Student mobility and foreign students in tertiary education (educ_mo)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Dissemination format
11. Accessibility of documentation
12. Quality management
13. Relevance
14. Accuracy
15. Timeliness and punctuality
16. Comparability
17. Coherence
18. Cost and Burden
19. Data revision
20. Statistical processing
21. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. ContactTop
1.1. Contact organisationEurostat, the statistical office of the European Union
1.2. Contact organisation unitUnit F.5: Statistics on Education, Health and Social Protection
1.5. Contact mail address

2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata updateTop
2.1. Metadata last certified07/08/2013
2.2. Metadata last posted07/08/2013
2.3. Metadata last update07/08/2013


3. Statistical presentationTop
3.1. Data description

Statistics on student/graduate mobility and foreigners in tertiary education collected through the UOE data collection on education and training systems.

Data concerning mobility and foreigners are collected as follows:

  • Number of mobile and foreign enrolled students by level of education, programme destination and field of education.
  • Number of mobile and foreign enrolled students by level of education, programme destination, EU/non EU/unknown membership and gender.
  • Number of foreign enrolled students by level of education, programme destination and country of citizenship.
  • Number of mobile enrolled students by level of education, programme destination, and country of origin (usual residence and/or country of prior education).
  • Number of mobile and foreign graduates by level of education, programme destination, cumulative duration and gender.

Data by both country of origin and country of destination of the students are disseminated.

The absolute figures along with indicators are published.

3.2. Classification system

The UOE data collection on education statistics is based on the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED).

The UN standard list of countries is used for collecting data.

The standards on international statistics on education and training systems are set by the three international organisations jointly administering the UOE data collection:

  • the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation Institute for Statistics (UNESCO-UIS),
  • the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and
  • the Statistical Office of the European Union (EUROSTAT).
3.3. Coverage - sector

Education.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

Concepts and definitions of the UOE data collection are reported into the manuals on education systems statistics, please see sections 2.7 and 4.6 (Volume 1) regarding student mobility and foreigners.

The definitions of variables and concepts used are available in the Glossary.

3.5. Statistical unit

Enrolled tertiary level students and graduates.

3.6. Statistical population

The target is the tertiary student and graduate population.

The data collection covers all of a country's domestic educational activity (i.e. within its territory).

3.7. Reference area

The UOE data collection on education statistics covers

  • the 27 EU Member States (Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Hungary, Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovak Republic, Finland, Sweden and United Kingdom),
  • the EFTA/EEA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland),
  • the candidate countries (Montenegro, Croatia, the FYR of Macedonia and Turkey),
  • the OECD Member States outside Europe and other countries as Australia, Canada, Japan, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, United States, Israel, Brazil, Chile, etc.

The dissemination of education statistics by EUROSTAT is generally limited to the 27 EU Member States, the EFTA/EEA countries, the candidate countries, US and Japan. Information on OECD countries and other countries outside Europe are provided by OECD.

The Bologna Process, launched with the Bologna Declaration, of 1999, is one of the main voluntary processes at European level aiming to ensure more comparable, compatible and coherent systems of higher education in Europe. It is implemented in 47 states, which define the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). For the indicators of student mobility by country of origin and by country of destination, this area is used as a special European aggregate for the origin or the destination of the student flow.

3.8. Coverage - Time

Student mobility: depending on variable from academic year 2005/2006 until 2008/2009.

Foreigners: available from academic year 1997/1998.

3.9. Base period

Not applicable.


4. Unit of measureTop

Number of students/graduates.


5. Reference PeriodTop

The reference period is the academic year.

In the disseminated tables 2008 stands for the academic year 2007/2008, 2009 for 2008/2009 and so on. The academic year normally starts in early autumn in the Northern Hemisphere.


6. Institutional MandateTop
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

The joint UIS/OECD/EUROSTAT (UOE) data collection on education and training systems statistics was carried out under a gentleman's agreement.

Commission Regulation 88/2011 entered into force in the beginning of 2011 and is applied from 2012.

Commission Regulation (EU) No 88/2011 of 2 February 2011 implementing Regulation (EC) No 452/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the production and development of statistics on education and lifelong learning, as regards statistics on education and training systems.

Derogations: Commission Decision of 17 December 2010 granting derogations for implementing Regulation (EC) No 452/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the production and development of statistics on education and lifelong learning with regard to Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Finland and the United Kingdom.

The methodological requirements are set up in cooperation with the participating countries, EUROSTAT, OECD and UNESCO. The definitions and methodological requirements are available on the CIRCA site of the UOE project.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

The UOE data collection and processing is done in co-operation with UIS (UNESCO Institute of Statistics) and OECD. When the data processing is over, each institution disseminates indicators and absolute figures independently.


7. ConfidentialityTop
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Not applicable.


8. Release policyTop
8.1. Release calendar

Not available.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not available.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Dissemination format') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of disseminationTop

Annual.


10. Dissemination formatTop
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases on-line.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Other free publications on-line.

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult dissemination tables for free data on-line.

Data access paths:

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Not available.


11. Accessibility of documentationTop
11.1. Documentation on methodology

The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is the basis for international education statistics.

The definitions and methodological requirements for the joint UOE data collection are reported in the Manuals.

11.2. Quality management - documentation

For footnotes, please see the Annex.

Foreign students

Foreign students are defined as non-citizens of the country in which they study. Most countries have data on country of citizenship, which in most cases is a clear and well-defined demographic variable. This information is used to maintain time series on foreign students and measure participation rates of specific immigrant communities within countries.

It should be noted that this concept is inadequate to measure student mobility as it captures immigration flows in general. Not all foreign students have come to their country of study expressly with the intention of studying.

Mobile students

The UOE collection on student mobility data was until recently a pilot collection. Efforts are still underway for further documentation of the quality of the data.

Two kind of mobility can be defined: credit and diploma mobility.

Mobile students (diploma/degree mobility) are defined as foreign students who have crossed a national border and moved to another country with the objective to study. In other words, the student has moved from what we in this context call the country of origin to the reporting country of study (also called country of destination).

The status as a mobile student is dependent on the crossing of a border motivated by education and is not dependent on formal resident status in the reporting country of destination. The status as a mobile student is maintained for as long as continued education at the same level of education lasts. This may involve more consecutive educational programmes with no or only minor gaps between. Diploma/degree mobility is covered in the UOE data collection.

Credit mobility is temporary mobility to another country in the framework of ongoing studies at a "home institution" for the purpose of gaining credit points. After the mobility phase, students return to their "home institution" to complete their studies. Students enrolled in credit mobility programmes are not counted as mobile students in the UOE collection.


12. Quality managementTop
12.1. Quality assurance

Quality reporting framework (see Annex II of Commission Regulation 88/2011).

12.2. Quality management - assessment

Not available.


13. RelevanceTop
13.1. Relevance - User Needs

Not available.

13.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Not available.

13.3. Completeness

The UOE collection consists mainly of country data collected from a number of administrative sources. A pilot collection on student mobility data was introduced in 2005 and lasted until the 2008 collection. The data coverage is not yet complete for all countries.


14. AccuracyTop
14.1. Accuracy - overall

Not applicable.

14.2. Sampling error

Not applicable.

14.3. Non-sampling error

Not applicable.


15. Timeliness and punctualityTop
15.1. Timeliness

2 years after end of the reference period.

15.2. Punctuality

Data are sent by countries to Eurostat by the end of September N+1. Data are published in spring N+2 by Eurostat. (N is the end year of the reference period.)


16. ComparabilityTop
16.1. Comparability - geographical

The education systems differ between countries. The ISCED classification makes it possible to compare educational levels in spite of these differences, but the differences may nevertheless affect certain figures.

The student mobility in tertiary education is measured by using the two following criteria:

  • Foreign students are defined as non-citizens of the country in which they study.

  • Mobile students are defined as foreign students who have crossed a national border and moved to another country with the objective to studying. That is to say, the student has moved from his the country of origin to the country where he is studying (also called country of destination). The status as a mobile student is dependent on the crossing of a border motivated by education.

The UOE collection covers all of a reporting country's domestic educational activity (i.e. within its own territory) regardless of ownership or sponsorship of the institutions concerned and the education delivery mechanism. This has implications for the special cases listed below:

  • Distance learning/e-learning involving two countries: Students from country A who are enrolled with institutions in country B but who remain residing in country A are reported in the statistics of country B and not in the statistics of country A (e.g. as a mobile student, as the student is registered at an education institution in country B).
  • Commuting students: Commuting students are students who cross a national border on a daily basis in order to follow an education in another country. Commuting students who are enrolled with institutions in country B but residing in country A are reported in the statistics of country B (e.g. as a mobile student, as the student is registered at an education institution in country B).
  • Foreign campus: An institution in country A may have a campus or out-post in country B (i.e. a foreign campus). Hence, country B reports the students studying in the foreign campus in the same manner as it reports activities of its domestic educational institutions. A student in such an institution is mobile if he fulfils the criteria for being a mobile student.
  • Exchange programmes: Students in exchange programmes that fulfil part of their studies at an educational institution abroad but are credited at their home institution are reported only in the country of original enrolment and are therefore not considered as mobile students.

Two operational definitions are widely used to identify mobile students and their country of origin:

  • Students who are not usual residents of their country of study, i.e. those who have recently moved to the destination (host) country from somewhere else (e.g. not necessarily their country of permanent residence or country of birth but this would most often be the case).
  • Students who received their prior qualifying education in another country, indicating that they have crossed a border.

The diagram reported below shows the relationship between the criteria.

                   Mobile students 
       Foreign students     
           
 Students population           Resident foreign students 
         
           
           Resident national students 
     National students     
           
           Homecoming national students 
           
 

The student population can be split into two sub-populations according to their citizenship (foreign and national). Based on their usual residence the students can be further classified as "mobile", "resident foreign", "resident national" and "homecoming national".

16.2. Comparability - over time

Not applicable.


17. CoherenceTop
17.1. Coherence - cross domain

Data and indicators on student mobility, where the data source is the joint UOE data collection, are also published by OECD and UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS).

Education at a glance is one of the main OECD publications on education.

The UIS Data Base covers more than 200 countries.

17.2. Coherence - internal

Not available.


18. Cost and BurdenTop

Not available.


19. Data revisionTop
19.1. Data revision - policy

A revision is defined as the ex-post change in the UOE data where the data have previously been made publicly available or that the underlying data for the publicly available indicators have changed.

A revision is necessary when:

  • new or up-dated data or information become available;
  • mistakes are discovered which have to be corrected. In principle, any mistake due to whatever reason should be corrected without delay;
  • changes in the coverage of the data collection occur;
  • changes in national or international methodology occur: this refers to significant changes in the data due to new/modified methodologies in the data collection or estimation.

No revisions are necessary when changes in the education system occur.

19.2. Data revision - practice

Data are considered of sufficient quality and as final when they are released in EUROSTAT Reference Database. They may however still be subject to revisions.

If substantial changes in methodology will occur, these changes will be explained with the first release of data affected by such changes.


20. Statistical processingTop
20.1. Source data

The main source of data is the joint UIS (UNESCO Institute of Statistics)/OECD/EUROSTAT (UOE) questionnaires on education statistics, which constitute the core database on education.  The UOE data collection is an administrative data collection that is administered jointly by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation - Institute for Statistics (UNESCO-UIS), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Statistical Office of the European Union (EUROSTAT).

The results of the UOE data collection on education statistics are compiled on the basis of national administrative sources, reported by Ministries of Education or National Statistical Offices.

The national data collections on enrolments, entrants, graduates and personnel are in most countries census or in some cases extractions from administrative registers.

20.2. Frequency of data collection

Annual.

20.3. Data collection

Data are collected through data collection tables and electronic questionnaires that are returned by countries to a unique e-mail address. The international organisations process and verify the data after their reception.

20.4. Data validation

The validation of statistical data is shared between EUROSTAT and the other stakeholders. The initial verification is based on common agreed checking rules and is undertaken by these international organisations.

20.5. Data compilation

European aggregates in absolute figures are in most cases disseminated only if data are available for all countries. In some cases, the aggregates are estimated for example by imputing data for previous years.

European averages are weighted and therefore take into account the relative proportion of the student population of the considered countries.

20.6. Adjustment

Not applicable.


21. CommentTop

For footnotes, please see the Annex (below in the section 21.3).


Related metadataTop
educ_esms - Education


AnnexesTop