These summary statistics and analyses are based on the European amphibians dataset published in May 2009.
Overall, nearly a quarter of amphibians are considered threatened in Europe. A further 17% of amphibians are considered Near Threatened. By comparison, 19% of European reptiles, 15% of European mammals and 13% of European birds are threatened. No other groups have yet been comprehensively assessed at the European level. More than half of amphibians (59%) have declining populations. A further 36% are stable, and only 2% are increasing.
The overwhelming majority of threatened and Near Threatened amphibian species are endemic to both Europe and the EU, highlighting the responsibility that European countries have to protect the entire global populations of these species. All species considered threatened (Critically Endangered, Endangered, or Vulnerable) at the European level are endemic to Europe and are found nowhere else in the world.
Amphibian species richness is greatest at intermediate latitudes (France, Germany, Czech Republic) as well as in the south and on islands. Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are the most significant threats to amphibians in Europe. Other major threats include pollution (including global climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions) and invasive alien species.