Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is increasingly being used as a tool to produce information for policy makers on the costs and benefits of environmental legislation. In the field of waste management, some elements of CBA are better researched than others. However, policy makers need information on the whole range of impacts in order to make balanced decisions. This study therefore focuses on areas where information is not readily available, in particular on the valuation of environmental externalities from landfill disposal and incineration of waste. The study extensively reviews existing literature on this subject. It gives an overview of the main externalities, pathways and impacts of emissions. The main economic valuation techniques are described, including a presentation of key standard values in table form. The underlying assumptions and uncertainties of these standard values are discussed in detail. Finally, some calculation examples are included to illustrate the possible use of these data.