Gender pay gap in unadjusted form by NACE Rev. 1.1 activity - structure of earnings survey methodology (earn_gr_gpg)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union
1.2. Contact organisation unit Unit F2: Labour market
1.5. Contact mail address 2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 04/01/2010
2.2. Metadata last posted 04/01/2010
2.3. Metadata last update 13/03/2014


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

The unadjusted Gender Pay Gap (GPG) represents the difference between average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees and of female paid employees as a percentage of average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees. From reference year 2006 onwards, the new GPG data is based on the methodology of the Structure of Earnings Survey (Reg.: 530/1999) carried out with a four-yearly periodicity. The most recent available reference years are 2002 and 2006 and Eurostat computed the GPG for these years on this basis. For the intermediate years (2007 onwards) countries provide to Eurostat estimates benchmarked on the SES results. 

Data are broken down by NACE (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community).

3.2. Classification system

The data disseminated in this table have been compiled using the economic activity classification NACE Rev. 1.1. The time series cover reference years 2002, 2006 and 2007. For more information on NACE:

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/nace_rev2/introduction

3.3. Coverage - sector

According to the new methodology the coverage is defined as follows:

- target population: all employees, there are no restrictions for age and hours worked.

- economic activity according to NACE Rev. 1.1. Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community: only for the aggregate sections C_O (excluding L); and if available, also for sections C to O and aggregate C to K and C to O.

- size of enterprises: 10 employees or more.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

From reference year 2006 onwards, the new GPG (Gender Pay Gap in unadjusted form) is based on the methodology of the SES (Structure of Earnings Survey according to Regulation (CE) 530/1999). The SES is carried out with a four-yearly periodicity. The most recent available reference years for the SES are 2002 and 2006 and Eurostat computed the GPG for these years on this basis. For the intermediate years (2007 onwards) countries provide to Eurostat GPG estimates benchmarked on the SES results.

The GPG in unadjusted form represents the difference between average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees and of female paid employees as a percentage of average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees.

The GPG is calculated at Member States and EU-aggregates total level using the arithmetic mean for the NACE Rev. 1.1 aggregate (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community) aggregate C to O (excluding L) and, if available, also for sections C to O and aggregate C to K and C to O.

The national and EU-aggregated GPG values, either in total or breakdowns according to the various variables below, are calculated using as weights the grossing up factors for the employees (variable 4.2 for SES2002 (Reg. 1916/2000); variable 5.2 for SES2006 (Reg. 1738/2005)). EU-27 and other EU-aggregate estimates are employee-weighted averages of corresponding SES-results and SES comparable national data for the year between two structure of earnings surveys.

For each country, the GPG is calculated for each gender, aggregate and breakdown as follows:

 Gross hourly earnings of (gender) paid employees = ∑ (variable 4.3. x variable 5.2) / ∑variable 5.2

added over the MS or EU total or breakdown considered.

Where variable 4.3 = average gross hourly earnings in the reference month (Reg. (CE) 1738/2005).

3.5. Statistical unit

The statistical unit is the employee.

3.6. Statistical population

According to the new methodology the coverage is defined as follows:

  • target population: all employees, there are no restrictions for age and hours worked;
  • economic activity according to NACE Rev. 1.1. (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community): only for the aggregate sections C_O (excluding L); sections C to O and aggregate C to O are optional;
  • size of enterprises: 10 employees or more.

Gross hourly earnings shall include paid overtime and exclude non-regular payments. Also, part-time employees shall be included.

3.7. Reference area

European Union, Euro area and Norway

The data cover EU-Member States, EU-aggregates and Norway. 

European Union, Euro area and Norway

3.8. Coverage - Time

The available reference years are 2002, 2006 and 2007 for most countries.

3.9. Base period

Not applicable.


4. Unit of measure Top

Percentages.


5. Reference Period Top

The available reference years are 2002, 2006 and 2007 for most countries.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

EU-Member States and (if available and comparable) other European countries participating in the four-yearly Structure of Earnings Survey  (Reg. (CE) 530/1999) on a gentlemen's agreement basis.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Not applicable.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

Not applicable.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Dissemination format') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top
Annual.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases on-line.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Not applicable.

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line or refer to contact details.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

See: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat

10.6. Documentation on methodology

See concept 3.4 above.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Not available.


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

Not applicable.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

Not applicable.


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Not applicable.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

Not applicable.

12.3. Completeness

Not applicable.


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

Not applicable.

13.2. Sampling error

Not applicable.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not applicable.


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

11 months after the reference year.

14.2. Punctuality

Not applicable.


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

As based on a common definition (SES based methodology) the output is harmonized.

15.2. Comparability - over time

Comparability over time improved substantially since the application of the new methodology (see: item 3.1).

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Not applicable.

15.4. Coherence - internal

Not applicable.


16. Cost and Burden Top

No information available.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

Not applicable.

17.2. Data revision - practice
None.


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

The results of the four-yearly Structure of Earnings Survey (SES) are used for the calculation of the (unadjusted) Gender Pay Gap figures. This survey is carried out according to the stipulations laid down in the Regulations (CE) 530/1999 and 1738/2005. The GPG figures for the years between the SES benchmark years are based on national comparable estimates.

The Structure of Earnings Survey is a sample survey.

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Not applicable.

18.3. Data collection

Not applicable.

18.4. Data validation

Not applicable.

18.5. Data compilation

EU-27 and other EU-aggregate estimates are number of employees-weighted averages corresponding to the GPG covered population.

18.6. Adjustment

Not applicable.


19. Comment Top

a) The "old" GPG - Gender Pay gap in unadjusted form in % (national sources: 1994-2006):


As regards the "old" GPG figures previously published by  Eurostat, countries calculated results using different data sources (administrative file, Labour Force Survey, EU-SILC - European survey about income and living conditions - or specific national surveys) involving distinct definitions, different coverage, sample size problems, etc.. All these elements hampered the GPG indicator's data quality and its comparability between Member States (this is why it was agreed on switching to an EU-level comparable common data source: the SES).

GPG estimates of the past (old methodology) are frozen, but not deleted from Eurostat's online database in order to keep historical series (1994-2006).

b) The Gender pay gap in unadjusted form in % - NACE Rev. 2 (Structure of Earnings Survey: 2002 and 2006 onwards):

From reference year 2008 onwards, GPG data are classified according to the NACE Rev. 2 classification and are broken down by economic activity (NACE section), form of economic and financial control (public/private) of the enterprise and age classes of employees.


Related metadata Top
earn_grgpg2_esms - Gender pay gap in unadjusted form - NACE Rev. 2 activity
earn_ses06_esms - Structure of earnings survey 2006


Annexes Top