neither in employment nor in education and training were inactive. The former may reflect lower levels of educational attainment among young men or higher activity rates, while the latter may reflect childbirth and a greater share of family responsibilities taken on by women.

Young male NEETs aged 20-24 were more likely to be unemployed than young female NEETs …

In 2016, there were only five EU Member States where fewer than half of young male NEETs aged 20–24 were unemployed — Romania, Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark and Bulgaria. At the other end of the range, more than three-quarters of young male NEETs aged 20–24 in Greece, Spain and Slovakia were unemployed. Within this same age group, the share of male NEETs who were unemployed was at least twice as high as the corresponding share among female NEETs in Germany, Hungary, Romania and the Czech Republic. There was almost no gender gap in Denmark, Croatia and Portugal, as the proportion of male and female NEETs who were unemployed remained relatively similar.

... while young female NEETs aged 30–34 were more likely to be inactive

In 2016, there were only four EU Member States where fewer than half of young female NEETs aged 30–34 were inactive — Slovenia, Spain, Portugal and Greece. In contrast, more than four fifths of young female NEETs aged 30–34 in Finland, the Netherlands, Estonia, Poland, Bulgaria, Ireland, Germany, the United Kingdom, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Romania were inactive. Within this same age group, the proportion of female NEETs who were inactive was higher than the corresponding share among male NEETs in all EU Member States for which data are available. The share of female NEETs aged 30–34 who were inactive was twice as high as the corresponding share among male NEETs of the same age in Slovakia, Spain and Greece.

NEETs: analysis by educational attainment level

Figures 5–7 show the NEET rates for three different levels of educational attainment, people with:

  • less than primary, primary or lower secondary level of education (ISCED 2011 levels 0–2; hereafter referred to as a low level of education);
  • upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (ISCED 2011 levels 3 and 4; hereafter referred to as an intermediate level of education);
  • tertiary education (ISCED 2011 levels 5–8; hereafter referred to as a high level of education).

Note that Figure 5, which provides information on NEET rates for young people aged 20–24, only shows data for the two lower levels of educational attainment, as a relatively high share of young people within this age group remained within the tertiary education system and had therefore yet to graduate.

NEET rates for young people aged 20–24: by educational attainment level

In 2016, the NEET rate for young people aged 20–24 in the EU-28 was 38.0 % among those with a low level of education, compared with 13.0 % among those with an intermediate level of education (see Figure 5). As such, people with a low level of education in the EU were almost three times as likely to be neither in employment nor in education and training as those with an intermediate level.

NEET rates in most of the EU Member States for people aged 20–24 with a low level of education ranged between 20 % and 50 % in 2016, although the Netherlands (17.0 %) and Denmark (15.9 %) recorded lower rates. In contrast, there were five EU Member States where more than half of the population aged 20–24 with a low level of education was neither in employment nor in education and training: Greece (50.1 %), Italy (51.0 %), Slovakia (54.0 %) and Ireland (58.9 %) each recorded relatively similar rates, with the proportion of people aged 20–24 with a low level of education that were neither in employment nor in education and training rising to almost three quarters (70.7 %) in Bulgaria. As such, for people aged 20–24 the highest NEET rate (in Bulgaria) was almost six times as high as the lowest NEET rate (in Denmark).

Among young people aged 20–24 with an intermediate level of education, NEET rates ranged from less than 5.0 % in the Netherlands up to a peak of 24.6 % in Italy. As such, for people aged 20–24 the highest rate (which was in Italy) was almost six times as high as the lowest rate (in the Netherlands).

Young people aged 20–24 with a low level of education systematically recorded higher NEET rates than those with an intermediate level of education. The difference between these two rates was most pronounced in Sweden, France and the Czech Republic, where NEET rates for people aged 20–24 with a low level of education were five times or more as high as for those with an intermediate level.

NEET rates for young people aged 25–29: by educational attainment level

Figure 6 provides a similar set of information on NEET rates by level of educational attainment, but for people aged 25–29. It shows that in 2016 the overall NEET rate for people aged 25–29 in the EU-28 (18.8 %) was higher than that recorded among those aged 20–24 (16.7 %). The NEET rate (41.6 %) for people aged 25–29 with a low level of education was almost four times as high as that for people with a high level of education (10.5 %), while the rate for those with an intermediate level of education was 17.6 %.

The NEET rate for people aged 25–29 with a low level of education ranged, in 2016, from a high of 71.2 % in Slovakia down to a low of 21.0 % in Malta. A similar comparison for people with an intermediate level of education reveals a peak of 30.8 % in Greece and a low of 7.1 % in Sweden, while among those with a high level of education the range was from 31.3 % in Greece down to a low of 4.1 % in the Netherlands and Sweden.

The relation between an extended period within the education system and lower NEET rates can be clearly noted for people aged 25–29 across all of the EU Member States in 2016, as the NEET rate for people aged 25–29 with a high level of education was below the average for all people aged 25–29.

In 2016, NEET rates for people aged 25–29 with a low level of education were five to six times as high as those for people with a high level of education in Slovakia, Latvia, Poland, Belgium, Ireland, France and Sweden, with this ratio rising to six to seven times as high in Germany and the Netherlands, peaking at 7.3 times as high in Austria. A similar comparison between people with an intermediate and a high level of education shows that there was considerably less difference between rates: NEET rates for those aged 25–29 with an intermediate level of education were at least twice as high as among those with a high level of education in Romania, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Poland, Ireland, the Netherlands and France and peaking at 3 times as high in Latvia. Otherwise, the differences between NEET rates for people aged 25–29 with an intermediate and a high level of education were narrower.

NEET rates for young people aged 30–34: by educational attainment level

The EU-28 NEET rate for people aged 30–34 with a low level of education was 39.7 % in 2016, which was slightly more than double the rate recorded for those with an intermediate level of education (18.6 %), which in turn was almost twice as high as the rate recorded for those with a high level of education (10.8 %). NEET rates for people aged 30–34 were lower than the corresponding rates recorded among the population aged 25–29 for those with a low level of education. By contrast, the NEET rate for people with an intermediate and high level of education rose as a function of age.

In 2016, a comparison for people aged 30–34 reveals that the highest NEET rate among those aged 30–34 with a low level of education was recorded in Bulgaria (59.8 %), with this rate falling as low as 20.7 % in Portugal; among those with an intermediate level of education, NEET rates ranged from a high of 34.8 % in Greece down to 6.6 % in Sweden; for those with a high level of education they ranged from a peak of 26.5 % (also) in Greece down to 4.3 % (again) in Sweden.

In France, Sweden, Germany, Bulgaria, the Netherlands, Romania, Austria, Poland and Belgium, the NEET rate for people aged 30–34 with a low level of education in 2016 was five to six times as high as for those with a high level of education. A similar comparison reveals that NEET rates for people aged 30–34 in Austria, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, France, Poland, Belgium and Romania were between 2.0 and 2.7 times as high among those with an intermediate level of education when compared with those who had a high level of education. In the remaining EU Member States the differences between NEET rates for people aged 30–34 according to their level of education were less pronounced.

NEETs: analysis by degree of urbanisation

Figure 8 presents information on the share of young people (aged 20–34) who were neither in employment nor in education and training, according to their place of residence, as defined in terms of its degree of urbanisation.

Young people in the EU living in cities were less likely to be out of employment or education and training …

In 2016, the share of young people in the EU-28 who were NEETs (in other words the NEET rate) was lowest in cities (16.5 %) and highest in rural areas (20.4 %), with towns and suburbs reporting a NEET rate (19.2 %) that was between these two extremes.

The pattern of lowest NEET rates in cities (as compared with rural areas and towns and suburbs) was repeated in 17 EU Member States. Among these, the biggest differences in rates between cities and rural areas were recorded in Lithuania and Romania, where the gap was at least 12.7 percentage points, rising to 24.5 points in Bulgaria.

… although the share of young people neither in employment nor in education and training was more mixed when analysed by degree of urbanisation in EU Member States which recorded relatively low overall NEET rates

Among EU Member States that had an overall NEET rate for young people that was below the EU-28 average there was a mixed picture. In the eastern and northern Member States, the lowest NEET rates were recorded in cities; this was most notably the case in Lithuania. In contrast, there were six Member States where young people living in cities recorded the highest NEET rate: Belgium, Portugal, the United Kingdom, Malta, Austria and the Netherlands. Among these, Belgium stood out as its NEET rate for young people living in cities (23.5 %) was 10.6 percentage points higher than the rate for young people living in rural areas.

Whereas rural areas reported the highest NEET rates in nearly all of the EU Member States with high overall NEET rates (Cyprus and France being the only two exceptions), this was less common among Member States with overall NEET rates below the EU-28 average. In Cyprus, France, Estonia, Slovenia, Germany and Luxembourg the highest NEET rate among young people was recorded for those living in towns and suburbs.

Data sources and availability

Key concepts — the labour force

According to the EU labour force survey (LFS), there are three mutually exclusive groups when it comes to describing the ‘labour status’ of a person: employed, unemployed and inactive.

Following guidelines of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the LFS defines an employed person as someone who during the reference week (of the survey) performed work, even if just for one hour, for pay, profit or family gain. Alternatively, the person was not at work, but had a job or business from which he or she was temporarily absent due to illness, holiday, industrial dispute or education and training.

An unemployed person is defined as someone who was:

  • without work during the reference week of the LFS;
  • was available to start work within the next two weeks (or had already found a job to start within the next three months);
  • actively seeking employment during the four weeks preceding the LFS.


A person is economically inactive, if he or she does not form part of the labour force. The inactive population includes children, students, pensioners and people of working age provided they are not working and are also not unemployed.

More information on the main concepts of the LFS are provided on Eurostat’s website, see this page.

Key concepts — NEETs

The NEET rate shows the proportion of young people neither in employment nor in education and training. The numerator of the indicator refers to people meeting two conditions:

  • they are not employed — in other words, they are unemployed or economically inactive;
  • they have not received any (formal or non-formal) education or training in the four weeks preceding the LFS.

The denominator is the total population of the same age group, excluding non-response concerning ‘participation in regular (formal) education and training’, in other words, respondents who failed to answer the LFS question.

Data source

The EU LFS provides statistics on NEETs. The LFS is documented in this background article which provides information on the scope of the data, its legal basis, the methodology employed, as well as related concepts and definitions.

Levels of education

Common definitions for education systems have been agreed between the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), the OECD and Eurostat. UNESCO developed the International standard classification of education (ISCED) to facilitate comparisons across countries on the basis of uniform and internationally agreed definitions. In 2011, a revision to the ISCED was formally adopted, this is known as ISCED 2011. Prior to this, ISCED 1997 was used as the common standard for classifying education systems. Note that Eurostat statistics on NEETs have a break in series in 2014 when the first information collected under the ISCED 2011 classification became available; prior to this date these statistics were collected using ISCED 1997. For more information, see the article on the ISCED classification.

For the purpose of this article, young people may be analysed according to the highest education programme that they have successfully completed, with the ISCED classification aggregated into the following three groups:

  • less than primary, primary and lower secondary education (ISCED 2011 levels 0–2): these programmes are usually found at the start of a student’s educational life and aim to lay the foundations for lifelong learning and human development; in lower secondary education programmes are generally organised around a more subject-oriented curriculum, with a broad range of subjects; in many education systems, the end of lower secondary education coincides with the end of compulsory (general) education; this category includes people who never attended any education programme;
  • upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (ISCED levels 3 and 4): these are programmes that are typically designed to complete secondary education or provide learning experiences that build on secondary education, preparing students for labour market entry as well as tertiary education, or both;
  • tertiary education (ISCED levels 5–8): these are programmes that build on secondary education, providing learning activities in specialised fields of education, which aim to provide the individual with instruction at a high level of complexity and specialisation; tertiary education includes what is commonly understood as academic education but also includes advanced vocational or professional education.

Degree of urbanisation

The degree of urbanisation is a classification that is based on a combination of geographical contiguity and minimum population thresholds applied to 1 km² population grid cells. It classifies local administrative units (at a detailed level referred to as LAU2) as cities, towns and suburbs, or rural areas.

Cities (densely-populated areas) have at least 50 % of the population living in an urban centre. Towns and suburbs (intermediate density areas) have less than 50 % of their population living in an urban centre, but more than 50 % of their population living in an urban cluster. Rural areas (thinly-populated areas) have more than 50 % of their population living in rural grid cells.

Note on symbols used in tables

The colon (‘:’) is used to show where data are not available.

An italic font is used to show where data are forecasted, provisional or estimated (and are therefore likely to change in the future).

Context

EU labour markets are increasingly described as being precarious, with a higher proportion of the workforce working on temporary, part-time or casual (so-called zero-hours) contracts; many of these workers are relatively young people. Indeed, people who strive to move from education or training into the world of work are often particularly vulnerable, as they may be the first to exit and the last to enter the labour market, as they compete with other job-seekers who have more experience.

The persistently high share of young people who are neither in employment nor in education or training in the EU may mean that employers recruiting in EU labour markets have a wide choice of potential candidates, although the high share may reflect labour market mismatches, for example geographically or in terms of skills. Some employers criticise the lack of basic skills (poor levels of numeracy and literacy) with which some young people leave the education system, as well as their under-developed life skills (communication and presentational skills, ability to work in a team, problem-solving skills), or their lack of work experience and knowledge in relation to their chosen profession. With a surplus of labour, employers may prefer to recruit young people who have completed a tertiary level of education or an apprenticeship (for more details in relation to employment rates for young graduates, see this article). As such, young people with few or no qualifications may struggle to enter the labour market and may be ‘locked out’ of work or increasingly find themselves stuck in a cycle of low pay with little opportunity for progression. This was particularly the case during the financial and economic crisis, when tertiary graduates also faced difficulties in finding a job, and may have taken jobs for which they were over-qualified in order to get into the labour market.

The level of education that a young person achieves therefore has a strong influence on his/her chances of finding work and remaining in work. A relatively high proportion of young people in the EU are neither in employment nor in education or training and policymakers are increasingly concerned by the economic and social consequences of their disengagement. There are a wide range of factors that may contribute to young people being NEETs, among which: having an intermediate level of educational attainment; living in a household with a low level of income; coming from a family where a parent experienced unemployment; being raised by a single parent; living in a rural area; having been born in a country outside the EU; or having a disability. Young people who spend a considerable period of time as NEETs are often affected by a range of social conditions, such as poverty and social exclusion, insecurity, crime, or health problems.

Within the context of the Europe 2020 strategy, a set of integrated guidelines for economic and employment policies was launched in April 2010, calling on EU Member States and social partners to set up ‘schemes to help recent graduates find initial employment or further education and training opportunities, including apprenticeships, and intervene rapidly when young people become unemployed’. In the same year, two Europe 2020 flagship initiatives were launched, namely, an ‘Agenda for new skills and jobs’ and ‘Youth on the move’. In 2012, a specific ‘Youth employment package‘ was launched, which led to an increased focus on providing quality traineeships and apprenticeships for young people and to calls for the introduction of a ‘Youth guarantee’, designed to ensure that all young people up to the age of 25 should receive a quality job offer, continued education, an apprenticeship or a traineeship within four months of leaving formal education or becoming unemployed. In 2013, the ‘Youth employment initiative’ was launched: it was designed to specifically support young people not in education, employment and training in regions where the youth unemployment rate was over 25 %.

Although policymakers have sought to address particular groups of young people such as unemployed youth, early leavers from education and training, or young people whose qualifications do not meet labour market needs, there remain a high number of young people in the EU who are neither in employment nor in education or training: NEETs.

See also

Further Eurostat information

Publications

Main tables

Database

Education and training outcomes (educ_outc)
Transition from education to work (edatt)
Young people by educational and labour status (incl. neither in employment nor in education and training – NEET) (edatt0)
Young people neither in employment nor in education and training by sex and age (NEET rates) (edat_lfse_20)
Young people neither in employment nor in education and training by sex, age and citizenship (NEET rates) (edat_lfse_23)
Young people neither in employment nor in education and training by sex, age and country of birth (NEET rates) (edat_lfse_28)
Young people neither in employment nor in education and training by sex, age and educational attainment level (NEET rates) (edat_lfse_21)
Young people neither in employment nor in education and training by sex and NUTS 2 regions (NEET rates) (edat_lfse_22)
Young people neither in employment nor in education and training by sex, age and degree of urbanisation (NEET rates) (edat_lfse_29)
Youth employment (yth_empl)
Young people neither in employment nor in education and training by sex, age and labour status (NEET rates) (yth_empl_150)
Young people neither in employment nor in education and training by sex, age and educational attainment level (NEET rates) (yth_empl_160)

Dedicated section

Methodology / Metadata

Source data for tables and graphs (MS Excel)

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