Energy statistics - Gas prices for domestic and industrial consumers

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4.Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Dissemination format
11. Accessibility of documentation
12. Quality management
13. Relevance
14. Accuracy
15. Timeliness and punctuality
16. Comparability
17. Coherence
18. Cost and Burden
19. Data revision
20. Statistical processing
21. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

E5: Energy

1.5. Contact mail address

European Commission - Eurostat

Unit ESTAT.E.5: Energy

L-2920 Luxembourg

 


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 24/11/2014
2.2. Metadata last posted 24/11/2014
2.3. Metadata last update 09/02/2015


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 onwards)
Average half-yearly natural gas prices for households and industrial end-users.
The end-users are characterised by predefined annual consumption bands.

 The prices are collected and published considering three levels of taxation:

  • prices excluding taxes and levies;
  • prices excluding VAT and other recoverable taxes;
  • prices including all taxes, levies and VAT

  OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)
Natural gas prices for households and industrial standard consumers, valid on 1st January and on 1st   July of each calendar year. Standard consumers are characterised by predefined annual consumption. The prices include gas basic price, transmission, system services, meter rental, distribution and other services.

The prices are collected and published considering three levels of taxation (see above under new methodology):

For structural indicators tables, where only annual data is displayed both for new and old methodology in the same table, the prices refer to the price on 1st January of each year (until 2007) and to the first semester of each year (2008 and later).

For further details see : Data on energy prices are collected according to Directive 2008/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2008 concerning a Community procedure to improve the transparency of gas and electricity prices charged to industrial end-users (recast) (Text with EEA relevance).

Data for gas prices for household end-users are collected on a voluntary basis

Gas prices are presented at national level for the Members of the European Union (except Cyprus and Malta for industrial end users, expect Cyprus (is not providing data for households), Malta and Finland, EFTA-country Liechtenstein, Candidate countries (except The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Albania for households and except Albania for industrial end-users), Potential candidate country Kosovo (under UNSCR 1244/1999). 

3.2. Classification system

Energy statistics is an integral part of the European System of Statistics. Therefore, they rely on classifications and nomenclatures developed in other fields while classifications proper to the Energy statistics are fully harmonised with the classifications used in other fields of the European System of Statistics

Classifications, nomenclatures and correspondence tables are available at the Eurostat’s classification server RAMON

3.3. Coverage - sector

Gas prices are collected for the two  following areas:

  • Industrial      (*) end-users;
  • Household      end-users.

 (*) Industrial end users might include data from other areas like offices, restaurants, services, transport etc.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

The main changes that are introduced as of 2007 are the use of consumption bands instead of typical standard consumers, and the averaging over 6 months instead of fixed prices on 1st January.

The methodology was modified to cope with the liberalised energy gas markets.

Reference consumers are characterised  (see below new and old methodology) by the following annual consumption bands:

 NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 onwards)

Natural gas households:

Band-D1 (Small): annual consumption below 20 GJ

Band-D2 (Medium): annual consumption between 20 and 200 GJ

Band-D3 (Large): annual consumption above 200 GJ

Natural gas industry:

Band-I1: annual consumption below 1 000 GJ

Band-I2: annual consumption between 1 000 and 10 000 GJ

Band-I3: annual consumption between 10 000 and 100 000 GJ

Band-I4: annual consumption between 100 000 and 1 000 000 GJ

Band-I5: annual consumption between 1 000 000 and 4 000 000 GJ

Band-I6: annual consumption above 4 000 000 GJ (voluntary) 

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)

Natural gas households:

Band-D1: annual consumption of 8.37 GJ (equipment: cooking and water heating)
Band-D2: annual consumption of 16.74 GJ (equipment: cooking and water heating)
Band-D3: annual consumption of 83.7 GJ (equipment: cooking, water heating and central heating)
Band-D3-b: annual consumption of 125.60 GJ (equipment: cooking, water heating and central heating)
Band-D4: annual consumption of 1 047.00 GJ (equipment: block central heating for at least 10 dwelling)

For the United Kingdom, there is an additional standard consumer D2-b, annual consumption 33.49 GJ

Natural gas industry:

Band-I1: annual consumption of 418.6 GJ, no load factor, but if necessary 115-120 days
Band-I2: annual consumption of 4 186 GJ, and load factor of 200 days
Band-I3-1: annual consumption of 41 860 GJ, and load factor of 200 days (1 600 hours)
Band-I3-2: annual consumption of 41 860 GJ, and load factor of 250 days (4 000 hours)
Band-I4-1: annual consumption of 418 600 GJ, and load factor of 250 days (4 000 hours)
Band-I4-2: annual consumption of 418 600 GJ, and load factor of 330 days (8 000 hours)
Band-I5: annual consumption of 4 186 000 GJ, and load factor of 330 days (8 000 hours)

3.5. Statistical unit

Industry (industrial end-user may include other non-residential users) and households. Whereas industrial end-users are non-household users.

Household:

A household consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and also share at meals or living accommodation, and may consist of a single family or some other grouping of people.

For detailed information on statistical units, see Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community (Official Journal of the European Communities No L 076, 30/03/1993, p. 1), Section III of 15.03.1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community.

 

3.6. Statistical population

Member States must ensure that a representative share of the national market is covered by their data collection system.

3.7. Reference area

Gas prices are presented at national level for the Members of the European Union (except Cyprus and Malta for industrial end users, expect Cyprus, Malta and Finland (for households))   , EFTA-country Liechtenstein, Candidate countries (except The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Albania for households and except Albania for industrial end-users), Potential candidate country Kosovo (under UNSCR 1244/1999).

Before 2005 when data was collected using the old methodology, regional data is available for several countries (Germany, France and the United Kingdom).

3.8. Coverage - Time

The full set of price data that was collected with a new methodology is available from the second semester 2007 onwards.

From 1985 until 2007, price data is available that was collected with the old methodology.

3.9. Base period

Not applicable.


4. Unit of measure Top

Euro / GJ (Giga Joule = one Joule x 10exp9) [Euro (from 1.1.1999)/ECU (up to 31.12.1998)]

Euro/kWh

National currency / GJ for non-Euro countries

Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) / GJ


5. Reference Period Top

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 onwards)
The published data are national average prices over a period over 6 months.
Semester 1 prices are average prices between January and June of each year, semester 2 prices are average prices between July and December of each year.
In case of annual data (e.g. at the structural indicators tables), the price is taken for the first semester of each calendar year.

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)
Price data are taken at 1 January and 1 July of each year, or in case of annual data, the price is taken at 1st January of each calendar year.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Directive 2008/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning a Community procedure to improve the transparency of gas and electricity prices charged to industrial end-users (recast).

Gas prices for household end-users are collected on a voluntary basis.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

In the interest of confidentiality, data relating to prices will be communicated only where there are, in the Member State concerned, at least three end-users in each of defined bands. This restriction has to be communicated by the national data provider to Eurostat.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Eurostat does not disclose data which might be by their nature subject to commercial confidentiality.

Such confidential data that is transmitted by the Member States to Eurostat shall only be accessible to Eurostat officials. The confidential price data may however be used for statistical purposes. This provision shall not prevent the publication of such data in an aggregated form, which does not enable individual commercial transaction to be identified.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

Not applicable

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's
website (see item 10 - 'Dissemination format') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which
all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Half-yearly


10. Dissemination format Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases on-line.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Data is disseminated in the form of Statistics Explained articles every 6 months for the main consumer types for natural gas and electricity. The full scope of all prices for all consumption bands is available from Eurobase.

Gas price data are included in an annual pocketbook Energy, Transport and Environment Indicators.

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not available.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Not available.


11. Accessibility of documentation Top
11.1. Documentation on methodology

The methodology for industrial end-users is described in Annex I (natural gas prices) of Directive 2008/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning a Community procedure to improve the transparency of gas and electricity prices charged to industrial end-users (recast)

Eurostat provides model questionnaires on which the surveys are based. More information is available here

11.2. Quality management - documentation

Not applicable.


12. Quality management Top
12.1. Quality assurance

A Self-Assessment report on the process of the gas and electricity price collection was drafted in 2008.

12.2. Quality management - assessment

As the methodology for the data collection of gas prices is well defined, the data set provides price information that is comparable between countries.

However, users should be aware, that whenever gas prices in Euro for non-Euro countries are compared in time, the effects of differences in exchange rates are also taken into account. Whenever prices are calculated and/or presented in Euro, the average exchange rates of the two quarters of the appropriate semester are taken as a reference.


13. Relevance Top
13.1. Relevance - User Needs

Users mainly need details about household gas and electricity prices.

Main users of this data set are:

- Other Commission services (DG MOVE, DG SANCO, DG ECFIN);

- National public organisations (NSI's, Ministries, Energy Agencies);

- Financial analysts in the energy sector;

- Gas companies;

- Academia/universities/ students.

13.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

No user satisfaction survey has been carried out for this dataset.

13.3. Completeness

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 onwards)
Due to limited size of the natural gas markets in Finland (households), Cyprus and Malta , data for these countries is not or only partially available.

For the other countries, the data sets are complete with the exception of Denmark (household and industrial). Prices for large industrial end-users (Band I5) are not applicable for Luxembourg, and confidential for Ireland and Slovenia. Prices for Band I6 (annual consumption above 4 000 000 GJ are not available for a few countries, as the price data for this band is declared on a voluntary basis.

Due to missing data for several countries. EU aggregates are not available for large consumer bands I5 and I6.

 

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)
Due to the limited size of the natural gas markets in Cyprus, Malta, Finland (households) and Greece, data for these countries is not or only partially available.

Data sets for the other EU Member States are complete with the exception of prices for very large industrial gas consumers (consumer type I5) where 9 EU Member States did not provide these prices as these prices are not applicable or not available.

Price dataset for the largest domestic standard consumer D3 for Ireland: not available.


14. Accuracy Top
14.1. Accuracy - overall

As the new methodology is significantly different, users should pay attention when comparing data that was collected with old and with new methodology.

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 onwards)
The published prices are based on real invoiced prices that are paid by end-users

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)
The published prices are based on tariffs

14.2. Sampling error

Not available.

14.3. Non-sampling error

Not appicable.


15. Timeliness and punctuality Top
15.1. Timeliness

Price data is generally delivered to Eurostat 2-4 months after the reference period.

15.2. Punctuality

The price data is available within 3 working days in Eurobase after receipt.


16. Comparability Top
16.1. Comparability - geographical

Good comparability as a unique methodology is in place that describes the collection of gas prices.

16.2. Comparability - over time

From 2007 second semester onwards, prices are reported with a new methodology as defined in Directive 2008/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning a Community procedure to improve the transparency of gas and electricity prices charged to industrial end-users (recast)

For prices that were collected before this time a different methodology was in place.

Comparing the new methodology prices with old methodology prices is possible, but the reader should be aware, that not only standard reference consumers were replaced with standard bands, but also that the data collection with the new methodology is done on real price data while the old methodology was often performed on tariff price data.


17. Coherence Top
17.1. Coherence - cross domain

Not applicable

17.2. Coherence - internal

Not applicable


18. Cost and Burden Top

Not applicable


19. Data revision Top
19.1. Data revision - policy

In case, only provisional national price data is available, this data is marked with a "p" (provisional). This provisional data is used for calculating (provisional) EU aggregates. As soon as definitive data is available, both the final national data as well as final corrected aggregated data is introduced in the Eurobase. The EU aggregated prices are updated twice per year, on the first Wednesday after the 15th of May and on the first Wednesday after the 15th of November.

19.2. Data revision - practice

Incoming data is validated by Eurostat, by checking the price data on consistency and completeness. In case of abnormal increases or decreases, the reporting organisation will be requested to reconfirm the data.

In practice, between 1-3 Member States report price-corrections (per dataset). These corrections might be due to the availability of final data instead of provisional data, or due to corrective measures. The prices are not seasonally adjusted.


20. Statistical processing Top
20.1. Source data

Gas price data is reported by National Statistical Institutes, Ministries, Energy Agencies, or in case of monopolies by single gas companies.

The prices include gas basic price, transmission, system services, distribution and other services.

Gas prices are collected and published considering three level of taxation (see above under 3.1).

EU aggregates are calculated by weighting the national prices with the latest available national consumption for either the household sector or the industrial sector.

Questionnaires in standardized electronic format have to be transmitted by Member States to Eurostat  via the Single Entry Point (SEP) following the implementing procedures of eDAMIS (electronic Data files Administration and Management Information System - : https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/edamis).

20.2. Frequency of data collection

Half yearly

20.3. Data collection

Eurostat provides model questionnaires to all data providers that cover the following areas:

  • gas prices for the households
  • gas prices for the industrial sector

Price data for natural gas is collected by the reporting authorities of the States from suppliers. This micro data is then aggregated by the reporting authorities to national average prices. Member States must ensure that the sample is sufficient large to ensure that a representative national price is achieved. The coverage varies from country to country and can be 100% for small countries where only one supplier for natural gas dominates the national market to a significant lower coverage for those countries were many suppliers are on the market.

20.4. Data validation

National input data is validated by Eurostat for consistency and completeness.

In case of inconsistent price data, the data providers are contacted to request a reconfirmation of the data.

20.5. Data compilation

Member states must report national prices that are representative for the whole country.
These national prices will represent weighted average prices, using the market shares of gas supply undertakings surveyed as weighting factors. Arithmetic average prices will be provided only when weighted figures cannot be calculated.

EU aggregates are calculated, once the price data set is complete.

In case of missing or delayed data, the HICP indicator (more information are available here) for the given field is used to estimate the missing prices applying the HICP coefficient to the latest available price. These national estimated prices are however not published and are only used for the calculation of the aggregates.

20.6. Adjustment

Adjustments are made twice per year for the EU aggregates in order to use updated consumption data for weighting the price data. These adjustments are applied each year on the first Wednesday after the 15th of May (e.g. in May 2011, the consumption data is available for 2009, and the final EU aggregates will be recalculated with the final consumption data for 2009).

Datasets that were collected with the old methodology (pre 2007) are not subject to any corrections anymore.


21. Comment Top

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 onwards)
Exchange rates to convert non-euro prices to euro-prices are taken as the average exchange rate for quarter 1 and 2 (for semester 1 price data) and as the average rate for quarter 3 and 4 (for semester 2 data).

 

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)
Exchange rates to convert non-euro prices to euro-prices are taken as the average exchange rates for January and July.


Related metadata Top


Annexes Top