Resource productivity (tsdpc100)

Indicator Profile (ESMS)

Data tables: tsdpc100

Compiling agency: Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat)


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)
Eurostat Quality Profile
13.1. Accuracy - overall High
15.1. Comparability - geographical High
15.2. Comparability - over time High
18.1. Source data ESS

Description of Eurostat quality grading system under the following link.



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat)

1.2. Contact organisation unit

E2: Environmental statistics and accounts; sustainable development

1.5. Contact mail address

2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 07/04/2016
2.2. Metadata last posted 07/04/2016
2.3. Metadata last update 07/04/2016


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

Resource productivity is defined as the ratio between gross domestic product (GDP) and domestic material consumption (DMC). The indicator Domestic Material Consumption (DMC) is based on the Economy-wide Material Flow Accounts (EW-MFA). The theory of Economy-wide material flow accounts (EW-MFA) includes compilations of the overall material inputs into national economy, the changes of material stock within the economy and the material outputs to other economies or to the environment. EW-MFA covers all solid, gaseous, and liquid materials, except water and air. Water included in products is included.
Domestic material consumption (DMC) measures the total amount of materials directly used by an economy and is defined as the annual quantity of raw materials extracted from the domestic territory of the focal economy, plus all physical imports minus all physical exports. It is important to note that the term "consumption" as used in DMC denotes apparent consumption and not final consumption. DMC does not include upstream hidden flows (materials that are extracted or moved, but do not enter the economy) related to imports and exports of raw materials and products originating outside of the focal economy.
When examining resource productivity trends over time in a single geographic area, the GDP that should be used is in units of Euros in chain-linked volumes to the reference year 2010.
If comparisons of resource productivity between countries during one time period are made then the GDP in purchasing power standards should be used and not the chain-linked volume GDP figures. The source data can be found in the Eurostat dissemination database ´Eurobase´.
Resource productivity provides some insights into the Sustainable Development Strategy objective to decouple economic growth from natural resource use.

The indicator (tsdpc100) belongs to two different sets: the Sustainable Development Indicators (SDI), as it has been chosen for the assessment of the progress towards the objectives and targets of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy, and the Resource Efficiency Indicators set, since it has been chosen as the lead indicator in the Resource Efficiency Scoreboard for the assessment of progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 flagship initiative on resource efficiency.

 

tsdpc100´s table: Eurobase > Tables by themes > Environment and energy > Environment > Resource productivity (tsdpc100)

tsdpc100´s table within the SDI set: Eurobase > Tables on EU policy > Sustainable Development Indicators > Sustainable consumption and production > Resource productivity (tsdpc100)

tsdpc100´s table within the Europe 2020 set: Eurobase > Tables on EU policy> Europe 2020 Indicators > Resource efficiency > Lead indicator > Resources > Resource productivity (tsdpc100)

3.2. Classification system

Classification in DPSIR (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impact, Responses): Productivity statistics generally take the form of a driver type indicator divided by a pressure type indicator. Here, the numerator (GDP) is classified as a driver, as it represents the size of the economy. The denominator (domestic material consumption) is classified as pressure indicator because the consumption of materials implies a pressure on the state of existing raw material reserves. No single DPSIR classification can be assigned to this indicator.  It can rather be classified as a combination of a driver and a pressure indicator (Driver/Pressure).

3.3. Coverage - sector

Not available

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

Not available

3.5. Statistical unit

The national economy is the main statistical unit and for this geographical area the totals for domestic extraction, total imports and total exports are developed. For EU-members, the extra EU-trade is also requested.

3.6. Statistical population

EW-MFA includes the material categories
  1. Biomass and biomass products
  2. Metal ores and concentrates, raw and processed
  3. Non-metallic minerals, raw and processed
  4. Petroleum resources, raw and processed
  5. Other products
  6. Waste imported for final treatment and disposal.

3.7. Reference area

EU-28, EFTA (Norway and Switzerland), EU candidate and potential candidate countries.

3.8. Coverage - Time

Since 2000 onwards.

3.9. Base period

Base period year 2000 = 100.


4. Unit of measure Top

- Euro per kilogram (Euro in chain-linked volumes, reference year 2010. This unit allows the comparison of one geographic area or EU-aggregate over two or more time periods)

- Purchasing Power Standard per kilogram (This unit allows the comparison of countries for the same year)

- Index (2000 = 100)


5. Reference Period Top

Calendar year.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Data collection for Economy-wide Material Flow Accounts is based on so-called gentleman´s agreement.
In 2011 Regulation 691/2011 on European environmental economic accounts was adopted. It provides a framework for the development of various types of environmental accounts. Economy-wide Material Flow Accounts are one of the first three modules, included in the annexes to the adopted Regulation. Data collection under the Regulation will start in 2013.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

There is no data sharing with other international organisations although some gap-filling procedures at Eurostat use publicly available data when needed; international organisations can use the data as published in the Eurostat dissemination database. The European Environmental Agency (EEA) uses these data for a variety of monitoring and analyses.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Confidential data is not treated. If any confidential data are reported the cells appear as missing and shown with a confidentiality flag.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

Not applicable.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat´s website (see item 10 - ´Dissemination format´) respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

All non-confidential data collected are published at the most detailed levels in the year following the launching of the data collection. Since 2013, the data has been collected on the basis of Regulation 691/2011. Regulation 691/2011 requires the data to be compiled and transmitted on a yearly basis and transmitted within 24 months after the end of the reference year.

Data collections are disseminated every year, at the end of March. In addition, Eurostat provides two early estimates, in June and September every year. The June estimate provides data for the year following the mandatory reference year. One adiitional year (the second following the mandatory reference year) is  provided in the September estimate.


10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

Not available

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Statistics in Focus - EU´s Resource Productivity on the increase (SiF 22/2012)
Eurostat Yearbook: Europe in figures
Eurostat publications on Sustainable Development Indicators
Eurostat Pocketbooks: Key figures on Europe 2014 edition
Environmental statistics and accounts in Europe. Chapter ´Economy-wide material flows´.

Eurostat compact guides: Environmental statistics and accounts (2014).

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Eurobase data table

Eurobase graph

Eurobase map

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not available

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Environmental accounts dedicated section

Statistics explained: Resource productivity statistics

Statistics explained: Material flow accounts and resource productivity

10.6. Documentation on methodology

There is a series of draft compilation guides that have supported data collection exercises. All documents have been produced only in draft form since the methodology has continued to develop during the past decade. The most current version that was used in the 2015 data collection exercise is: Eurostat EW-MFA compilation Guide for 2013 reporting.

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Not available


11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

The quality assurance and documentation of the quality is a joint responsibility of Eurostat and the Member States depending on the producer of the underlying data source. The quality of the accounts is only as good as the quality of the underlying basic statistics.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

The quality of data for resource productivity has been improved in the last years and comparable time series are now available for all Member States, EU candidate countries, Norway and Switzerland.

(See the description of Eurostat quality grades)


12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Key policy question:
Are we achieving a decoupling of resource use from economic growth?

 

Key message:
For an assessment of the progress that has been achieved towards the related key policy question see:
Eurostat publications on Sustainable Development Indicators

 

Rationale:
The renewed sustainable development strategy encourages the sustainable use of resources and strengthens the synergies between environmental protection and growth. Under the key ´challenge sustainable consumption and production´ it is the objective to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation. Under the key challenge ´conservation and management of natural resources´, another objective is ´improving resource efficiency, to reduce the overall use of non-renewable natural resources and the related environmental impacts of raw materials use, thereby using renewable resources at a rate that does not exceed their regeneration capacity´. As DMC measures the annual amount of raw materials extracted from the domestic territory of the focal economic area, plus all physical imports minus all physical exports, resource productivity provides insights into whether decoupling between the use of natural resource and economic growth is taking place. Taken on its own, DMC also provides an assessment of the absolute level of use of extracted and imported resoures. Interpretation of this indicator has to take into account that resource use outside the European Union is only partly included and that this is a highly aggregated indicator which might hide some critical trends with respect to certain resources.
Indicator restrictions:
Aggregate Economy-wide Material Flow Accounts (EW-MFA) indicators are Direct Material Input (DMI) and Domestic Material Consumption (DMC) that change very little over time. This is partly due to the high level of aggregation but also due to the types of materials that are being tracked in these statistics. Furthermore the aggregate EW-MFA indicators are closely linked to economic events (and especially large construction projects or changes in mining activity), rather than policies. These two points restrict their value as policy indicators (monitoring the effect of policy measures). The improvements in the data collected from countries now provide a much greater level of detail than previously (12 types of materials). Having greater detail in the data can provide more information about the types of materials that are increasing or decreasing in the economy.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

No systematic user satisfaction survey has been conducted.

12.3. Completeness

See data availability for table(s) tsdpc100


13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

High

The quality assurance and documentation of the quality is a joint responsibility of Eurostat and the Member States depending on the producer of the underlying data source. The quality of the accounts is as good as the quality of the underlying basic statistics. Improvements can still be obtainded in some items of the EW-MFA classification that need to be currently estimated (e.g. grazed biomass and sand and gravel)
(See the description of Eurostat quality grades)

13.2. Sampling error

Data on EW-MFA constitutes secondary statistics. The underlying statistical sources utilised by the Member States may have errors, but this is managed by the Member States respectively.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not available


14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

The EW-MFA data compiled by the Member States are dependent on the release of national data for Import, Export, Agriculture, Extraction of Minerals and Fossil Fuels, trade statistics, etc., and are therefore subject to their revisions and timelines.

14.2. Punctuality

All countries submit complete datasets on time to Eurostat.


15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

High

Countries use the same methodology as this is provided by the compilation guide. That ensures that data comparability between countries is of high level.

See also 14.1. Overall accuracy.
(See the description of Eurostat quality grades)

15.2. Comparability - over time

High

Countries use the same methodology as this is provided by the compilation guide. There are no significant breaks in time series. That ensures that data comparability over time is of high level.

See also 14.1. Overall accuracy.
(See the description of Eurostat quality grades)

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Not available

15.4. Coherence - internal

Components of domestic material consumption (tsdpc220)

Domestic material consumption by material (tsdpc230)

Domestic material consumption - tonnes per capita (t2020_rl110)


16. Cost and Burden Top

The overall cost and burden is difficult to assess due to the different data collection methods applied by the Member States. Typically all data are from already published sources.


17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

Data reported for the period that is mandatory under the regulation are final. Corrections of errors are possible. The early estimates provided by Eurostat include provisional data.

17.2. Data revision - practice

The published data are final, unless otherwise stated. Corrections and revisions might occur.


18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

ESS

Data set 1: Domestic Material Consumption (DMC)
Data set provider: Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat) with data from the covered countries
Link to the data source: Material Flow Accounts [env_ac_mfa]

 

Data set 2: GDP
Data set provider: Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat) with data from the covered countries
Link to the data source: GDP and main components [nama_10_gdp]

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Every year (from 2013).

18.3. Data collection

The original data collection is made by the Member States, while Eurostat only collects and validates the data indirectly through standard tables sent out to the Member States.

The Member States are free to decide on the data collection methods for the data compiled in the EW-MFA. In general, countries follow the compilation guides. The options are: use of already existing sources, statistical estimations, surveys and administrative sources.

18.4. Data validation

Data sent in by the Member States in the EW-MFA Questionnaires is checked using an Excel-based editing tool with embedded macros that check the data for empty cells, illegal symbols, consistency (totals and sub-totals calculated correctly compared to the figures reported in the privious data collection) and plausibility. The plausibility checks also investigate the development of the time series for each reported material.
The validation of the national data is done in cooperation with the Member States. All data revisions are approved by the Member States or are flagged as estimates.

18.5. Data compilation

The indicator Resource productivity is based on the Economy-wide Material Flow Accounts (EW-MFA). 
The theory of EW-MFA includes compilations of the overall material inputs into national economies, the changes of material stock within the economic system and the material outputs to other economies or to the environment. EW-MFA covers all solid, gaseous, and liquid materials, except for water and air. Water included in products is included.
In EW-MFA two types of material flows across system boundaries are relevant:
- Material flows between the national economy and the natural environment: this consists of the extraction of primary (i.e., raw, crude or virgin) materials from and the discharge of materials to the natural environment;
- Material flows between the national economy and other national economies. This encompasses imports and exports.

Only flows that cross the system boundary on the input-side or on the output-side are counted. Material flows within the economy are not represented in EW-MFA.
EW-MFA are meta-compilations of data from various official statistics, most of which are regularly provided and updated by national statistical offices. It is mainly based on data from agricultural, forestry, fishery production, mining, and energy statistics. Import and export data are typically taken from foreign trade statistics although some countries use national accounts as the primary data source for the trade data. 


Classification system
The classification of materials used in EW-MFA is a Eurostat based system. Domestically extracted materials are grouped into 4 main categories: Biomass, Metal ores, Non-metallic minerals and Fossil energy materials/carriers. For imports and exports the products are grouped into 6 main categories: biomass and biomass products, metal ores and concentrates, raw and processed, non-metallic minerals, raw and processed, fossil energy materials/carriers, raw and processed, other products and waste imported for final treatment and disposal.

 

The validation of the national data is done in cooperation with the Member States. All data revisions are approved by the Member States and are flagged as estimates. Confidential data are not treated. If any confidential data are reported the cells appear as missing and shown with a confidentiality flag.

18.6. Adjustment

Not available


19. Comment Top

Copyrights:
Eurostat Copyright/License Policy is applicable.


Related metadata Top
env_ac_mfa_esms - Material flow accounts


Annexes Top