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Biodegradable Waste

New Developments

Following the provision of Thematic Strategy on Prevention and Recycling of Waste (COM 2005 (666) final) concerning need to address compost standards at EU level and responding to the call made in art. 22 of Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC) requesting the Commission to carry out an assessment on the management of bio-waste with a view to submitting a proposal if appropriate the Commission started preparatory work on potential legislative proposal on bio-waste.

Project steps

1. Green Paper

The first step in that process is the Green Paper on the Management of Bio-waste in the EU.

2. Impact Assessment

The second step is the preparation of an Impact Assessment of a potential legislative proposal. The general objective of this activity is to look into ways of improving the way in which bio-waste is managed in the EU, and to provide an appropriate assessment of policy options, including the environmental, economic and social impacts, as well as prospective risks/opportunities.

The task include among others:

  • Provision of analysis and synthesis of other consultations, studies and an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge as a contribution to the impact assessment;
  • Estimation of the production of Biowaste and their possible treatment on the basis of existing legislation;
  • Support to an overall assessment of policy options and their relative merits.

The assessment will include a baseline scenario in terms of policies and practices across the EU over the next 10 years and their possible implications on the production and treatment of bio-waste for each Member States and at EU 27 level. Based on the baseline scenario, an assessment will be undertaken of the likely benefits and costs of additional or changed policy measures on the management of bio-waste in the EU (including for instance an obligation of separate collection or recycling targets for bio-waste) when compared to the existing and planned policies. The assessment shall verify if the current policy measures are sufficient to address the issue of proper bio-waste management and whether additional measures on bio-waste management would deliver significant improvements.

This assessment will build on the existing studies and knowledge and fill any identified knowledge and data gaps in order to provide a full picture of the current situation and the future needs.

It is currently expected that the additional measures to be assessed will include the options already proposed in "Preliminary Impact Assessment for an Initiative on the Biological Treatment of Biodegradable Waste" (see "studies" below) i.e.

a) setting compost standards;

b) setting compost standards and recycling target for bio-waste (common to all Member States);

c) compost standards and recycling targets to be set for individual Member States

and an additional fourth measure, to be determined.

The final set of options to be assessed shall be based on the results of the Green Paper consultations and the present preparatory work of the project team.

Study supporting the Impact Assessment:

During preparation of Impact Assessment the Commission has been assisted by ARCADIS Belgium and Eunomia Research & Consulting, which have produced report "Assessment of the options to improve the management of bio-waste in the EU".

The comments received to this report are available at the following CIRCA website.

3. Communication from the Commission on future steps in bio-waste management in the European Union - COM(2010)235 final

On 18 May 2010, the Commission published a Communication on its analysis of the bio-waste management options and possible future steps in this area.

The text of the Communication can be found here, accompanied by an annex providing more detailed analysis of the current situation and scenarios in bio-waste management (Press release).

4. Follow-up of the Communication

  • Analysis on the appropriateness of setting targets for bio-waste recycling - stakeholder consultations.

  • Assessment of feasibility of setting bio-waste recycling targets in EU, including subsidiarity aspects - final report.

5. Revision of the Waste Framework Directive

As described in the Communication (chapter - 7.1.2. Treatment of Bio-waste) the Commission promised to continue the analysis of appropriateness of proposing in 2014 targets on recycling of bio-waste as a part of revision Waste Framework Directive, with a view that target for biological treatment would have to go hand-in-hand with enhanced separate collection to ensure good quality of compost and digestate.

On 2 July 2014, the European Commission adopted a legislative proposal and annex to review waste related targets in the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC as well as recycling and other waste-related targets in the EU Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC and the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive 94/62/EC.

The main elements of the proposal relating to bio-waste include:

  • Recycling and preparing for re-use of municipal waste (including bio-waste) to be increased to 70 % by 2030;
  • Phasing out landfilling by 2025 for recyclable (including plastics, paper, metals, glass and bio-waste) waste in non hazardous waste landfills – corresponding to a maximum landfilling rate of 25%;
  • Measures aimed at reducing food waste generation by 30 % by 2025;
  • Introduction of separate collection of bio-waste

More information about the initiative, including text of legal proposal and background documents can be found here.