Migrant integration statistics - employment

Data from May 2015. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database. Planned update: September 2016

Migrants play an important role in the labour markets and economies of the countries they settle in. This article presents European Union (EU) statistics on the employment of migrants as part of monitoring their integration and assessing their situation in the labour market. This in turn makes it easier to evaluate the outcomes of integration policies. Together with other articles on this topic, this article forms an online Eurostat publication Migrant integration statistics.

The indicators presented in this article are based on the 2010 Council conclusions on integration, the subsequent study ‘Indicators of immigrant integration — a pilot study’ (2011) and the report ‘Using EU indicators of immigrant integration’ (2013). This article elaborates on practically all existing Zaragoza indicators [1] on employment except for the ‘over-qualification rate', together with new indicators proposed in the report mentioned [2]. The following indicators are presented in this article:

  • unemployment rate;
  • employment rate;
  • activity rate;
  • self-employment;
  • temporary employment;
  • part-time employment;
  • long-term unemployment.
Table 1: Activity rates by groups of country of citizenship and age groups, by country, 2014 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_argan)
Table 2: Activity rates by groups of country of birth and age groups, 2014 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_argacob)
Table 3: Unemployment rates by groups of country of citizenship and age groups, 2014 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_urgan)
Table 4: Unemployment rates of population aged 20-64 years by groups of country of birth and sex, 2014 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_urgacob)
Table 5: Long-term unemployment (12 months or more) as a percentage of the total employment by groups of country of birth and age groups, 2014 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_upgacob)
Figure 1: Evolution of activity rates of the population (aged 20–64) by groups of country of citizenship, EU-28, 2007–14 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_argan)
Figure 2: Activity rates of non-EU citizens (aged 20–64) by sex, by country, 2014 (¹) (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_argan)
Figure 3: Activity rates of the female population (aged 20–64) by groups of country of citizenship, by country, 2014 (1) (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_argan)
Figure 4: Evolution of unemployment rates of the population (aged 20–64) by groups of country of citizenship, EU-28, 2007–14 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_urgan)
Figure 5: Unemployment rates for the female population (aged 20–64) by groups of country of birth, by country, 2014 (¹) (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_urgacob)
Figure 6: Evolution of youth unemployment rate in the population (aged 15–29) by broad groups of country of birth, EU-28, 2007–14 (%)
Source: Eurostat (yth_empl_100)
Figure 7: Youth unemployment rate in the population (aged 15–29) by groups of country of birth, 2014 (¹)(%)
Source: Eurostat (yth_empl_100)
Figure 8: Evolution of long-term unemployment of the population aged 20-64, by groups of country of birth, 2007-14 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_upgacob)
Figure 9: Gap in long-term unemployment between non-EU born and native-born populations, 2014 (1) (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_upgacob)
Figure 10: Youth employment rate (population aged 15-29) by groups of country of birth, 2014 (1) (%)
Source: Eurostat (yth_empl_100)
Table 6: Employment rates of population aged 20-64 years, by groups of country of citizenship and sex, 2014 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_ergan)
Table 7: Self-employment of population aged 20-64 in EU-28 by groups of country of citizenship, 2014 (thousands)
Source: Eurostat
Table 8: Temporary employees as percentage of the total number of employees, age and groups of country of citizenship, 2014 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_etpgan)
Table 9: Temporary employees as percentage of the total number of employees, age and groups of country of birth, 2014 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_etpgacob)
Table 10: Part-time employment by groups of country of citizenship and age group, 2014 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_eppgan)
Table 11: Part-time employment population aged 20-64 years, by groups of country of citizenship and sex, 2014 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_eppgan)
Table 12: Part-time employment by age groups and groups of country of birth, 2014 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_eppgacob)
Figure 11: Evolution of the share of self-employment in the EU-28 by groups of country of citizenship, 2006-14 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_esgan), (lfsa_pganws)
Figure 12: Share of self-employed in population aged 20-64 in EU-28 Member States by groups of country of citizenship, 2014 (1) (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_esgan), (lfsa_pganws)
Figure 13: Shares of self-employed persons by status and citizenship in EU-28, 2014 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_esgan)
Figure 14: Evolution of young temporary employees (15-29 years) by groups of country of birth, 2007-14 (%)
Source: Eurostat (yth_empl_050)
Figure 15: Young temporary employees (15-29 years) as percentage of the total number of employees, by sex and groups of country of birth, 2014 (1) (%)
Source: Eurostat (yth_empl_050)
Figure 16: Evolution of part-time employment as a percentage of the total employment of population aged 20-64, by groups of country of birth, 2007-14 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_eppgacob)
Figure 17: Part-time employment as a percentage of the total employment of the non-EU born population aged 20-64 years by sex, 2014 (1)(%)
Source: Eurostat (lfsa_eppgacob)
Figure 18: Part-time employment as a percentage of the total employment of the non-EU born population aged 15-29 years by sex, 2014 (%)
Source: Eurostat (yth_empl_060)

Main statistical findings

Labour market participation

The gap in labour market participation at EU level between non-EU citizen migrants and both the national population [3] and mobile EU citizens [4] has further increased in 2014.

The labour market participation measured as the activity rate, represents economically active persons as a percentage of the total population. This indicator is one of the key Zaragoza indicators.

The activity rate of the EU-28 population varies significantly according to citizenship. As illustrated in the line chart (Figure 1), during the last eight years, citizens of non-EU countries have recorded systematically lower activity rates than the nationals and mobile foreign EU citizens. Since 2009, this gap has increased noticeably. Compared with the nationals, the gap increased from 3 percentage points (pp) in 2009 to 6 pp in 2014 (and from 7 pp in 2009 to 11 pp in 2014 compared with mobile EU citizens).

In 2014, the activity rate of non-EU citizens decreased further to 70.6 % (from 71.3 % in 2013). There is however a clear opposite trend amongst mobile EU citizens, for whom the activity rate increased from 80.7 % in 2013 to 81.3 % in 2014.

In 2014, the activity rate of mobile EU citizens was 4 pp higher than that of the nationals, indicating greater labour market participation for this group of migrants. The activity rates of both these groups have increased, and the gap between them has become larger over the last eight years from 3 pp in 2007 to 4 pp in 2014.

Looking at the population of the EU-28 Member States by citizenship reveals that specific patterns in activity rates exist in a specific group of countries (Table 1). In particular in the Mediterranean countries in 2014, the activity rate of the population aged from 20 to 64 years was higher for foreign citizens[5] (both EU and non-EU citizens) than for nationals. The same can also be said for other EU Member States such as the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg and Poland. In all these countries, foreign citizens also had higher activity rates than the nationals.

Higher rates among the non-EU citizens, compared with activity rates of the nationals aged 20–64 were recorded in Greece (80.2 % vs 71.7 %), in Italy (72.6 % vs 67.7 %), as well as Spain (82.9 % vs 78.1 %) and Portugal (82.7 % vs 78.1 %). In all these Member States the differences were over 4.5 pp.

Italy, Malta and Romania were the EU Member States with the lowest participation rates of the nationals (67.7 %, 69.9 % and 70.4 % respectively) in the 20–64 age group.

Activity rates for nationals were higher than for non-nationals in the Netherlands (82.9 %) and Denmark (82.0 %). In these EU Member States, activity rates for non-EU citizens ranged from medium to low (i.e. 68.6 % in the Netherlands and 68.8 % in Denmark). In the Czech Republic and Ireland on the other hand, the activity rate of foreign citizens (78.7 % and 74.7 % respectively) was similar to that of nationals (78.2 % and 75.6 % respectively).

As for the age dimension of the economically active population, it appears that in every EU Member State the activity rate of the population aged 55–64 was significantly lower than for the younger age group. This is the consequence of the retirement benefits available within different EU Member States. Comparing the elder population (55–64 years) by citizenship, at EU-28 level the labour market participation of both foreign EU citizens and foreign non-EU citizens was higher than that of the nationals. However, at country level, significant differences were observed between nationals and non-EU citizens. The most remarkable differences — over 17 pp — were observed in Denmark and Sweden where the nationals aged 55–64 years were significantly more active than non-EU citizens while exactly the opposite applied in the Czech Republic, Greece, Italy and Spain.

Significant differences come up when the sex dimension is considered. The activity rate of women in 2014 was generally lower than for men, regardless of their country of citizenship. This highlights that gender equality in employment integration has not yet been fully achieved.

This is even more evident for migrant women, since at EU-28 level women with no EU citizenship have a lower activity rate than male non-EU citizens by 24 pp, illustrating a wide gap in the labour participation of the migrant population by sex (Figure 2). At country level, in 2014, the largest gender gaps in labour participation for non-EU citizens are observed in Hungary (39 pp), Slovenia (36 pp), Belgium (32 pp), Luxembourg (31 pp), the Czech Republic and Finland (both 30 pp). The countries with the smallest gender gap for the non-EU citizen population were Cyprus (4 pp), Croatia (8 pp) and Portugal (9 pp).

Figure 3 shows activity rates for the female population by country of citizenship in 2014. It highlights that there are three different patterns among the 24 EU Member States for which data are available: the share female non-EU citizens is higher, close to and lower than the share of female nationals. The highest inequalities between these two population groups exist in Finland (difference of 31 pp), the Netherlands (28 pp), Germany (27 pp), Belgium (26 pp), Sweden (24 pp), France (23 pp) and Slovenia (20 pp), but also in Denmark (19 pp), Austria (19 pp) and the United Kingdom (17 pp). All these EU Member States report high activity rates for the nationals as well as for the national female population, indicating that specific integration actions are required for female migrants.

Focusing on the activity rates of the population groups by country of birth the observed patterns are similar to those of the population by country of citizenship, indicating that the trends are evident (Table 2). In particular, countries with the highest labour market participation rates of the native-born population[6] are Sweden (87.8 %), Germany (83.1 %), the Netherlands (82.9 %), Denmark (82.0 %), the United Kingdom (81.2 %), Estonia (80.9 %), Lithuania (80.6 %) and Latvia (80.2 %). In all these countries the activity rates of the non-EU-born population are considerably lower than that of the native-born population, with differences ranging from 14 pp for the Netherlands, 13 pp for Denmark, 11 pp for Sweden, 8 pp for the United Kingdom, 7 pp for Latvia, 6 pp for Estonia and 3 pp for Lithuania.

Unemployment

Despite a decrease by nearly 2 pp in 2014 the unemployment rate of non-EU citizens remains 10 pp higher than that of the nationals.

The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed people as a percentage of the labour force. This indicator is one of the key Zaragoza indicators.

The overall unemployment rate, in 2014, in the EU-28 for the 20–64 age group, reached 9.9 %, a decrease of 1 pp compared with 2013.

In 2014, the unemployment rate of non-EU citizens was 19.9 %. This group experienced the largest increase in unemployment over the 2008–13 period (Figure 4) and also the largest decrease (–1.9 pp) from 2013 to 2014. The unemployment rate of non-EU citizens was 11.1 pp higher than that of the nationals in 2011, a difference that increased until 2013 but was reduced to 10.7 pp in 2014. The unemployment rate was also higher for mobile EU citizens compared with the nationals: 2.0 pp more in 2014.

At country level, in 2014, the lowest unemployment rates for non-EU citizens were recorded in the Czech Republic (4.6 %), Cyprus (8.3 %) and the United Kingdom (9.0 %). It is interesting to point out that in the Czech Republic and Cyprus the unemployment rate of non-EU foreign citizens was even lower than that of nationals (Table 3).

In 2014, the highest unemployment rates for non-EU citizens, with around one out of three active non-EU citizens being unemployed, were reported in Spain (36.8 %), Greece (33.2 %), Belgium (30.7 %) and Sweden (28.2 %).

Regarding the elder active population (55–64 years), although many countries could not provide reliable data for foreign citizens, it seems that unemployment is lower in this age group than in the younger age group.

Focusing on the country of birth perspective the results are generally following the patterns of the migrant population by groups of country of citizenship. With regards to the gender dimension, although non-migrant women — in most cases — record lower unemployment rates at country level, there are no outstanding differences between EU Member States in comparison with the male rates (Table 4). The only exceptions are Greece, where the unemployment rate for women is 7.1 pp higher than for men and Ireland, where the unemployment rate for women is 4.5 pp lower than for men.

The situation is different for non-EU-born migrants. The EU Member States where the female unemployment that is higher than male unemployment within the non-EU-born population were Slovenia, Croatia, the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom and Greece. In particular, the unemployment rate for women is significantly higher than for men in Slovenia (7 pp) and in Croatia (5 pp). The situation is different in Cyprus, Luxembourg and Spain, where the male unemployment rate is higher than that of women by 15 pp, 5 pp and 3 pp respectively.

The most significant differences are visible when looking at the female active population by country of birth (Figure 5). In all EU Member States except for Cyprus, the unemployment rate of native-born women is much lower than for those born in a non-EU country. The unemployment gap between these two populations is very high for almost every Member State, indicating that female non-EU migrants are in the most precarious position on the labour market.

Youth unemployment

Youth unemployment for the non-EU-born population aged 15–29 has increased by 12.6 pp between 2007 and 2014.

The young population has been significantly affected by unemployment over the last eight years (11.9 % in 2007 compared with 17.1 % in 2014 for the native-born population), with the non-EU-born young population showing the largest increase in unemployment (15.4 % in 2007 compared with 28.0 % in 2014) (Figure 6). For the first time since 2007, the youth unemployment rate dropped in all the country of birth categories in the 2013–14 period. The largest decrease was among the non-EU-born (3 pp), followed by a 2 pp decrease in the EU-born young population, and 1 pp fall in the native-born young population.

In particular, in 2014, the unemployment rate of the native-born young population was 17.1 % compared with 28.0 % for non-EU-born young people — a difference of 10.9 pp between these two population groups (Figure 7). For the Member States for which data are available the highest unemployment rate of young non-EU born was recorded in Greece (44.8 %) and Spain (43.9 %). With 7.0 % the unemployment rate of young non-EU born in the Czech Republic was the lowest in the EU.

The unemployment rate of EU-born young people is however very similar to that of the native-born population aged 15–29 years. This pattern is observed in most EU Member States with the exception of Cyprus, Italy and the United Kingdom and where the unemployment rate of the young population is higher for the native-born than for the non-EU-born (10 pp in Cyprus, 7 in Italy and 6 in the United Kingdom).

Long-term unemployment

Long-term unemployment, as a percentage of total unemployment, has increased for the non-EU-born population from 28.7 % in 2009 to 52.0 % in 2014, after a period of decrease from 2007 to 2009.

Long-term unemployment at EU-28 level has been increasing constantly over the last five years for all unemployed active individuals aged 20–64 years, regardless of their country of birth (EU-born, non-EU-born or native-born). The pattern is similar for these three population groups (Figure 8). Long-term unemployment of the native- and non-EU born aged 20–64 was decreasing in 2008 and 2009, but then rapidly started to increase from 2010 for all three population groups (i.e. also for EU-born migrants). Although until 2013 long-term unemployment for non-EU-born migrants was lower than for the native-born population, in 2014 it reached 52.0 %, 0.6 pp higher than the long-term unemployment of the native-born.

The cross-country comparison of the share of long-term unemployment in 2014 depicts a situation that varies significantly across those EU Member States for which data are available. In four countries in particular, the share of long-term unemployment is lower for the non-EU-born aged 20–64 compared with the native-born population. The most significant difference is observed in Ireland (the percentage of long-term unemployment of non-EU-born population was more than 8 pp lower), the United Kingdom (5 pp) and Italy (4 pp).

In the majority of the other EU Member States however the non-EU-born population has been more affected by long-term unemployment than the native-born population. The largest gaps are found in Estonia (20 pp), Latvia (13 pp) and Sweden (13 pp) (Figure 9).

Long-term unemployment affects the elder population group more than others, regardless of their country of birth (Table 5). According to the available data on the non-EU-born elder population (aged 55–64), the share of long term unemployment in the reporting EU Member States (with the exception of Croatia, Italy and Latvia) is higher than for the younger non-EU-born population (aged 25–54). The largest differences are found in Spain and Belgium — 16 pp and 15 pp. Lower but significant differences also exist in the United Kingdom (11 pp) and Sweden (8 pp). It should be noted that of the 13 reporting countries some of the figures are flagged with low reliability.

Employment

In 2014, the employment rate of non-EU citizens in the EU-28 was 56.5 % compared with 69.8 % of the nationals, while significant dissimilarities exist between men and women.

The employment rate represents persons in employment as a percentage of the population of working age. This indicator is one of the key Zaragoza indicators.

In 2014, the EU employment rate of nationals aged 20–64 was higher (69.8 %) than that for all foreign citizens (63.0 %). However, within the group of all foreign citizens, the employment rate of mobile EU citizens (i.e. citizens of another EU Member States) was slightly higher than that of nationals (72.0 %). This implies that the significantly lower employment rate of the overall foreign population is a direct result of the much lower employment rate of non-EU citizens. In 2014, only 56.5 % of non-EU citizens were employed (Table 6).

A significant gender gap is observed for all population groups : nationals, all foreign citizens including mobile EU citizens and non-EU citizens. The employment rate for women is significantly lower than for men, the largest gap observed for non-EU citizens, where the employment rate of males is almost 20 pp higher than that of females. The highest employment rate is observed among foreign EU citizens (71.9 %) at a small distance from nationals (69.8%). At country level, the biggest employment rate differences between non-EU male and female citizens were found in Slovenia (males: 77.6 %, females: 31.3 %), Hungary (males: 92.5 %, females: 54.6 %) and the Czech Republic (males 93.7 %, females 62.3 %). Cyprus is the only EU Member State where the employment rate of non-EU female citizens is higher than that of males (79.6 % vs 72.1 %) .

Youth employment

With 64.0 % Cyprus reported the highest employment rate of young non-EU born from all Member States for which data are available, followed by the Czech Republic (56.7 %) and Malta (54.4 %) (Figure 10). The lowest employment rates of non-EU-born young migrants are observed in Belgium, Spain, France and Greece (all under 35 %).

In Greece, Croatia and Cyprus the youth employment rate of non-EU-born migrants was higher than that of young people born in other EU country (EU-born). In the case of Cyprus the employment rate of non-EU-born was even higher than that of native-born youth (by 22 pp). In Croatia, the Czech Republic, Italy and Greece youth employment rates among non-EU-born were also higher than among native-born by more than 8 pp. In the case of Hungary, Estonia and Portugal the non-EU-born had a higher youth employment rate compared with the young native born as well, but the differences were below 3 pp.

The youth employment rates of native-born were higher than those of the non-EU-born population in 15 of the EU Member States. This difference was highest in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Sweden and Austria, where the gap ranged from 18 pp in the Netherlands to 13 pp in Austria.

Self-employment

From 2006 to 2014, the share of the self-employed among non-EU citizens increased by 2.1 pp in the EU-28, while it decreased by 0.4 pp for the nationals.

The share of the self-employed over all employed persons among non-EU citizens increased by 2 pp from 2006 to 2014, reaching 12 % (Figure 11). The respective share for the nationals reached its peak in 2006, when 15.1 % of the total employed nationals was self-employed. Since then, the share of self-employment has remained almost stable, with only a marginal increase.

At Member State level, the highest self-employment shares of non-EU citizens are recorded by far in the Czech Republic and Poland (39.6 % and 33.7 % respectively) (Figure 12). In both countries the gap in self-employment between non-EU citizens and nationals is the highest in the EU (23 pp and 16 pp respectively). A completely reverse pattern is observed in Greece and Italy, where the self-employment rate of nationals is significantly higher than that of non-EU citizens (23 pp and 11 pp respectively).

In absolute terms, about 30.5 million individuals were self-employed in the EU-28 in 2014 (Table 7). Around 28.5 million of them were nationals and less than 2 million were foreign citizens (EU-citizens and non-EU citizens) with approximately 1 million being foreign EU citizens and about 0.9 million citizens of non-EU country (Table 7). At country level, Italy is the EU-28 Member State with the largest self-employed population (over 4.8 million), corresponding to almost 16 % of the total self-employed population in the EU. Germany and the United Kingdom follow with approximately 3.8 and 4.1 million individuals respectively.

As regards the specific self-employment status for the year 2014, self-employment appears mostly as a matter of own-account work, since the share of own-account workers in the total self-employed population was 71.1 % for nationals, 77.5 % for mobile EU citizens and 74.3 % for non-EU citizens. The share of self-employed persons with employees was less than 29 % of the total self-employed population in all cases (Figure 13).

Temporary employment

Part-time and temporary employment may be considered either as a threat or as an opportunity for employees, since these indicators can be seen either as a means of social integration or as an indicator of under-employment. Insights into the nature of temporary employment can be gained by inspecting the composition of temporary employment in terms of age.

At EU-28 level, temporary employment of persons aged 20-64 is higher for non-EU citizens (20.9 %) than for employees who are nationals (12.6 %). The largest difference is observed in Cyprus, where 80.7 % of employees with non-EU citizenship are temporary workers, compared with only 11.5 % for the nationals. Out of 22 EU Member States that could provide reliable data, large gaps in temporary employment between non-EU citizens and the nationals were are also reported in Sweden (28 pp), Belgium (17 pp), Poland (17 pp), the Netherlands (17 pp), Spain (17 pp) and Portugal (16 pp). In other EU Member States the differences are below 15 pp. With the exception of Latvia, in all reporting countries the share of non-EU migrant temporary workers was higher than that of the nationals. In 2014, Ireland was the only EU Member State where the share of temporary employees in the group of foreign EU citizens was lower than for the country’s citizens (a difference of 2 pp).

In addition, for countries for which data are available, a strong age pattern may be observed within temporary employment data, since there is a strong over-representation of the younger population in temporary employment within the employed population. This is even more evident amongst foreign citizens (see Table 8).

Considering the temporary employed population by country of birth (Table 9), there are similar patterns when compared with the population by country of citizenship (Table 8), and the differences are not that significant. Among the 22 EU Member States that could provide temporary employment data by country of birth, the figure for non-EU-born individuals was only lower — compared with the native-born population — in Estonia. The countries with the largest gaps include Cyprus (11.4 % compared to 60.5 % for non-EU-born), Sweden (13.4 % compared to 26.5 %), Poland (27.9 % compared to 39.9 %) and Spain (22.0 % compared to 33.9 %).

Youth temporary employment

At EU-28 level, temporary employment decreased by 3 pp from 2007 to 2014 for the non-EU-born young population and by 5 pp for the EU-born young population (Figure 14). By contrast, the proportion of temporary employment for the native-born young population has slightly increased (+2 pp).

At Member State level different patterns stand out when country of birth and gender are analysed (Figure 15). The highest proportions of temporary employment in the young non-EU born population are found in Cyprus and Portugal (close to 60 % of total employment for both genders, regardless of the country of birth).

In 2014, 32.6 % of non-EU-born young women were temporary workers versus 33.1 % for native-born young women. In the case of young men the non-EU-born group (33.1 %) had a higher share of temporary workers compared with 31.5 % of native-born. In Cyprus, regardless of gender, the gap in in youth temporary employment between native- and non-EU-born is the highest of all countries for which data are available (around 44 pp for both males and females), with the non-EU-born reaching the highest values (63.7 % for males and 68.0 % for females).

Part-time employment

Part-time employment of foreign-born workers in the EU is increasing more rapidly than for the native-born population.

The proportion of part-time employment in the EU has been steadily increasing over recent years. This trend has mostly affected the migrant population, with an increasing gap between part-time employment of EU-born and non-EU born migrants, as can be seen in Figure 16. In 2014, 25.0 % of non-EU-born persons were working part-time compared with 22.0 % of EU-born, a 6.6 percentage point increase compared to 2007 for the former and a 3.9 percentage point increase for the latter.

From the perspective of population groups by country of citizenship, the proportion of part-time employment among the foreign employed population (mobile EU and non-EU citizens) is higher than for nationals. At EU level, foreign citizens have a significantly higher proportion of part-time employment at the age of 25–54 than the nationals (25.3 % vs 17.0 %, respectively). Furthermore, the highest percentages of part-time employees are observed for foreign citizens with non-EU citizenship (27.6 %).

However, in some EU Member States the trends are reversed (Table 10). Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Slovenia and the United Kingdom report higher part-time employment among the employed nationals with differences reaching a high of 7 pp in Luxembourg. For the age group 55–64, part-time employment is higher for employed nationals than for foreign citizens in eight of the EU Member States where data is available. The Benelux countries are the ones with the highest differences within the 55–64 age group: 13 pp in Luxembourg, 9 pp in Belgium and 5 pp in the Netherlands.


In 2014 the proportion of part-time employment for employed foreign females in the EU (41.6 %) was higher than for employed female nationals (31.0 %).

However, in EU Member States such as Cyprus, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom the proportion of part-time employment of female foreign citizens was lower than that for nationals. A similar trend can also be observed for the foreign male employed population. In the EU-28 the proportion of part-time employment of male foreign workers (13.3 %) was higher than for male nationals (7.8 %) (Table 11).

The proportion of part-time employment amongst the foreign-born employed in the 20–64 age group was higher (25.4 %) than for native-born employed (18.2 %).

In Cyprus, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Slovenia and the United Kingdom, the rates for the native-born population in part-time employment are higher than that for the foreign-born population. The proportion of non-EU-born part-time employed was higher (25.0 %) than for the EU-born employed population (22.0 %) (Table 12).

Comparing the 2014 part-time employment of the non-EU-born male and female population, across the EU Member States for which data are available, the proportions of part-time employment for females are higher than for males (Figure 17). The widest gender gaps can be found in the Netherlands (45 pp), Austria (39 pp), Belgium (33 pp) and Italy (30 pp), while the narrowest are in Croatia (4 pp) and Finland (7 pp). Cyprus is an exception with part-time employment higher in the male population (males 11 % and females 8 %).

Youth part-time employment

The part-time employment of young people (aged 15–29) as a percentage of total employment has been increasing over the last seven years of available data, regardless of the country of birth of the employed population. However, the share of part-time employment among the non-EU-born employed young population is higher than among the native-born and EU-born young populations. While only 23.0 % of the employed native-born young population worked part-time in the EU-28 in 2014, the corresponding proportion for non-EU-born young people was 32.1 % (Figure 18).

Data sources and availability

The main data source for employment is the EU labour force survey (EU-LFS). The LFS is a large quarterly sample survey that covers the resident population aged 15 and above in private households in the EU-28, EFTA (except Liechtenstein) and Candidate countries. It provides population estimates for the main labour market characteristics, such as employment, unemployment, inactivity, hours of work, occupation, economic activity and other labour related variables, as well as important socio-demographic characteristics, such as sex, age, education, household characteristics and regions of residence. Regulations set by the European Council, the European Parliament and the European Commission define how the LFS is carried out, whereas some countries have their own national legislation for the implementation of this survey. The key advantage using LFS data is that it is a survey which is highly harmonized and optimized for comparability. However, there is a certain type of limitations deriving, mainly with respect to the coverage of migrant populations. By design, both the LFS target the whole resident population and not specifically the migrants. Coverage issues of survey data arise in the following cases:

  • Recently arrived migrants: this group of migrants is missing from the sampling frame in every hosting country resulting in under-coverage of the actual migrant population in the LFS.
  • Non-response of migrant population: A significant disadvantage of the surveys is the high percentage of non-response among the migrant population, due to language difficulties, misunderstanding of the purpose of each survey, arduousness in communicating with the interviewer, and fear on behalf of migrants of a possible negative impact on their authorisation to remain in the country in case of participation.
  • Sample size: given the nature of the LFS as sample survey, this cannot fully capture the characteristics of the migrants in Member States with very low migrant populations.

The article focuses on comparisons between national and migrant population (non-EU citizens and foreign EU citizens) with the relevant breakdowns by age and gender. The indicators are calculated for two broad groups of the migrant population. The first one is the foreign population by country of birth (COB) and the second one is the foreign population by country of citizenship (COC).

  • For the population by country of birth:
Native-born: the population born in the reporting country;
Foreign-born: the population born outside the reporting country;
EU-born: the population born in the EU, except the reporting country; and
Non-EU-born: the population born outside the EU.
  • For the population by citizenship:
Nationals: the population of citizens of the reporting country;
Foreign citizens: the non-nationals;
EU citizens: the citizens of the EU Member States, except the reporting country; and
Non-EU citizens: the citizens of non-EU Member States.

In addition, four age groups are mainly discussed:

  • 15-29: this group represents the population of young migrants and is targeted by the EU Youth Strategy
  • 20-64: this group has been selected because it is relevant to the first Europe 2020 target (employment of 75 % of this population by 2020).
  • 25-54: this is considered as the most appropriate group for the analysis of the situation of migrants of working age. It minimizes the effect of migration related to non-economic reasons (e.g. study or retirement) and forms a more homogenous group, large enough to produce reliable results.
  • 55-64: this age group focuses on the older migrants.

The indicators in this article use the definitions of the Zaragoza indicators. The above age group may not be same as used in Eurostat labour market statistics. For this reason results may differ from other results disseminated by Eurostat.

Context

There is a strong link between integration, migration and employment policies since successful integration is necessary for maximising the economic and social benefits of immigration for European Union societies and economies.

The importance of integration of third-country nationals legally living in the EU Member States and the establishment of policies for a secure labour environment for the migrants has seen a considerable development in 2000 when the ‘Racial Equality Directive’ (2000/43/EC) and the ‘Employment Equality Directive’ (2000/78/EC) were adopted in order to prohibit discrimination in employment, occupation, social protection education and access to public goods on the grounds of religion or belief, disability, age, or sexual orientation, race and ethnic origin.

In 2010, in order to enable migrants to take full advantage of their potential 'Europe 2020, a strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth' was set as a foundation for the migrants to achieve the objective of 'an inclusive high employment society' of Europe 2020 and the target of reaching 75 % employment by 2020. In July 2011, the Commission proposed a 'European agenda for the integration of third-country nationals', focusing on actions to increase economic, social, cultural and political participation by migrants and emphasising local action. This new agenda highlights challenges that need to be addressed if the EU is willing to fully benefit from the potential offered by migration and the value of diversity. It also explores the role of countries of origin in the integration process.

With regard to the measurement of migrant integration, the Stockholm Programme for the period 2010-14 (2009) embraced the development of core indicators in a limited number of relevant policy areas including employment, education and social inclusion for the monitoring of the results of integration policies. Through the 2010 Zaragoza Declaration (and the subsequent Council conclusions) Member States identified a number of common indicators (the so-called Zaragoza indicators) and called upon the Commission to undertake a pilot study examining proposals for common integration indicators and reporting on the availability and quality of the data from agreed harmonised sources necessary for the calculation of these indicators. The proposals in the pilot study were further examined and developed in the recently published report Using EU Indicators of Immigrant Integration - final report prepared for DG Migration and Home Affairs. The indicators used in this article are largely based on this report.

In July 2015, the European Commission released jointly with the OECD a report on indicators of immigrant integration Settling In – 2015. While in the thematic chapters of this publication, the analysis is focused on the foreign-born population, there is specific chapter dealing with the situation of non-EU citizens in the EU, aimed specifically at monitoring the Zaragoza indicators.

Legislative background

The EU legislation provides a framework regarding the conditions of entry and stay and a common set of rights for certain categories of migrants. Some of the most important legal texts relevant to migrants’ employment are the following:

  • Directive 2014/66/EU defining conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals in the framework of an intra-corporate transfer
  • Directive 2014/36/EU on the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purposes of seasonal employment
  • Directive 2011/98/EU on a single application procedure for a single permit to reside and work in the EU and on a common set of rights for third-country workers
  • Directive 2009/50/EC concerning the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purposes of highly qualified employment, commonly called 'Blue Card directive'
  • Directive 2003/86/EC on the right to family reunification
  • Directive 2000/43/EC on racial equality
  • Directive 2000/78/EC on employment equality

See also

Further Eurostat information

Publications

Database


Social inclusion (mii_soinc)
Education (mii_educ)
Employment (mii_emp)
Activity rates (mii_act)
Activity rates by sex, age and nationality (%) (lfsa_argan)
Activity rates by sex, age and country of birth (%) (lfsa_argacob)
Unemployment (mii_une)
Unemployment rates by sex, age and nationality (%) (lfsa_urgan)
Unemployment rates by sex, age and country of birth (%) (lfsa_urgacob)
Employment and self-employment (mii_em)
Employment rates by sex, age and nationality (%) (lfsa_ergan)
Employment rates by sex, age and country of birth (%) (lfsa_ergacob)
Long-term unemployment (12 months or more) as a percentage of the total unemployment, by sex, age and nationality (%) (lfsa_upgan)
Long-term unemployment (12 months or more) as a percentage of the total Unemployment, by sex, age and country of birth (%) (lfsa_upgacob)
Part-time employment as percentage of the total employment, by sex, age and nationality (%) (lfsa_eppgan)
Part-time employment as percentage of the total employment, by sex, age and country of birth (%) (lfsa_eppgacob)
Self-employment by sex, age and country of birth (1 000) (lfsa_esgacob)
Self-employment by sex, age and nationality (1 000) (lfsa_esgan)
Temporary employees as percentage of the total number of employees, by sex, age and nationality (%) (lfsa_etpgan)
Temporary employees as percentage of the total number of employees, by sex, age and country of birth (%) (lfsa_etpgacob)

Dedicated section

Methodology / Metadata

Source data for tables, figures and maps (MS Excel)

Other information

External links

Notes

  1. Set of common indicators agreed by EU Member States in the 2010 Zaragoza Declaration
  2. See the subset of the proposed new indicators in the report ‘Using EU Indicators of Immigrant Integration’ (2013).
  3. National population means the population of citizens of the reporting country.
  4. Mobile EU citizens means EU citizens who are citizens of a different EU country than the reporting EU country.
  5. Foreign citizens means all persons with foreign citizenship residing in the reporting country, i.e. non-EU citizens and foreign EU citizens.
  6. Native-born population means the population born in the reporting country.