Regional statistics by typology (reg_typ)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

Unit E4: Regional statistics and geographical information

1.5. Contact mail address

2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 30/11/2016
2.2. Metadata last posted 30/11/2016
2.3. Metadata last update 30/11/2016


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

The source for regional typology statistics are regional indicators at NUTS level 3 published on the Eurostat website or existing in the Eurostat production database.

The structure of this domain is as follows:

- Metropolitan regions (met)

   For details see http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/metropolitan-regions/overview

- Maritime policy indicators (mare)

   For details see http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/maritime-policy-indicators/overview

- Urban-rural typology (urt)

   For details see http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/rural-development/overview

3.2. Classification system

The regional breakdown of the countries into the NUTS3 regions is based on the:

1. The third regular amendment to the annexes was adopted by Commission Regulation (EU) No 1319/2013, entered into force on 31 December 2013 and shall apply, with regard to the transmission of data to the Commission (Eurostat), from 1 January 2015. The NUTS classification according to this regulation is referred to as NUTS 2013. 

The fourth, extraordinary amendment to the annexes was adopted by Commission Regulation (EU) No 868/2014, entered into force on 8 August 2014 and shall apply, with regard to the transmission of data to the Commission (Eurostat), from 1 January 2016.

The fifth amendment to the annexes (a regular one) was adopted by Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/2066, entered into force on 19 December 2016 and shall apply, regarding the transmission of data to the Commission (Eurostat), from 1 January 2018.

2. Agreements between Eurostat and Acceding and Candidate Countries as well as between Eurostat and EFTA countries, for which statistical regions have been coded in a way that resembles NUTS.

For more details, please consult the Regions in the European Union - Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics - NUTS 2010/EU-27 and Statistical regions for the EFTA countries and the Candidate countries 2008.

3.3. Coverage - sector

The indicators and variables published by regional typologies cover several statistical domains: Demography, Population projections, Labour market, Economic accounts, Science and technology statistics, Tourism (from 2012 onwards by coastal area only), Business demography, Transport and Crimes.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

General information about the data

The data providers are the Eurostat units responsible for demography, regional population projections, economic accounts, labour market, tourism (from 2012 LAU2 aggregates by coastal/non-coastal area), science and technology statistics, business demography, transport and crimes providing the NUTS3 data as 'building blocks' for the aggregates. The data tables are updated automatically whenever one of these building blocks is being updated in the Eurostat reference database.
For source of the building blocks-data: please consult the information provided for the indicators in the relevant statistical themes. The three regional typologies are based on grid population. The source of these data is the 2011 Census. The typologies have been updated in 2015 implementing the NUTS 2013 version.

A) Metropolitan regions

Metropolitan regions are NUTS level 3 approximations of the Functional Urban Areas (city and commuting zone) of 250 000 or more inhabitants. Each metropolitan region consists of one or more NUTS level 3 regions and is named after the principle Functional Urban Area inside its boundaries.

The boundaries of a Functional Urban Area do not necessarily coincide with those of NUTS level 3 regions. Therefore, NUTS level 3 regions in which at least 50 % of the regional population lives inside a given Functional Urban Area were selected as the components of the metropolitan region related to that Functional Urban Area. In some cases, the NUTS level 3 approximation of the Functional Urban Area is very good. In others cases, the metropolitan region may be larger or smaller than the Functional Urban Area. Each Functional Urban Area is represented by at least one NUTS level 3 region, even if that NUTS level 3 region has less than 50 % of its population inside the Functional Urban Area.

As the metropolitan regions are based on territorial units, which include the commuter belt around a city, this approach corrects the distortions created by commuting and the GDP per inhabitant becomes meaningful, whereas comparison of GDP per inhabitant of NUTS level 3 regions is far more difficult to interpret, since the difference may be partly artificial.

Source data for the metropolitan data (the 'building blocks') are existing NUTS3 indicators in the Eurostat production database for the following statistical themes: - Demography, -Population projections, - Economic accounts, - Labour market, - Science and technology statistics, -Business demography, -Transport and -Crimes.

The exact algorithm for delineation of the metropolitan regions is the following:

  • Population at the level of 1 sq. km grid cells are linked to the grid cell centroid points. For these points the location in the FUAs and in the NUTS 3 regions are known;
  • The grid cell points table is agregated by Functional Urban Areas (FUAs), determining the grid-based total population of every FUA. From this aggregated table, FUAs with >250,000 inhabitants are selected;
  • The grid cell points table is aggregated by NUTS 3, summing the total population, and also summing the population living in FUAs with more than 250,000 inhabitants;
  • From this aggregate, the FUA population share by NUTS 3 can be assessed. The selection of NUTS 3s with a FUA population share >= 50% are mapped and inspected.

Compared to the 2010 composition of the metropolitan regions  there are three different situations that have led to changes in the 2013 version based on 2011 population grid and implementiong NUTS 2013:

  • Changes in the population distribution between the FUA part of a NUTS 3 region and the rest of the region (simply due to new grid population data; neither NUTS boundary changes, no FUAs boundary changes);
  • Changes in the NUTS breakdown, whereby the former metropolitan regions geometry cannot be reconstructed anymore (e.g. mergers of NUTS 3 regions like in DE8 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern);
  • Changes in metro regions due to changes in the extent of FUAs (this concerns only the countries that have updated their FUAs based on 2011 Census commuting data).

The Functional Urban Area consists of the city and its commuting zone. Once all cities have been defined, a commuting zone can be identified based on commuting patterns using the following steps:

Step 1: If 15% of employed persons living in one city work in another city, these cities are treated as a single city.

Step 2: All municipalities with at least 15% of their employed residents working in a city are identified.

Step 3: Municipalities surrounded by a single functional area are included and non-contiguous municipalities are dropped. Surrounded is defined as sharing at least 100% of its land border with the functional area.

B) Maritime regions

An EU maritime region (coastal region) is a statistical region of the European Union, at NUTS level 3, defined according to one of the following three criteria:

  • The region has a sea border
  • The region has more than half of its population within 50 km from the sea (Previous to the availability of the grid, all coastal regions were defined as a NUTS level 3 region with a sea border).
  • The region is Hamburg. (The German NUTS 3-region of Hamburg does not correspond to the above 2 criteria but has been added to the list of EU coastal regions due to its strong maritime influence).

Currently they are 23 EU Member States with a sea border:

Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

The Czech Republic, Luxembourg, Hungary, Austria and Slovakia are landlocked countries and are not presented.

A coastal area consists of those municipalities (around 12% of municipalities, typically LAU2) that border the sea or that have 50% of their surface within a distance of 10 kilometre from the coastline. The list of the coastal areas is updated annuallly in order to take into account the impact of any possible changes in the LAUs boundaries.   

Source data for the maritime regions (the 'building blocks') are existing NUTS 3 indicators in the Eurostat production database for the following statistical themes:

- Demography, -Population projections, - Economic accounts, - Labour market, - Science and technology statistics, -Business demography, -Transport and -Crimes.

 C) Urban-rural typology

Urban-rural typology statistics use the new urban-rural typology. This typology uses a three-step approach to classify the NUTS level 3 regions.

The first step is to identify populations in rural areas: 'rural areas' are all areas outside urban clusters. 'Urban clusters' are clusters of contiguous¹ grid cells of 1 km² with a density of at least 300 inhabitants per km² and a minimum population of 5 000.

On the second step, NUTS 3 regions are classified as follows, on the basis of the share of their population in rural areas:

  • 'Predominantly rural' if the share of the population living in rural areas is higher than 50
  • 'Intermediate' if the share of the population living in rural areas is between 20 and 50
  • 'Predominantly urban' if the share of the population living in rural areas is below 20

To resolve the distortion created by extremely small NUTS 3 regions, for classification purposes regions smaller than 500 km² are combined with one or more of their neighbours.

In a third step, the size of the urban centres in the region is considered. A predominantly rural region which contains an urban centre of more than 200 000 inhabitants making up at least 25% of the regional population becomes intermediate. An intermediate region which contains an urban centre of more than 500 000 inhabitants making up at least 25% of the regional population becomes predominantly urban.

Consult the Schematic overview of the urban-rural typologies.

Source data for the urban-rural typology (the 'building blocks') are existing NUTS3 indicators in the Eurostat production database for the following statistical themes: - Demography, -Population projections, - Economic accounts, - Labour market, - Science and technology statistics, -Business demography, -Transport and -Crimes.

Further information on the workflow for classification of regions and LAUs according to the differen typologies are included as annexes in this section. 


1Contiguity for urban clusters includes the diagonals (i.e. cells with only the corners touching). Gaps in the urban cluster are not filled (i.e. cells surrounded by urban cells).



Annexes:
Urban-rural typology update workflow
3.5. Statistical unit

Statistical unit is a NUTS 3 region, LAU or aggregates of them.

3.6. Statistical population

Regional typology statistics combine data from many source statistics. The concept of statistical population is not strictly applicable in a regional typology context.

3.7. Reference area

EU Member States, EFTA countries and Candidate countries.

3.8. Coverage - Time

Demography time series are available from 1990 onwards.

Population projections: data refer to the period 2014-2050 and are based on NUTS 2010.

Economic accounts time series are available from 1995 onwards.

Labour market time series are available from 1999 onwards.

Tourism time series are available from 2012 onwards (based on coastal/non-coastal areas).

Patent (Science and technology statistics) time series are available from 1977 onwards.

Business demography time series are available from 2008 onwards.

Transport statistics time series are available from 2008 onwards.

Crime statistics time series are available from from 2008 onwards (for three years only).

 

3.9. Base period

Not applicable


4. Unit of measure Top

The unit of measurement varies from indicator to indicator; from variable to variable. In most cases the unit of measurement is included in the label.

For unit of measure, please consult metadata for each statistical theme individually:

Demography, Regonal populaton projections, Regional economic accounts - ESA2010, Regional labour market, Tourism and Patent (Science and technology statistics), Regional business demography, Transport and Crime statistics.


5. Reference Period Top

The reference period is the calendar year.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

A) Metropolitan regions

There is no legal base for the data collection by metropolitan regions. For legal base of the source data collections please refer to the information provided by the relevant statistical theme.

 

B) Maritime regions

The main rules governing the Maritime Policy at the European level are set out by the following legislation:

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.L_.2014.257.01.0135.01.ENG"

C(2012) 1447 final: concerning the adoption of the Integrated Maritime Policy work programme for 2011 and 2012

http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/maritimeaffairs_fisheries/contracts_and_funding/annual_work_programme/c(2012)_1447_en.pdf

Regulation (EU) No 1255/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2011 establishing a Programme to support the further development of an Integrated Maritime Policy

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/JOHtml.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:321:SOM:EN:HTML

COM(2007) 575 final: An Integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2007:0575:FIN:EN:PDF

 

C)  Urban-rural typology

The main rules governing the Rural Development Policy at the European level with respect to the current program period are set out in http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/rural-development-2014-2020/legislation/index_en.htm

Further information on Rural Development Policy legislation is available on the Directorate General for Agriculture (DG AGRI) website

 

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Not applicable.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

No release calendar.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Annual and whenever revised data are sent to Eurostat.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

Not applicable.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Statistics Explained

Statistics Explained is an official Eurostat website presenting many statistical topics in an easily understandable way. Together, the articles make up an encyclopaedia of European statistics, completed by a statistical glossary clarifying all terms used and by numerous links to further information and the very latest data and metadata, a portal for occasional and regular users alike.

The pages, which provide a clickable list of all articles in Statistics Explained on typology statistics, can be accessed under the following links:

Regional typologies overview

Metropolitan regions

Maritime regions

Urban-rural typology staistics

Eurostat regional yearbook 2014

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Not applicable.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

For a detailed description of methods and concepts used, as well as for other documents related to regional typologies, please consult the Regional typologies overview (in Statistics explained).

For a detailed description of methods and concepts used, as well as for other documents related to the NUTS classification, please consult the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) webpage.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Not available.


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

The quality of the data is assured by the implementation of the harmonised European definitions for the regional typologies. In 2017, a review of the quality of the data by regional typologies will be done.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

As regards NUTS 3 estimates used to publish labour market aggregates by typologies, the compilation methods differ among countries. While most countries provide the NUTS 3 code in the LFS micro data, some countries use combined information of the LFS and registers or base their NUTS 3 data on administrative data, small area estimation and other reliable sources. Due to non-sampling errors and the combined use of LFS data with the information from registers, it is currently difficult to assess the accuracy of this data according to scientific standards.

For those countries which do not provide the NUTS 3 code in the EU-LFS micro data, Eurostat uses the EU-LFS NUTS 2 results as a benchmark. In order to achieve comparability between the NUTS 3 data and the EU-LFS data at NUTS 2 level, Eurostat uses the relative weight of the NUTS 3 data received from Member States to split the EU-LFS NUTS 2 estimates into estimates at NUTS 3 level before aggregating the data by typologies.

EU-LFS statistics have overall high quality. National LFS surveys are considered as reliable sources applying high standards with regard to the methodology. However, the EU-LFS, like any survey, is based upon a sample of the population. The results are therefore subject to the usual types of errors associated with random sampling. Based on the sample size and design in the various Member States, Eurostat implements basic guidelines intended to avoid publication of figures that are unreliable or to give warning of the unreliability of the figures. 

In the domain of Regional typology statistics the EU-LFS reliability thresholds are applied directly to the labour market NUTS 3 data already aggregated by typologies.

For a detailed description of the publication thresholds used, please consult the EU-LFS (Statistics Explained) webpage.


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Regional typologies are receiving particular attention by policy makers due to policy developments in relation to EU Cohesion Policy, the Treaty of Lisbon and the description of the European aim of territorial cohesion. This counts in particular for the types of territories mentioned in the Lisbon Treaty §174: urban/metropolitan regions; rural regions; coastal regions and other. The regional typologies are defined as territorial dimensions in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 215/2014 of 7 March 2014 laying down rules for implementing Regulation (EU) No 1303/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down common provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund, the Cohesion Fund, the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development and the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund and laying down general provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund, the Cohesion Fund and the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund with regard to methodologies for climate change support, the determination of milestones and targets in the performance framework and the nomenclature of categories of intervention for the European Structural and Investment Funds. The recent publication of DG REGIO 'The State of European Cities Report, 2016 - Cities leading the way to a better future' has made a wide use of Eurostat's data by regional typologies.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Eurostat does not carry out satisfaction survey targeted at users of regional statistics by typology. The relevance of the regional typology statistics for the users can thus only be assessed by indirect means.

12.3. Completeness

Data completeness depends on the availability of the source data.


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

High.

 

13.2. Sampling error

Not applicable.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not applicable.


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

Timeliness for demography, population projections, economic accounts, tourism, patent (Science and technology statistics), business demography, transport and crime statistics aggregates: immediate (every update of a source table 'building block' by one of the production units results in automatic update of aggregates)

Timeliness for labour market aggregates: 3 months after receiving source data at NUTS 3 level from NSIs.

14.2. Punctuality

High.

Data dissemination depends on the punctuality of data delivery and the completeness of the datasets provided by the countries.


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

The geographical comparability is ensured through the application of common European definitions and methodologies for classification of all NUTS level 3 regions according to the three regional typologies as well as the coastal and non-coastal areas.

15.2. Comparability - over time

Comparability over time could be affected every three years by new versions of the NUTS classification as well as updates in the territorial typologies.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

The coherence cross domains is ensured since the tables by regional typologies contain aggregates of the NUTS 3 datasets published by the production units.

15.4. Coherence - internal

Internal coherence (between time, age and sex) is ensured through various validations performed by the thematic units before publishing the data.


16. Cost and Burden Top

Not available.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

Data are revised in accordance with changes of the NUTS classification or according to data revisions or methodological changes implemented by the National Statistical institutes or other bodies.

17.2. Data revision - practice

Please consult metadata for each statistical theme individually.

 


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

The source data for regional typology statistics are regional indicators at NUTS level 3 published on the Eurostat website or existing in the Eurostat production database for the following statistical themes:

- Demography,

- Population projections,

- Economic accounts,

- Labour market,

- Science and technology statistics,

- Business demography,

- Transport and

- Crime statistics.

 From 2012 onwards the relevant production unit publishes tourism data aggregated by coastal/non-coastal areas (LAU2) based on the common definitions.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Annual.

18.3. Data collection

Regional typology data are provided by the Eurostat units responsible for demography and population projections, economic accounts, labour market,  tourism statistics (from 2012 onwards based on LAU2 coastal areas), science and technology statistics, business demography, transport and crime statistics.

For more details, please consult the information provided for the indicators in the relevant statistical themes.

 

18.4. Data validation

Although the data validation is considered to have been done by the production units during the creation phase, some additional verification of the validity of the data is done during the aggregation process. For example, the aggregate of the urban, rural and intermediate figures must be less than (in case of missing data) or equal to the national figure on a given variable. Analogically the aggregate of coastal and non-coastal figures must be less than or equal to the national figure. For the metropolitan regions applies a simply rule that the sum of all metropolitan figures must be less then the national figure.

18.5. Data compilation

Regional typology tables are created by aggregating the NUTS 3 source data. Different correspondence tables are used to classify each NUTS 3 region in a typological group: a Metropolitan region (data on individual Metropolitan regions are available), Non-metropolitan regions (recently included in the aggregated tables, one figure per country), an predominantly Rural, Intermediate or predominantly Urban region and a Maritime (coastal) region. Identically a correspondence table is behind the tourism aggregates based on coastal/non-coastal areas.

The source tables (building blocks) for the different statistical subjects are created in the Eurostat production database by the production units responsible for Demography and population projections, Regional economic accounts, Labour market, Tourism, Science and technology statistics, Business demography, Transport and Crime statistics. The production processes of the source data is the responsibility of the production units.

Also stored in the Eurostat production database are the formulas used to calculate the tables by Metropolitan regions, Urban-rural typology regions and Maritime (coastal) regions, coastal and non-coastal areas. Thus, when a production unit has been updated any of the source data tables in the production database, the tables by regional typologies have been also updated. 

18.6. Adjustment

Regional data by typologies are not adjusted.


19. Comment Top

No comments.


Related metadata Top


Annexes Top