ICT specialists in employment
- Data extracted in December 2015. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database. Planned article update: May 2016.
This article gives an overview of recent developments in the demand for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) specialists in Europe. ICT specialists are defined as those who have the ability to develop, operate and maintain ICT systems and for whom ICTs constitute the main part of their job (OECD, 2004).
ICT has been the cause of significant changes to both methods of production and patterns of employment, and policymakers and researchers therefore feel a natural interest in the employment of ICT professionals. Having a pool of specialised ICT workers is a critical factor in ensuring a country’s comparative advantage in the development, installation and servicing of ICTs.
- 1 Main statistical findings
- 2 Data sources and availability
- 3 Context
- 4 See also
- 5 Further Eurostat information
- 6 External links
Main statistical findings
- Employment of ICT specialists has been largely unaffected by the uncertainty seen on global labour markets during and after the economic crisis: the employment growth rate for ICT specialists has remained on an upwards path averaging 4% growth per annum since 2006, i.e. it was more than twelve times higher than the average growth rate of total employment over the same period.
- Almost half of ICT specialists – 44 % in 2014 – do not have tertiary-level education.
- 63 % of ICT specialists in the EU-28 are aged over 35. The proportion of ICT specialists over the age of 35 has increased by 6 percentage points since 2005.
- The majority of jobs for ICT specialists are held by men. The proportion of women working in this segment of the labour market in the EU-28 has declined since 2005, to 18 % in 2014.
General trend in demand for ICT specialists
During the last decade, employment of ICT specialists in the EU-28 has resisted the effects of the downturn and of uncertainty on global labour markets, and remained on an upwards path. Growth in the employment of ICT specialists averaged 4 % over the nine-year period 2006-2014, more than twelve times higher than the average growth rate for total employment over the same period. While employment of ICT specialists has, similarly to total employment, evolved cyclically (see Figure 3), it never turned negative. The rapid growth in total employment of specialists in this area confirms the increasing importance of ICTs in the global economy.
ICT specialists by level of education
The majority of ICT specialists in the EU-28 have completed tertiary-level education, with the proportion of workers with this level of education increasing slightly since 2005 to reach 57 % in 2014. The relative number of ICT specialists having each of the two levels of education — tertiary and post-secondary non-tertiary — varies among countries. The proportion of ICT specialists with tertiary-level education is lowest in Italy (32 %), Malta (39 %) and Slovenia (41 %) and highest in Spain (77 %), Belgium (73 %) and Cyprus (72 %). Some countries have seen an increase in the proportion of ICT specialists with tertiary education since 2005, with Austria, Lithuania and Greece, recording changes of +22, +14 and +13 percentage points respectively. In other countries, meanwhile, the proportion of ICT specialists with tertiary education declined, the most pronounced falls being recorded in Cyprus (-8 percentage points), France and Ireland (-7 percentage points each). Given that these latter three countries were in the top part of the distribution, i.e. had a relatively high proportion of highly educated ICT specialists compared to other countries, these findings could be attributed to the oversupply of highly-qualified ICT-specialised labour during the period 2005-2014.
ICT specialists by age groups
The age distribution of ICT specialists is assessed using two age groups: 15-34 years and over 35 years. The majority of ICT specialists in the EU-28 (63 %) belong to the latter group. Moreover, the proportion of ICT specialists in the older age group increased by 6 percentage points between 2005 and 2014, suggesting an ageing of this segment of the European labour market. The countries that had the highest proportion of ICT specialists in the older age group in 2014 are Italy (27 %), Denmark (28 %) and Sweden (31 %). The highest proportion of younger workers (15-34 years) was found in Turkey, Malta and Latvia, where they accounted for 70 %, 60 % and 56 % respectively of ICT specialists.
ICT specialists by gender
The majority of jobs for ICT specialists are held by men. There has been a 5 % increase in the proportion of men since 2005, with men accounting for 82 % of ICT specialists in 2014. The countries with the most pronounced gender inequality in 2014 were Luxembourg, Cyprus and the Netherlands, with proportions of men in the ICT-specialist workforce of 89 %, 88 % and 87 % respectively. Bulgaria has the highest proportion of female ICT specialists (32 %), closely followed by Estonia (30 %) and Romania (29 %).
Data sources and availability
The data used in this article come from the secondary statistics on ICT specialists, which are derived from the Labour Force Survey (LFS) data on employment. ICT specialists' data covers all sectors of economic activity, but does not provide any sector breakdowns. The aggregates for ICT specialists are constructed based on the OECD-Eurostat statistical definition, given in terms of International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). Data matching the statistical definition of ICT specialists is obtained from the LFS data on the basis of the occupations/education taxonomies (see reference metadata on ICT specialists for more details). The comparability of the data over time is affected by the break in the series in 2011, which occurred due to the introduction of the latest version of ISCO. LFS reference metadata should be consulted for all questions relating to the underlying primary source data.
In recent years, EU policies have given greater attention to ICT skills, and in particular to the employment of ICT specialists. The recently updated Digital Single Market strategy emphasises the need for policies designed to boost stability in European labour markets and improve the EU’s competitive position. Monitoring the employment of ICT specialists has therefore become increasingly important. The Agenda for New Skills and Jobs (2010) — part of the overall Europe 2020 strategy — addresses structural change in the labour market and suggests specific measures for adapting European workers’ e-skills to the changing working environment. In its Employment package published in April 2012, the European Commission presented new measures and identified the critical opportunities for stimulating a job-rich recovery. One of the objectives of the European employment policy is to ensure that EU workers acquire the higher-end skills needed in order to prevent the loss of key ICT jobs to other regions of the world. Policymakers’ growing awareness of the importance of the employment of ICT specialists was reflected in the Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs, launched by the European Commission in April 2013. This multi-stakeholder partnership aims to address the shortfall in the number of people with professional-level ICT skills in Europe. Other EU policies have also recommended that further action be taken in this area. These include, in particular, the Digital Agenda for Europe, the e-Skills Strategy, the Employment Package and the EU Skills Panorama.
- ICT specialists - statistics on hard-to-fill vacancies in enterprises
- ICT specialists – statistical definition and its application to the LFS data
Further Eurostat information
- Information society, see:
- E-skills and ICT specialists (isoc_sk)
- ICT specialists in the labour force (isoc_sks)
- ICT specialists - total (isoc_sks_itspt)
- ICT specialists by gender (isoc_sks_itsps)
- ICT specialists by level of education (isoc_sks_itspe)
- ICT specialists by age (isoc_sks_itspa) )
Methodology / Metadata
- ICT specialists in the labour force (ESMS metadata file - isoc_sks_esms)
Source data for tables and figures (MS Excel)
- Europe 2020
- Digital Agenda for Europe
- Digital Single market
- Agenda for New Skills and Jobs
- The Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs
- E-skills for the 21st century: fostering competitiveness, growth and jobs
- European e-Competence Framework
- the e-Skills Strategy
- the EU Skills Panorama