Regional economic accounts - ESA 2010 (reg_eco10)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat)

Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)

For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT


1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation

Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat)

1.2. Contact organisation unit

C2: National and regional accounts production

1.5. Contact mail address

2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG

2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 11/10/2016
2.2. Metadata last posted 11/10/2016
2.3. Metadata last update 07/10/2016

3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

Regional accounts are a regional specification of the national accounts and therefore based on the same concepts and definitions as national accounts (see domain nama10). The main specific regional issues are addressed in chapter 13 of ESA2010, but not practically specified. For practical rules and recommendations on sources and methods see the publication "Manual on regional accounts methods": .

Gross domestic product (GDP) at market prices is the final result of the production activity of resident producer units. It can be defined in three ways:

1. Output approach

GDP is the sum of gross value added of the various institutional sectors or the various industries plus taxes and less subsidies on products (which are not allocated to sectors and industries). It is also the balancing item in the total economy production account.

2. Expenditure approach

GDP is the sum of final uses of goods and services by resident institutional units (final consumption expenditure and gross capital formation), plus exports and minus imports of goods and services. At regional level the expenditure approach cannot be used in the EU, because there is no data on regional exports and imports. 

3. Income approach

GDP is the sum of uses in the total economy generation of income account: compensation of employees plus gross operating surplus and mixed income plus taxes on products less subsidies plus consumption of fixed capital.

The different measures for the regional GDP are absolute figures in € and Purchasing Power Standards (PPS), figures per inhabitant and relative data compared to the EU28 average.

3.2. Classification system

NUTS Level 2 and Level 3:

3.3. Coverage - sector

Regional Accounts are not available for all institutional sectors. There are only regional accounts for households, and these are limited to income distribution and redistribution.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

The regional gross domestic product (GDP) is used in order to measure and compare the economic activity of regions. It is the most important indicator for the selection of regions eligible for support under the investment for growth and jobs goal of the EU's regional policy.

Regional gross domestic product data are Eurostat estimates based on a harmonized methodology. Figures for gross value added at basic prices are used as the basic variable for the estimates. Extra-regio data (i.e. value added created in national regions than on national territory, e.g. in embassies, foreign army bases, offshore energy production, etc.) is treated like any other region; however as there is no population in the extra-regio there is no GDP per capita for the extra-regio.

The conversion to purchasing power standards (PPS) is based on national purchasing power parities (PPP) which are also regularly calculated and released by Eurostat. Regional PPP are not available. All regional accounts data published by Eurostat are based on PPP for the EU28.

For the methods of data compilation and collection see the publication "Manual on regional accounts methods":

3.5. Statistical unit

National accounts deal with the economy (or large sub-sectors) as a whole. They combine data from a host of base statistics, and thus have no common sampling reference frame. The elementary building block of ESA2010 statistics is the institutional unit, which is defined as an elementary economic decision-making centre characterised by uniformity of behaviour and decision-making autonomy in the exercise of its principal function. This can be, inter alia, a household, a corporation or a government agency. Institutional units producing goods and services are often engaged in a combination of activities at the same time. As regards the regional GDP, the economy is considered as a whole but the regional level is calculated according to the regional breakdown, called NUTS 1, 2 and 3 (see this website:

3.6. Statistical population

Regional Accounts combine data from many source statistics. Per inhabitant figures are obtained by dividing absolute figures by the total population (average annual data for the total of the male and female population). With the implementation of ESA2010, i.e. since the end of 2014, NSIs have to transmit this data as part of the mandatory ESA2010 data transmission programme.

When the annual regional GDP release is prepared, the regional population data is grossed up to the corresponding national population data which NSIs transmitted as part of the ESA2010 data transmission programme for national data. This grossing up ensures coherence between regional and national population data at the time of the regional GDP release. Due to this grossing up the regional population data (Table nama_10r_3popgdp) disseminated under the heading Regional economic accounts (nama_10r) is not identical with the regional population data available under the regional demographic statistics (reg_dem).

3.7. Reference area

European Union Member States, Candidate and potential Candidate Countries, EFTA countries.

3.8. Coverage - Time

GDP data according to ESA2010 is available as from the reference year 2000.

3.9. Base period

not applicable.

4. Unit of measure Top

Values in Mio_EUR.

5. Reference Period Top

The periods referred to are calendar years. Data cover the reference period from 2000 to the actual calendar year minus 2 because NSIs have 12 months after the end of the reference year for the transmission of basic data to Eurostat. Thus regional GDP data for the reference year 2015 will be calculated at the beginning of 2017, and for 2016 at the beginning of 2018.

6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

The Council Regulation (EC) No 549/2013 of 21 May 2013 on the European System of National and Regional Accounts - OJ L 174 of 26.6.2013, is the legal base for the calculation of the regional Gross Domestic Product:

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Regional GDP data released by Eurostat are public.

7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

If Member States transmit data with a confidentiality flag or an embargo date, these data are not disseminated until the confidentiality flag is removed or the embargo has expired.

Due to its high degree of aggregation Regional accounts data is very rarely confidential. In practice regional accounts data is only flagged occasionally as confidential by NSIs, e.g. GVA by industry for small Member States.

8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

The annual Regional GDP dataset is released between 15 of February and 31 of March of each year.

8.2. Release calendar access

Link to website:

As the precise date of release of the regional GDP dataset depends on the data availability the regional GDP dataset is treated as a so-called ad-hoc release and is not listed in the release calendar.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Accessibility and clarity') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.

9. Frequency of dissemination Top


Regional GDP is released based on data transmissions by Member States at T + 12 months and by NUTS level 2 breakdown.

10. Accessibility and clarity Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases online.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Free publication online (Regional Yearbook).

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult the respective section of Eurostat’s public database.

Please consult NSI's websites to obtain national dissemination calendars. Releases of regional accounts data at Member State level are not synchronised, but in general Member States always release before Eurostat.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable, as regional accounts only consist of aggregated data.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Statistics explained online.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

European legislation and guidelines are explained in ESA2010:

Specific guidelines for regional accounts are available from the Manual on regional accounts methods:

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Regional accounts are subject to Eurostat’s process quality management.

11. Quality management Top
11.1. Quality assurance

Eurostat operates a quality assurance programme via inventories on sources and methods which are updated when a new ESA or major revisions are implemented. In addition quality is ensured by validation of the data transmitted by countries.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

Eurostat conducts an annual compliance monitoring for all Member States. The findings are published on CIRCABC.

12. Relevance Top
12.1. Relevance - User Needs

Users of regional accounts data are typically interested in cross-region and cross-country comparisons and in analysing structural changes in the economy from a medium-term perspective.

User needs are however not yet met as regards volume data. There is one volume indicator in the ESA2010 data transmission programme (volume growth of gross value added based on previous year’s prices), which will become mandatory at the end of 2017.

12.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

User Satisfaction is monitored regularly in the context of Eurostat’s user satisfaction surveys. For regional accounts it is generally high and increased recently, most probably because the delay of the regional GDP release was shortened by 12 months.

12.3. Completeness

Regional GDP data are complete as from reference year 2000 with the exception of some historical data and some data on Candidate Countries. In addition data is available for Norway as from reference year 2011. For Switzerland and Turkey ESA2010 regional accounts data is not yet available.

13. Accuracy Top
13.1. Accuracy - overall

Overall accuracy increases with the size of the region concerned, e.g. NUTS2 data is more accurate than NUTS3 data.

13.2. Sampling error

Not applicable as regional accounts consist of aggregated data only.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not applicable as regional accounts consist of aggregated data only.

14. Timeliness and punctuality Top
14.1. Timeliness

The deadline for the transmission of basic data from NSIs to Eurostat is at the moment T + 12 or T + 24 months, depending on the variable.

14.2. Punctuality

Punctuality improved in recent years. Nearly all Member States meet the deadlines; late arrivals of the most important indicators are a matter of days rather than weeks.

15. Coherence and comparability Top
15.1. Comparability - geographical

The comparability is ensures by the application of common concepts and definitions (European System of Accounts ESA2010). Between regions comparability is ensured by the NUTS classification.

15.2. Comparability - over time

In case of revisions, NSIs usually revise the entire time series. If this is not feasible immediately the break in the time series is shown by the flag “b”. It is important to note that GDP data revisions at national level, which are published in domain nama10, also lead to revisions of regional GDP data at the next release, even if the regional source data may not have been revised.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Regional GDP data are coherent with national GDP when regional GDP is released. However national GDP data is revised continuously, whereas Regional GDP is revised only once per year. As a result the revisions of national GDP data that occur after the regional GDP release lead to differences between the GDP data in domain nama10_reg and nama_10.

15.4. Coherence - internal

Regional GDP data are coherent between NUTS0, NUTS1, NUTS2 and NUTS3 levels.

16. Cost and Burden Top

Regional GDP data are based on other statistics, in particular national accounts and business statistics data, i.e. there is no additional burden on respondents. Production costs for NSIs depend on the number of regions and the data sources. For EU Member States human resources requirements for all regional accounts data (i.e. regional GDP, regional branch data and regional household accounts) are between 1 and about 20 full time equivalents per Member State.

17. Data revision Top
17.1. Data revision - policy

Basic data are revised according to national schedules, i.e. when Member States transmit revised data. Revisions are also published when changes of the NUTS classification are implemented. When a new NUTS classification is implemented, those Member States for which the regional breakdown has changed have two years to transmit back data.

In order to keep GVA and GDP data consistent, Eurostat does not publish updates of GVA data that are transmitted after the deadline for the annual news release before the 1st September of the corresponding year.

Revisions of regional GDP and regional population data are applied to Eurostat's reference database when a new set of regional GDP data is released, i.e. only once per year.

17.2. Data revision - practice

Revisions of data other than regional GVA, GDP and population are published when Member States transmit the revised data.

In order to keep GVA and GDP data consistent, Eurostat does not publish updates of GVA data that are transmitted after the deadline for the annual news release before the 1st September of the corresponding year.

Revisions of regional GDP and regional population data are applied to Eurostat's reference database when a new set of regional GDP data is released, i.e. only once per year.

Changes in methodology may also occur as a result of implementing new EU Regulations. Any such change will be commented at the time of the first data release after the changes.

18. Statistical processing Top
18.1. Source data

Basic data (i.e. gross value added, population data and the national GDP) used for the calculation of the regional gross domestic product are provided by the National Statistical Institutes' Accounts Departments. The basic statistics come from many sources, including administrative data from government, censuses, and surveys of businesses and households. Sources vary from country to country and may cover a large set of economic, social, financial and environmental items, which need not always be strictly related to National Accounts. In any case, there is no one single survey source for National Accounts.

For further information about sources and collection methods in National Statistical Institutes (NSIs), please refer to National Statistical Institutes and National Central Banks.

18.2. Frequency of data collection


18.3. Data collection

Continuous. The legal base for the collection of regional GDP is the European System of Accounts ESA2010: The ESA2010 indicators are sent to Eurostat by the National Statistical Institutes (NSIs).

18.4. Data validation

Source data undergo a sequence of checks within NSIs. The Regional Accounts team checks the data transmitted by NSIs mainly for completeness (coverage of reference periods and variables) and consistency (accounting consistency and consistency over time and/or branches) and follows up with NSIs on any lack of quality in this respect.

18.5. Data compilation

Country aggregates are calculated for EU28. Within each country, NUTS1, NUTS2 and NUTS3 level data are aggregated.

18.6. Adjustment

Before every release regional GDP data are adjusted to the national GDP values. This adjustment only takes place once per year with the regional GDP release.

19. Comment Top

Geographical consistency:  The sums of regional GDP data usually coincide with the national data published in national accounts at the time of the regional GDP release.

However, national GDP data are more frequently updated than regional GDP. This means that there may be a difference between the national and/or European aggregates and the corresponding sums of the regions.

National currency: Eurostat produces branch accounts data series expressed in Euro and in national currencies. For national currency data of Euro-area Member States, Eurostat's databases have been converted from "old" to "new" (i.e. the Euro) national currency. These data in "new" national currency have been converted from the former national currency series by applying the irrevocably fixed Euro conversion rate to all years. This procedure ensures that national time series preserve their growth rates without exhibiting a break for the change of currency unit. It should be noted, though, that even if these figures in national currency are all expressed in ("fixed") Euro, they must not be used for international comparisons. Only the Euro series (which do not use the fixed conversion rate for all years) can be used for that purpose.

Data for Member States outside the Euro-area are expressed in national currency and in Euro as well. For those countries, the national currency series are expressed in their respective national currency as before.

Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) are a fictive currency unit that eliminates differences in purchasing power, i.e. different price levels, between countries. Thus, the same nominal aggregate in two countries with different price levels may result in different amounts of purchasing power. Figures expressed in Purchasing Power Standards are derived from figures expressed in national currency by using Purchasing Power Parities (PPP) as conversion factors. These parities are obtained as a weighted average of relative price ratios in respect to a homogeneous basket of goods and services, both comparable and representative for each country. They are fixed in a way that makes the average purchasing power of one Euro in the European Union equal to one PPS. The calculation of GDP in PPS is intended to allow the comparison of levels of economic activity of different sized economies irrespective of their price levels. It is less suited for comparisons over time. Eurostat compiles PPP and publishes them on this website (Database by themes / Economy and Finance / Prices).

All regional accounts data published by Eurostat are based on PPP for the EU28.

PPP and related economic indicators are constructed primarily for spatial comparison and not for comparison over time. Therefore any comparison of results of different years must be made keeping this in mind. In particular, GDP in PPS should not be used to estimate growth rates.

It is important to note that PPP are calculated at national level only; this means that for a given country and a given year the same PPP is applied for all regions of that country.

Related metadata

Annual national accounts (nama10), Purchasing power parities (prc_ppp).

Related metadata Top

Annexes Top