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Compare Qualifications Frameworks

Following extensive national consultations with stakeholders, countries present the results of the referencing of their national qualifications levels to the appropriate levels of the European Qualifications Framework based on a set of criteria agreed at European level.

The interactive table below allows you to compare national qualifications systems or frameworks of countries that have already related their national qualifications levels to the EQF. To compare how one country references its national qualification levels to the EQF with another, select a flag of the country of your choice to start the process.

The blue box at the top of the comparison chart gives access to all key information on the qualification system of the selected country. It leads you to the National Coordination Point (NCP) of the country, which provides access to information and guidance to stakeholders on how national qualifications relate to the EQF through their national qualifications systems. Furthermore, the detailed report on the national referencing processes ("national referencing report") and the presentation of the national qualifications systems ("NQF/NQS") may also be reached from the blue box.

Below it is presented how the national qualifications levels of the selected country relate to the eight reference levels of the EQF. By clicking on the levels of the EQF, you will find the description of the relevant EQF level in terms of learning outcomes: knowledge, skills and competences. As you will see some national qualifications levels are and may be linked to one, two or more EQF levels. This indicates that NQF levels may be significantly broad. It may also occur that two or more NQF levels are related to a single EQF level, which indicates that those national levels are significantly narrow. At present, some countries have qualifications levels below EQF level one. As EQF starts at EQF Level 1, referencing national qualifications levels below that level is not possible.

For each NQF level (click on the NQF level) there is a description, in particular of its learning outcomes, as well as examples of qualifications at that level (up to five). There are many more qualifications at each NQF level; however, the examples aim to get a better idea of what qualifications an NQF level contains. Depending on the characteristics of the national qualifications systems, countries provide examples of individual qualifications or types of qualifications. More detailed information on these examples is provided through access to national websites and databases of qualifications.

"See more" will lead you to more information on the NCP and the referencing process.

COMPARISON (Up to 5 examples of qualifications are provided for each NQF level. National systems may include many other qualifications at these levels)


FlagAustria
Austria
FlagBelgium
Belgium
FlagBulgaria
Bulgaria
FlagCroatia
Croatia
FlagCyprus
Cyprus
FlagCzech Republic
Czech Republic
FlagFinland
Finland
FlagGermany
Germany
FlagGreece
Greece
FlagHungary
Hungary
FlagIceland
Iceland
FlagItaly
Italy
FlagLuxembourg
Luxembourg
FlagNorway
Norway
FlagPoland
Poland
FlagPortugal
Portugal
FlagRomania
Romania
FlagSerbia
Serbia
FlagSlovakia
Slovakia
FlagSlovenia
Slovenia
FlagSpain
Spain
FlagSweden
Sweden
FlagTurkey
Turkey
Flag Europe
EQF Levels
Show EQF levels
 
 
European Qualification Framework Level 8
The descriptor for the third cycle in the Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area agreed by the ministers responsible for higher education at their meeting in Bergen in May 2005 in the framework of the Bologna process corresponds to the learning outcomes for EQF level 8.
  Knowledge - In the context of EQF, knowledge is described as theoretical and/or factual Skills - In the context of EQF, skills are described as cognitive (involving the use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) and practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments) Competences - In the context of EQF, competence is described in terms of responsibility and autonomy
The learning outcomes relevant to EQF Level 8are Knowledge at the most advanced frontier of a field of work or study and at the interface between fields The most advanced and specialised skills and techniques, including synthesis and evaluation, required to solve critical problems in research and/or innovation and to extend and redefine existing knowledge or professional practice Demonstrate substantial authority, innovation, autonomy, scholarly and professional integrity and sustained commitment to the development of new ideas or processes at the forefront of work or study contexts including research
 
 
 
European Qualification Framework Level 7
The descriptor for the second cycle in the Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area agreed by the ministers responsible for higher education at their meeting in Bergen in May 2005 in the framework of the Bologna process corresponds to the learning outcomes for EQF level 7.
  Knowledge - In the context of EQF, knowledge is described as theoretical and/or factual Skills - In the context of EQF, skills are described as cognitive (involving the use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) and practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments) Competences - In the context of EQF, competence is described in terms of responsibility and autonomy
The learning outcomes relevant to EQF Level 7are Highly specialised knowledge, some of which is at the forefront of knowledge in a field of work or study, as the basis for original thinking and/or research; critical awareness of knowledge issues in a field and at the interface between different fields Specialised problem-solving skills required in research and/or innovation in order to develop new knowledge and procedures and to integrate knowledge from different fields Manage and transform work or study contexts that are complex, unpredictable and require new strategic approaches; take responsibility for contributing to professional knowledge and practice and/or for reviewing the strategic performance of teams
 
 
 
European Qualification Framework Level 6
The descriptor for the first cycle in the Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area agreed by the ministers responsible for higher education at their meeting in Bergen in May 2005 in the framework of the Bologna process corresponds to the learning outcomes for EQF level 6.
  Knowledge - In the context of EQF, knowledge is described as theoretical and/or factual Skills - In the context of EQF, skills are described as cognitive (involving the use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) and practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments) Competences - In the context of EQF, competence is described in terms of responsibility and autonomy
The learning outcomes relevant to EQF Level 6are Advanced knowledge of a field of work or study, involving a critical understanding of theories and principles Advanced skills, demonstrating mastery and innovation, required to solve complex and unpredictable problems in a specialised field of work or study Manage complex technical or professional activities or projects, taking responsibility for decision making in unpredictable work or study contexts; take responsibility for managing professional development of individuals and groups
 
 
 
European Qualification Framework Level 5
The descriptor for the higher education short cycle (within or linked to the first cycle), developed by the Joint Quality Initiative as part of the Bologna process, corresponds to the learning outcomes for EQF level 5.
  Knowledge - In the context of EQF, knowledge is described as theoretical and/or factual Skills - In the context of EQF, skills are described as cognitive (involving the use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) and practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments) Competences - In the context of EQF, competence is described in terms of responsibility and autonomy
The learning outcomes relevant to EQF Level 5are Comprehensive, specialised, factual and theoretical knowledge within a field of work or study and an awareness of the boundaries of that knowledge A comprehensive range of cognitive and practical skills required to develop creative solutions to abstract problems Exercise management and supervision in contexts of work or study activities where there is unpredictable change review and develop performance of self and others
 
 
 
European Qualification Framework Level 4
  Knowledge - In the context of EQF, knowledge is described as theoretical and/or factual Skills - In the context of EQF, skills are described as cognitive (involving the use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) and practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments) Competences - In the context of EQF, competence is described in terms of responsibility and autonomy
The learning outcomes relevant to EQF Level 4are Factual and theoretical knowledge in broad contexts within a field of work or study A range of cognitive and practical skills required to generate solutions to specific problems in a field of work or study Exercise self-management within the guidelines of work or study contexts that are usually predictable, but are subject to change; supervise the routine work of others, taking some responsibility for the evaluation and improvement of work or study activities
 
 
 
European Qualification Framework Level 3
  Knowledge - In the context of EQF, knowledge is described as theoretical and/or factual Skills - In the context of EQF, skills are described as cognitive (involving the use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) and practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments) Competences - In the context of EQF, competence is described in terms of responsibility and autonomy
The learning outcomes relevant to EQF Level 3are Knowledge of facts, principles, processes and general concepts, in a field of work or study A range of cognitive and practical skills required to accomplish tasks and solve problems by selecting and applying basic methods, tools, materials and information Take responsibility for completion of tasks in work or study; adapt own behaviour to circumstances in solving problems
 
 
 
European Qualification Framework Level 2
  Knowledge - In the context of EQF, knowledge is described as theoretical and/or factual Skills - In the context of EQF, skills are described as cognitive (involving the use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) and practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments) Competences - In the context of EQF, competence is described in terms of responsibility and autonomy
The learning outcomes relevant to EQF Level 2are Basic factual knowledge of a field of work or study Basic cognitive and practical skills required to use relevant information in order to carry out tasks and to solve routine problems using simple rules and tools Work or study under supervision with some autonomy
 
 
 
European Qualification Framework Level 1
  Knowledge - In the context of EQF, knowledge is described as theoretical and/or factual Skills - In the context of EQF, skills are described as cognitive (involving the use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) and practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments) Competences - In the context of EQF, competence is described in terms of responsibility and autonomy
The learning outcomes relevant to EQF Level 1are Basic general knowledge Basic skills required to carry out simple tasks Work or study under direct supervision in a structured context