Energy statistics - supply, transformation and consumption (nrg_10)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Union

Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)

For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT


1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Union

1.2. Contact organisation unit

E5: Energy

1.5. Contact mail address

European Commission - Eurostat

Unit ESTAT.E.5: Energy

L-2920 Luxembourg

2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 04/11/2016
2.2. Metadata last posted 04/11/2016
2.3. Metadata last update 04/11/2016

3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

Annual data on quantities for crude oil, petroleum products, natural gas and manufactures gases, electricity and derived heat, solid fossil fuels, renewables and wastes covering the full spectrum of the energy sector from supply through transformation to final consumption oby sector and fuel type.

Also, annual imports and exports data of various energy carriers by country of origin and destination, as well as infrastructure information.

Annual data collection cover in principle the EU Member States, EFTA, EU candidate countries, and potential candidate countries. Time series starts mostly in year 1990.

All data are presented in the form of energy balance.

3.2. Classification system

Energy statistics is an integral part of the European system of statistics. Therefore, they also rely on classifications and nomenclatures developed in other fields.

Classifications, nomenclatures and correspondence tables are available at Eurostat’s classification server RAMON.

The classification of the economic activities both in carrying out the surveys and in presenting the results is in accordance to NACE Rev.2.

Classification of energy products (commodities/carriers) is in general highly consistent with the UN’s International Recommendations for Energy Statistics (especially its chapter 3: “Standard International Energy Product Classification”).

3.3. Coverage - sector

Energy statistics data covers all major sectors of the economy that are involved in the production, trade, energy transformation and energy consumption (the energy sector, industrial sector, transport, commercial and public services, agricultural/forestry/fishing and residential).

Classifications, nomenclatures and correspondence tables are available at the Eurostat’s classification server RAMON.

For further detail information on divisions, groups or class please consult the reporting instructions.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

For energy statistics, definitions, concepts and methodology are harmonised on international level. The methodology is described in the Energy Statistics Manual. For energy balances, the methodology is not harmonised at international level - international organisations as well as national administrations apply various approaches when constructing energy balance.

Definitions of Annex A and Annex B of Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics applies.

The relationships between products and flows of Eurostat’s energy balances follow standard principles of commodity balance.

Definitions are available at Eurostat’s classification server RAMON.

3.5. Statistical unit

The statistical unit may vary in the annual energy statistics. A statistical unit in energy statistics can be for example: enterprises, local units, establishment or household.

Reporting units in energy statistics might be: producers, importers, exporters of oil and petroleum products, households.  

For detailed information on statistical units, see Council Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 of 15 March 1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community (Official Journal of the European Communities No L 076, 30/03/1993, p. 1), Section III of 15.03.1993 on the statistical units for the observation and analysis of the production system in the Community.

3.6. Statistical population

Not available.

3.7. Reference area

Annual data series cover in principle the 28 Member States of the European Union, EFTA-countries (Iceland and Norway), EU candidate countries (Montenegro, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Serbia and Turkey) and potential candidate countries (Bosnia & Herzegovina and Kosovo (UNSCR 1244/99)). The EU and Eurozone aggregates are also shown. Data for contracting parties of Energy Community are also available (in addition to countries listed before this covers Moldova and Ukraine).

3.8. Coverage - Time

Time series start in 1990 for the vast majority of countries.

3.9. Base period

Not Applicable

4. Unit of measure Top

Basic data on energy quantities are given in fuel specific units e.g. solid and liquid fuels in thousand tonnes, electricity in Gigawatt-hours, heat and gases in terajoules (TJ). The basic energy quantities data are converted to energy units, i.e. in Terajoules and Tonnes of oil equivalent to allow comparision of different fuel types.

Units are defined in Annex B of Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics.

All figures reported are rounded to the nearest whole number.

5. Reference Period Top

Annual energy statistics refer to the calendar year (January - December). 

6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Data are compiled under the standard collection cycles of the "Energy Statistics Unit” according to Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics (and its amendments). This legal text provides the framework for the production, transmission, evaluation and dissemination of annual energy statistics in its Annex B.

Harmonised annual energy questionnaires are used - five annual questionnaires (joint Eurostat – OECD/IEA – UNECE  questionnaires) that contain detailed explanatory notes on the accounting conventions to be used for each fuel type. These conventions are agreed and reviewed regularly by the three organisations using these questionnaires.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not available.

7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recitals 23-27, 31-32 and Articles 20-26) applies. It stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Confidential data are not shown. The most common approach is to present only aggregation of the confidential data point with the non-confidential data that is the nearest suitable data point in the energy balance.

8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

According to Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics, annual energy statistics need to be published by 31 January of the year Y+2 (Y being the reference year of data).

8.2. Release calendar access

Release calendar is available on Eurostat's website in the Energy section.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.

Eurostat grants DG Energy of the European Commission pre-release access to energy data for quality assurance reasons.

Energy data - database:

Energy data - main tables:

Energy data - energy balances in MS Excel format:

Energy flow charts (Sankey diagrams): 

9. Frequency of dissemination Top

Data are disseminated on annual basis.

10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases on-line.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

The Energy balance sheets publication is created from annual energy data by unit ESTAT.E.5.

Some energy data are also reproduced in other publications produced by Eurostat and DG Energy. The list below shows some examples:

  • Energy, transport and environment indicators - Statistical pocketbook - 2014 edition (paper and pdf)
  • EU energy in figures - Statistical pocketbook - 2014 edition (pdf)


10.3. Dissemination format - online database

The annual energy data on quantities is published in Eurobase:

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable.

No micro data are transmitted to Eurostat for data collected under Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Eurostat has developed an interactive tool to visualise energy data by means of energy flow charts (also called Sankey diagrams).

The Energy dedicated section in Eurostat website contains methodological information, publications and also energy balances in MS Excel format.

Several articles in the Energy theme of the Statistics Explained section exist for the energy domain.


10.6. Documentation on methodology

The methodology is described in the Energy Statistics Manual. The Energy dedicated section on Eurostat's website contains additional methodological information. The methodology concept for Eurostat's energy statistics is in general broadly consistent with the UN’s International Recommendations for Energy Statistics.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Please consult the quality documentation on energy statistics website - section "QUALITY REPORTS".

11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

This data is a part of the energy data and are integrated in the Quality Reporting cycle that takes place every five years. Quality reports are available based on Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

Annual energy data are subject to several validation checks, among which the time series checks, the consistency & completeness checks, plausibility checks, energy transformation efficiency checks and other checks corresponding to levels 0-3 of the ESS.VIP on validation. Validation on levels 4-5 is not consistently performed.

If there are any doubts as regards data quality, Eurostat contacts reporting countries to provide necessary justifications or corrections.

12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Annual energy quantities statistics are collected and published by Eurostat in order to:

  • Provide the Commission with harmonised, reliable and relevant statistical information needed to define, implement, monitor and evaluate Commission policies in the energy sector.
  • Provide the EU institutions, national administrations, enterprises, professional associations and EU citizens with high quality statistical services and products in the field of energy.
12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Not available.

12.3. Completeness

Not available.

13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

Data on energy is submitted on the basis of the Joint Annual Energy Questionnaires employing an standardised and internationally agreed methodology (Eurostat - OECD/IEA - UNECE). Eurostat receives disaggregated data which are used to countercheck the results and to ensure consistency with the total amount of energy consumption. The accuracy of the basic data depends on the quality of the national statistical systems and may vary from country to country. In several countries and for most energy commodities data provision by the companies is required by law. However, emerging liberalisation process in some countries may to some extent negatively affect accuracy in some cases. From time to time detailed surveys targeted to single sub- items (e.g. Wood consumption in households) are carried out to improve the methodology.

13.2. Sampling error

Not available.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not available.

14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

Annual energy data are transmitted from countries to Eurostat 11 months after the end of the reference year as stipulated in Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics.

14.2. Punctuality

Not available.

15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Fully comparable data due to the use of the joint questionnaires. Eurostat verifies to the extent possible if the reported data respect the prescribed methodology. The underlying data collection methods are however the responsibility of the reporting countries. The methodology for reporting energy statistics is harmonised for all EU and OECD countries.

15.2. Comparability - over time

Comparability over time is ensured with a solid methodology harmonised on international level that is stable over long periods. Occassional breaks in time series are present due to the developments of statistical systems on national level and the level of detailed information (micro data) available at national level.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Dissemination is maintained on Eurostat's database on an annual basis for the energy quantity statistics. Very detailed analysis of energy balances at national level provides assurance of consistency of many of the quantitative data included in this dissemination.

15.4. Coherence - internal

Data are checked in detail for internal consistency/coherence in full cooperation with the countries concerned. Details checks involve the consistency of time series, detection of outliers, efficiency of energy transformation processes and also checks on utilization factors.

16. Cost and Burden Top

Not available.

17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

The Revision Policy for energy statistics and the revision pre-announcement form are implemented on the basis of a gentlemen's agreement (October 2015). It will be followed by the future amendment of the relevant legislation once the revision policy has been incorporated into national practice.

17.2. Data revision - practice

The annual questionnaires provide data on the last reference year and revisions for the years before (maximum back to 1990). Revisions of entire time series can be made by reporting countries due to their national specific circumstances. These revisions are then reflected in the joint annual energy questionnaires and are also implemented by Eurostat in due time.

Data are updated in case an error would be identified, if a Member State transmits more up-to-date figures or if provisional data are modified into definitive ones.

18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

Data are obtained from the national authorities competent for energy statistics. In Austria, Sweden, Finland, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Malta, Estonia, Slovenia, Poland, Rumania, Bulgaria Turkey and Norway it is the Statistical Office that sends the questionnaires to Eurostat, while for the remaining Member States it is the Ministry responsible for Energy or a National Agency/Authority that is providing the energy data.

Questionnaires in standardized electronic format (MS Excel) are collected from the national authorities via data transmission over the Internet. Data files have to be transmitted by the Member States to Eurostat via the Single Entry Point (SEP) following the implementing procedures of EDAMIS (Electronic Data files Administration and Management Information System).

18.2. Frequency of data collection


18.3. Data collection

Data cycle starts in July/August for the previous year's data by sending pre-filled joint annual energy questionnaires to countries. This sending of emails is usually performed by the International Energy Agency. During period September–January countries provide new data for the latest reference year and possible revisions for historical time periods. Data arrive ussually until April due to ongaing discussions on data validation issues and thus might result in changes in data.

All data transfers to Eurostat has to come via Single Entry Point of data, which is currently implemented by EDAMIS.

18.4. Data validation

Annual energy data are subject to several validation checks, among which the time series checks, the consistency & completeness checks, plausibility checks, energy transformation efficiency checks and others corresponding to levels 0-3 of the ESS.VIP on validation. Validation on levels 4-5 is not consistently performed.

If there are any doubts as regards data quality, Eurostat contacts the Member State to provide necessary justifications or corrections.

18.5. Data compilation

Countries report to Eurostat basic data in the relevant units as defined in Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics. Country aggregations, such as EU-28 are formed by the aggregation of data from individual countries.

Data are converted to common energy units (terajoules) when creating energy balance.

18.6. Adjustment

No adjustments of data are performed in a systematic way.

For the construction of energy balance, missing calorific values are estimated by using the default calorific values.

19. Comment Top

Key principles of constructing the energy balance

The energy balances (also called energy balance sheets) are expressed in thousands of tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe) or terajoules (TJ). The tonne of oil equivalent is a standardized energy unit defined as a net calorific value of 107 kilocalories (41 868 MJ), which is roughly the net energy equivalent of a tonne of crude oil.

The energy balances are compiled according to Eurostat’s methodology, which is based on the physical energy content method. The general principle of this method is that the primary energy form should be the first energy form in the production process for which various energy uses are practiced. For directly combustible energy products (for example coal, crude oil, natural gas, biomass, waste) it is their energy content. For products that are not directly combustible, the application of this principle leads to the choice of heat as the primary energy form for nuclear, geothermal and solar thermal; and to the choice of electricity as the primary energy form for solar photovoltaic, wind, hydro, tide, wave, ocean.

In case the amount of heat produced in the nuclear reactor is not known, the primary energy equivalent is calculated from the electricity generation by assuming an efficiency of 33%. In case of electricity and heat generated with geothermal energy, if the actual amount of geothermal heat is not known, the primary energy equivalent is calculated assuming an efficiency of 10% for electricity production and 50% for derived heat production.

Definitions of key elements in the energy balance

For the definition of a specific element (flow) please refer to Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics and/or the reporting instructions for the annual energy questionnaires.

The additional elements of Eurostat’s energy balances (not defined in the documents specified above) are the following:

Gross inland consumption = Primary production + Primary product receipt + Other sources (recovered products) + Recycled products + Imports + Stock changes – Exports – Bunkers – Direct use

Available for final consumption = Gross inland consumption – Transformation input + Transformation output + Exchanges, transfers and returns – Consumption of the energy branch – Distribution losses

Statistical difference = Available for final consumption – Final non-energy consumption – Final energy consumption

Readers should pay attention when interpreting values for these elements. For some derived products (such as electricity) the value of Gross inland consumption is representing only the amount of net trade. For some other derived products (such as petroleum products) the value of Gross inland consumption is representing the amount of net trade, stock changes and consumption in the international marine bunkers. As evident from the examples above, the value of Gross inland consumption can also be negative.

Negative values for the element Available for final consumption indicate inaccuracies in statistical data collections or reporting.

While the Statistical difference can be a measure of the quality of data – it symbolises the statistical balance between supply and consumption of energies, its zero value might also be a result of a methodological approach that attributes non-surveyed elements of energy into, among others, one of the following categories: not elsewhere specified, stock changes or distribution losses. Consequently, in some cases low values of Statistical difference might indicate data of higher quality than a dataset with a Statistical difference equal to zero.

Interpretations of empty cells and zeros

The statistical data collection system in the joint annual energy questionnaires cannot distinguish between the following cases:

  • Data are not available to the reporting authority
  • Data are confidential and not shown
  • Energy quantity is a real zero (aka no consumption)
  • Consumption is negligible (quantity is less than 0.5 of the respective reporting unit)

All these cases are shown as “zero” in the questionnaire and as ":" or "0" or "0.0" in the data tables.

In the data tables, symbol “0” might also indicate value between 0 and 0.5 and symbol “-0” indicates a value between -0.5 and 0. Values bigger than 0.5 and lower than -0.5 are indicated by the respective value rounded to zero decimal places (with analogic approach when rounded to 1 or 2 decimal places). This however applies only to non-zero data points reported during data collection (see paragraph above).

Related metadata Top

Annexes Top
Joint Annual Energy questionnaires and related methodology (Eurostat)
Dedicated section for Energy on Eurostat's website
Joint Annual Energy questionanires in the International Energy Agency