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This page provides links to scientific literature and publications of other initiatives on large carnivores in Europe, large carnivore management, conservation, and their coexistence with humans. The library is regularly updated.
If you have publications you would like highlighted on this site, please contact the Secretariat of the Platform.

Search here for species, country, author or topics related to European large carnivores:








April 2019

What form of human-
wildlife coexistence is mandated by legislation? A comparative analysis of international and national instruments

Biodiversity conservation being an international concern, activities aimed at it are also a potential source of conflict between humans and wildlife. Legislation represents a major basis to determine which form the human-wildlife relationship should take. In the paper, the implicit and explicit moral basis of national and international legislation is explored. Findings include a general willingness to improve the status of endangered species/ecosystems and to compromise between society's and wildlife interests.


B. Cretois et al., in: Biodiversity and Conservation (online)


March 2019

Management of bold wolves

The policy support statement by the Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe on the management of bold wolves, outlining prevention, documentation, intervention and information needs for successful management. The statement also identifies research priorities for the future.


Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe (LCIE)


September 2018

Guide: Learning to live with wolves

Successful conservation projects are enabling large mammals in Europe to recover and re-establish their populations. One of them is the wolf, whose expanding distribution presents a challenge for people living in such areas. The guide gives basic information on wolf ecology such as appearance and behavior and takes different perspectives of wolf-human interaction such as safety issues, agriculture and husbandry activities, hunting, forestry and tourism to inform about how coexistence might be achieved.


P. Sürth, C. Miller and J. Arnold for WWF Germany


Spring 2018

Carnivore Damage Prevention News, Issue 17

Carnivore Damage Prevention News is published by Grupo Lobo in the MedWolf Project “to facilitate the collaboration between specialists and to improve the exchange of information among carnivore damage prevention projects”. Contents:

  • Success of Institutional Interventions to Mitigate Conflicts
  • Insurance-Based Compensation
  • Attitudinal Studies and Participatory Meetings

S. Ribeiro for Grupo Lobo in the MedWolf Project


April 2018

Can only poorer European countries afford large carnivores?

One of the classic approaches in environmental economics is the environmental Kuznets curve, which predicts that when a national economy grows from low to medium levels, threats to biodiversity conservation increase, but they decrease when the economy moves from medium to high. The authors evaluated this approach by examining how population densities of the brown bear (Ursus arctos), gray wolf (Canis lupus), and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) were related to the national economy in 24 European countries.


I. Kojola et al.


January 2018

Political populations of large carnivores: Large-Carnivore Populations

Reporting of population data and associated policies are prone to political influence. Case studies from around the world revealed patterns of governments justifying politically preferred policies by exaggerating, without empirical justification, the size or resilience of carnivore populations. Such a process creates what the authors term, ‘political populations’ – those with attributes constructed to serve political interests.


C. T. Darimont et al., in: Conservation Biology 2018.


January 2018

Conservation professionals agree on challenges to coexisting with large carnivores but not on solutions

To characterize current viewpoints about terrestrial large carnivore conservation, the authors conducted an online survey assessing a wide range of viewpoints about large carnivore conservation among international professionals. They explored how variation in viewpoints was related to expertise, background, and broader institutional contexts in which one lives and works. Results point to considerable diversity, perhaps driven by local context, concerning how to proceed with large carnivore conservation in the increasingly human-influenced landscapes of the Anthropocene. This study underlines that challenges to adopting and implementing long-lasting carnivore conservation strategies may well occur as much within the conservation community as outside it.


M. L. Lute et al., in: Biological Conservation 2018: 218: 223-232.



Large Carnivores Report 2017, Autonomous Province of Trento’s Forestry and Wildlife Department

The ‘Large Carnivores Report’ is issued on a yearly basis and offers detailed information on the status of brown bear, wolf and lynx populations present in Trentino as well as information on their management.


C. Groff et al. (editors)


December 2017

Deutschlands Wilde Wölfe [Germany's wild wolves]

The return of the wolves to Germany in 2007 is not welcomed by everyone. In the future, more and more people will have to live together with the wolf in the same area. In close cooperation with wolf researchers, the zoologist and photographer Axel Gomille observed wolves for over eight years and documented with outstanding photographs in a book the return, distribution, resulting conflicts, and conservation of wild wolves in Germany. [Illustrated book, currently only available in German]


A. Gomille, Frederking & Thaler


Winter 2017

Carnivore Damage Prevention News, Issue 13

Carnivore Damage Prevention News is published by Grupo Lobo in the MedWolf Project “to facilitate the collaboration between specialists and to improve the exchange of information among carnivore damage prevention projects”. Contents:

  • Free Ranging Livestock, Wolves and Damage Prevention Methods
  • Wolf Behaviour Towards Electric Fences
  • Neophobia in Captive Wolves
  • From Free Grazing to Flock Management


S. Ribeiro for Grupo Lobo in the MedWolf Project


Autumn 2017

Carnivore Damage Prevention News, Issue 16

Carnivore Damage Prevention News is published by Grupo Lobo in the MedWolf Project “to facilitate the collaboration between specialists and to improve the exchange of information among carnivore damage prevention projects”. Contents:

  • LGDs: An Old World Tool
  • Use of LGDs in Italy
  • LGDs in Greece
  • Official Swiss LGDs
  • The Innovative Use of LGDs


S. Ribeiro for Grupo Lobo in the MedWolf Project


September 2017

Humans and climate
change drove the Holocene decline of the brown bear

The interaction of the two factors thought to have influenced prehistoric extinctions complicates the identification of pathways these extinction may have taken. The paper analyses how increasing winter temperatures affected the spatial distribution of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) population across Europe dating back 12,000 years, both directly by reducing the species' reproductivity as well as by facilitating human land use.


J. Albrecht et al., in: Scientific Reports 7: 10399.


Summer 2017

Carnivore Damage Prevention News, Issue 15

Carnivore Damage Prevention News is published by Grupo Lobo in the MedWolf Project “to facilitate the collaboration between specialists and to improve the exchange of information among carnivore damage prevention projects”. Contents:

  • The Use of Livestock Guarding Dogs
  • Livestock Guarding Dogs in Georgia
  • The Evolving Use of LGDs
  • Livestock Guarding Dogs Today


S. Ribeiro for Grupo Lobo in the MedWolf Project


May 2017

Limited evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to reduce livestock predation by large carnivores

Successful coexistence between large carnivores and humans is conditional upon effective mitigation of the impact of these species on humans, such as through livestock depredation. It is therefore essential for conservation practitioners, carnivore managing authorities, or livestock owners to know the effectiveness of interventions intended to reduce livestock predation by large carnivores. The authors urge managers and stakeholders to move towards an evidence-based large carnivore management practice and researchers to conduct studies of intervention effectiveness with a randomized case-control design combined with systematic reviewing to evaluate the evidence.


A. Eklund et al., in: Scientific Reports 7


Spring 2017

Carnivore Damage Prevention News, Issue 14

Carnivore Damage Prevention News is published by Grupo Lobo in the MedWolf Project “to facilitate the collaboration between specialists and to improve the exchange of information among carnivore damage prevention projects”. Contents:

  • Shepherding Culture in Switzerland
  • The European Shepherd Network
  • Shepherd Portraits
  • Shepherd Training


S. Ribeiro for Grupo Lobo in the MedWolf Project


February 2017

'O Neighbour, Where Art Thou?' Spatial and social dynamics in wolverine and lynx, from individual space use to population distribution

Conserving predators on an increasingly crowded planet brings very difficult challenges. The authors argue that community ecology theory can help conserve these species in human-dominated landscapes. Letting humans and predators share the same landscapes is similar to maintaining a community of predatory species, one of which is humans.


M. Aronsson, in: Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae 2017:24


January 2017

Global exposure of carnivores to roads

Land-use change is a major threat to biodiversity globally. Roads cause direct mortality and limitation of individual movements, which may isolate populations and affect their viability in the long term. Here the authors provide the first comprehensive global assessment of the exposure of terrestrial mammalian carnivores to roads using an integrated modelling framework. The results suggest the need to reassess the status and threats of those species that have not been previously recognized as strongly affected by roads. The used framework can be applied at different spatial scales, to assess the effects of the development of the road network and inform prioritization schemes for road building, and to identify areas for conservation, and species requiring particular mitigation and restoration measures.


A. Ceia-Hasse et al., in: Global Ecology and Biogeography 2017: 26(5): 592-600.



An interdisciplinary review of current and future approaches to improving human-predator relations

Through interdisciplinary collaboration among authors trained in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences, current approaches have been reviewed to mitigating adverse human–predator encounters and a vision for future approaches to understanding and mitigating such encounters has been devised.


S. Pooley et al., in: Conservation Biology 2016: 31(3)


October 2016

Interpreting ‘favourable conservation status’ for large carnivores in Europe: how many are needed and how many are wanted?

The EU Habitats Directive contains legal obligations for the 28 EU member states in order to safeguard a ‘favourable conservation status’ (FCS) for selected species and habitat types. The crucial FCS concept itself, however, remains subject to considerable confusion regarding its proper interpretation and operationalization, impairing the Directive’s effective implementation. Diminishing this confusion is the purpose of this review. It focuses specifically on large carnivores—wolf (Canis lupus), brown bear (Ursus arctos), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolverine (Gulo gulo).


A. Trouwborst, L. Boitani & J.D.C. Linnell, in: Biodiversity and Conservation 2017:26(1), 37-61.



Coexistence with Large Carnivores Informed by Community Ecology

Conserving predators on an increasingly crowded planet brings very difficult challenges. The authors argue that community ecology theory can help conserve these species in human-dominated landscapes. Letting humans and predators share the same landscapes is similar to maintaining a community of predatory species, one of which is humans.


G. Chapron & J. V. López-Bao, in: Trends in Ecology & Evolution 31(8)


July 2016

Assessing large-scale wildlife responses to human infrastructure development

Habitat loss and deterioration represent the main threats to wildlife species, and are closely linked to the expansion of roads and human settlements. Unfortunately, large-scale effects of these structures remain generally overlooked. The authors analyzed the European transportation infrastructure network and found that 50% of the continent is within 1.5 km of transportation infrastructure. A method for assessing the impacts from infrastructure on wildlife is presented here.


A. Torres, J. A. G. Jaeger & J. C. Alonso, in: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113(30): 8472–8477.


July 2016

Co-Adaptation Is Key to Coexisting with Large Carnivores

There is a pressing need to integrate large carnivore species into multi-use landscapes outside protected areas. However, an unclear understanding of coexistence hinders the realization of this goal. Here, the authors provide a comprehensive conceptualization of coexistence in which mutual adaptations by both large carnivores and humans have a central role.


N. H. Carter & J.D.C. Linnell, in: Trends in Ecology & Evolution 31(8)


Spring 2016

Carnivore Damage Prevention News, Issue 12

Carnivore Damage Prevention News is published by Grupo Lobo in the MedWolf Project “to facilitate the collaboration between specialists and to improve the exchange of information among carnivore damage prevention projects”. Contents:

  • Bear Damage Prevention
  • Waste Management to Reduce Conflicts
  • Preventing Road Accidents
  • Managing Problem Bears


S. Ribeiro for Grupo Lobo in the MedWolf Project


February 2016

Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries

The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks by large carnivores. Here we show that an increasing number of people are involved in outdoor activities and, when doing so, some people engage in risk-enhancing behaviour that can increase the probability of a risky encounter and a potential attack. This study provides unique insight into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of large carnivore attacks on people.


V. Penteriani et al., in: Scientific Reports 6


January 2016

Social factors mediating human–carnivore coexistence: Understanding thematic strands influencing coexistence in Central Romania,

Facilitating human–carnivore coexistence depends on the biophysical environment but also on social factors. Focusing on Central Romania, the authors conducted 71 semi-structured interviews to explore human–bear (Ursus arctos) coexistence.


I. Dorresteijn et al., in: Ambio, A Journal for the Human Environment


January 2016

Concept framework wolf Switzerland,
also available in French
and Italian

The concept framework wolf recently has been adapted based on the revised Swiss hunting regulation from July 2015 in order to concretize legal concepts. It deals with the jurisdiction and procedure for shooting individual wolves as well as young wolves in packs, which however do not display a typical shy behavior. The most important adaption in the adapted concept framework is a scheme dealing with the assessment of problematic behavior of young wolves. The new regulation came into force in January 19, 2016.


Federal Office for the Environment (BAFU)


January 2016

Concept framework lynx Switzerland,
also available in French
and Italian

The concept framework lynx recently has been adapted based on the revised Swiss hunting regulation from 2012. It redefines regulating measures for lynx population if wildlife stock particularly of deer and chamois is low due to lynx presence. The adapted concept for the lynx subdivides Switzerland into 16 wildlife districts, in which the Swiss confederation and cantons evaluate, in which way lynx population stock, wild game as well as forest regeneration affect one another. The concept further sets the framework for possible shooting requests undertaken by the cantons. The new regulation came into force in January 19, 2016.


Federal Office for the Environment (BAFU)


January 2016

Border controls: Refugee fences fragment wildlife

Letter to Nature magazine describing how the border fences in parts of Europe erected in response to the current massive influx of refugees may harm wildlife. The fences can kill animals by entangling them in razor wire and will jeopardize the hard-won connectivity of species populations. It is also suggested that the fences could be in violation of commitments under international conservation agreements, such as the European Commission’s Habitats Directive.


J.D.C. Linnell, in: Nature 529


Winter 2015

Carnivore Damage Prevention News, Issue 11

Carnivore Damage Prevention News is published by Grupo Lobo in the MedWolf Project “to facilitate the collaboration between specialists and to improve the exchange of information among carnivore damage prevention projects”. Contents:

  • Herd Protection - Switzerland
  • Sheep Farming - France
  • Lynx - Norway
  • Jaguars - Brazil


S. Ribeiro for Grupo Lobo in the MedWolf Project


September 2015

Horses and Wolves: A Contribution to Coexistence

Since the year 2000, people and wolves have again been sharing the same habitat in Germany. In Lower Saxony, the "Land of the Horse", horse keepers in particular are finding themselves in a new situation. While there are clear-cut regulations for the protection of sheep, information on the interaction between horses and wolves has not been available. The manual both summarizes the current state of research and offers horse keepers practical recommendations on how to deal with the presence of wolves in their specific region.


Naturschutzbund Deutschland (NABU) e.V.


August 2015

Lithuanian wolf management plan

The Lituanian Wolf Management Plan aims to ensure a favorable protection status of wolf population and ensuring a peaceful coexistence between wolves and humans.


Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Lithuania


July 2015

Beyond compensation: Integrating local communities’ livelihood choices in large carnivore conservation.

Conserving biodiversity in human-dominated regions of the world is complex, particularly in case of large carnivores where perceived conflicts exist with economic development, expanding human populations and livelihoods. Using a systematic ‘bottom-up’ consultative framework, based on a choice modelling approach that accounts for heterogeneity in the population, the authors explore alternative strategies that meet conservation and human development goals.


A. Harihar et al., in: Global Environmental Change 33


May 2015

Individual and collective responses to large carnivore management: the roles trust, representation, knowledge spheres, communication and leadership.

Overseeing the continued recovery, dispersal and management of large carnivore populations while simultaneously considering human viability and welfare requires delicately balancing local concerns for rural communities’ livelihood prospects and property vulnerability with international concerns for saving threatened species. In this article, the authors propose an integrated analytical perspective to elucidate how competing interests and power relationships influence the governance and management of contested wildlife resources.


A. Sjölander-Lindqvist et al., in: Wildlife Biology, 21(3)


May 2015

Law and conservation conflicts

A book chapter reviewing some roles that law and legal research play with respect to conflicts over the conservation of biodiversity. The paper first briefly introduces law and legal research and then discusses the respective roles of law and legal research with regard to conservation conflicts. Legal conflicts involving large carnivores are used as an example in the text.


A. Trouwborst, in: Conflicts in Conservation: Navigating towards Solutions


May 2015

Sheep farming and large carnivores: What are the factors influencing claimed losses?

These findings could help develop new mitigation strategies as alternatives to predator removal where large carnivore conservation is a concern.


G. Mabille et al., in: Ecosphere 6(5)


April 2015

Adapting the traditional use of livestock guarding dogs to a modern context

A richly illustrated document has been published on the cultural heritage value of livestock guarding dogs, and their significance for modern conservation challenges. This communication project has pooled the current knowledge of the use of at a large number of breeds and southern and eastern Europe, as well as in Asia.


J.D.C. Linnell & N. Lescureux, for DG Environment


March 2015

The missing lynx — understanding hunters' opposition to large carnivores

Local opposition to large carnivores is a frequent source of conflict and a major obstacle for large carnivore conservation worldwide. The aim of this study is to understand hunters' reasons for opposing large carnivores, paying particular attention to the social dimension of the conflict. The authors argue that future large carnivore management should focus more on shaping the quality of the interaction between the managers, advocates and opponents of large carnivores in order to overcome group-conflict and reactance processes.


A. Lüchtrath & U. Schraml, in: Wildlife Biology 21(2)


March 2015

Toothless wildlife protection laws

Granting legal protection to an endangered species has long been considered a major milestone for its conservation and recovery. A multitude of examples such as wolves in the contiguous USA (Boitani 2003) or many large carnivore populations in Europe (Chapron et al. 2014) have revealed how instrumental wildlife protection laws can be for species recovery. However, legal obligations to conserve endangered species may be useless if the rule of law is not properly enforced.


J. V. López-Bao et al., in: Biodiversity and Conservation 24(8)


March 2015

Public attitudes toward wolves in Italian and Slovenian Alps

In this study of public attitudes toward wolves and wolf conservation 3,675 respondents from seven previously identified key areas (core areas) were surveyed for wolf conservation across Italian and Slovenian Alps. In conclusion, the results of this study suggests that although overall supportive to wolf conservation, the residents of the key areas in the Alps need to be continuously reached through well planned information campaigns.


A.M. Skrbinšek et al., in: Technical report, Project LIFE 12 NAT/IT/00080 WOLFALPS


March 2015

Paying for an Endangered Predator Leads to Population Recovery

This study shows that paying Sami reindeer herders for wolverine reproductions has been instrumental in the recovery of wolverines in Sweden. The programme’s success, even in a system where livestock is the main prey for the predator, reveals an exceptional potential for future implementations in large carnivore conservation.


J. Persson, G.R. Rauset & G. Chapron, in: Conservation Letters 8(5)


March 2015

Defining, preventing, and reacting to problem bear behaviour in Europe

The European Commission has published this documents about conflict resolutions with the target species bear. The report brings together experts' knowledge from a range of European countries trying to standardize definitions and recommendations for appropriate responses to problematic bear behaviour.


A.M. Skrbinšek & M. Krofel, for DG Environment


February 2015

Global large carnivore conservation and international law

For 31 species in the order Carnivora, this study (i) documents to what extent existing international legal instruments contribute to large carnivore conservation, and (ii) identifies ways of optimizing their contribution in this regard. From this dual perspective, it reviews all global wildlife conservation treaties and selected regional instruments, using standard international law research methodology.


A. Trouwborst, in: Biodiversity and Conservation


February 2015

Key actions for Large Carnivore populations in Europe

Technical report covering the most urgent actions necessary at the population level for four species of large carnivore protected under the EU’s Habitats Directive. Produced under contract for the European Commission.


L. Boitani et al., for DG Environment



Community-based approaches to large carnivore conservation – Examples from outside Europe

This literature review discusses the effectiveness of involving local communities in conservation efforts and the various incentives offered to communities to gain their support for conservation activities. Its purpose is to highlight possible methods that could be applicable to conservation of large carnivores in Europe.


H. Palejowski, the European Federation for Hunting and Conservation (FACE)



Standards for the monitoring of the Central European wolf population in Germany and Poland

Germany and Poland share a joint wolf population - the Central European population. For a joint assessment of the status of transboundary populations, the underlying data must be comparable. In 2012, the members of the Polish-German wolf working group decided to commission the development of joint monitoring standards as a prerequisite to allow a robust population-level evaluation of population size, area of occurrence and their respective trends.


I. Reinhardt et al., for Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN)



Monitoring the status of Carpathian lynx in Switzerland and Slovakia

This report summarises the findings of the project “Living with Carpathian Spirits”, which arose as a pilot study to adapt systematic monitoring from Switzerland to conditions in the Slovak Carpathians. It underlines the importance of implementing a well-organized lynx health surveillance programme in Slovakia, the overall goal of which is to carry out adaptive management based on scientific data.


R. Rigg & J. Kubala, for Slovak Wildlife Society


December 2014

Recovery of large carnivores in Europe’s modern human-dominated landscapes

Scientific paper summaring data on the distribution and status of the four large carnivore species in Europe and showing that many European populations are in the process of recovering from historic lows in the middle of the twentieth century.


G. Chapron et al., in: Science 346


December 2014

Exploring traditional husbandry methods to reduce wolf predation on free-ranging cattle in Portugal and Spain

The report describes the process and outcomes of a project about how conflict can be reduced on the Iberian Peninsula. Other products of this project include a manual of good practices about how to minimize conflicts between wolves and livestock in Spanish and Portuguese, and another information brochure for the public (only available in Portuguese at the moment).


DG Environment


December 2014

Engaging stakeholders in wildlife monitoring: A pilot study of wolves in Slovakia using non-invasive genetic sampling

The Pilot study brings together local knowledge and modern technology to estimate the local wolf population's size through broad involvement of stakeholders.


R. Rigg, T. Skrbinšek & J.D.C. Linnell, for DG Environment


October 2014

Conservation’s blind spot: The case for conflict transformation in wildlife conservation

Conservation conflicts are often exacerbated by complex underlying social conflicts. Current limitations in practice impede conservation success in conflict settings. Conservation conflict transformation (CCT) offers a way to overcome obstacles. Two analytical models illustrate how CCT can transform complex social conflict. Initial evidence suggests positive impacts and efficacy of CCT approach.


F. Madden & B. McQuinn


August 2014

Where the wild things are: Big beasts return to Europe

A New scientist feature article covers European large carnivores. It covers the return of large carnivores to Europe, presents the concerns of some stakeholders and focues on the recently created EU stakeholder platform


H. Nicholls, in: New Scientist magazine (IUCN)


Spring 2014

Carnivore Damage Prevention News, Issue 10

Carnivore Damage Prevention News is published by Grupo Lobo in the MedWolf Project “to facilitate the collaboration between specialists and to improve the exchange of information among carnivore damage prevention projects”. Contents:

  • The CanOvis Project
  • Livestock Guarding Dogs in Europe
  • An Innovative Approach to Mitigate the Conflict


S. Ribeiro for Grupo Lobo in the MedWolf Project


März 2013

Large Carnivore Conservation and Management in Europe: The contribution of EC co-funded LIFE project

The contribution of the LIFE programme to the conservation of large carnivores (brown bear, wolf and Eurasian lynx) in Europe was reviewed for the period 1992-2010, as part of the service contract “Support to the European Commission's policy on large carnivores under the Habitats Directive” issued to the Istituto di Ecologia Applicata.


V. Salvatori et al., for DG Environment


February 2013

Understanding and managing conservation conflicts

Effective conflict management and long-term conservation benefit will be enhanced by better integration of the underpinning social context with the material impacts and evaluation of the efficacy of alternative conflict management approaches.


S. Redpath et al., in: Trends in Ecology & Evolution 28(2)



LIFE and human coexistence with large carnivores

Since the establishment in 1992 of LIFE, the EU funding programme for the Environment, EU support for endangered large carnivore species and their habitats has focused on targeted practical conservation, restoration and management actions in the protected Natura 2000 network sites throughout the Union. This publication illustrates, the LIFE programme has played a valuable role in demonstrating ways of managing conflicts in the area of coexistence. Involving stakeholders such as stockbreeders and the hunting community has been important in reconciling conservation and socio-economic goals. Some projects have been more successful than others, but valuable lessons can be learned from them all.


J. P. Silva et al., for DG Environment


November 2011

When the lads go hunting: The 'Hammertown mechanism' and the conflict over wolves in Norway

Based on an ethnographic study of the conflicts over wolf protection, this paper demonstrates that ‘the Hammertown mechanism’ is of a more general nature than often implied in the discussion of Willis’ work.


O. Krange (NINA) & K. Skogen (NINA), in: Ethnography 12


October 2011

Stakeholder analysis was based on the results of the former action to outline potential points of consensus among stakeholders on the issue of large carnivore conservation.

Opinion polls were utilized to determine attitudes of stakeholders towards coexistence with large carnivores.

The leading beneficiary of the LIFE EX-TRA (Experience-Transfer) Project “Improving the conditions for large carnivore conservation - a transfer of best practices” was Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park, Italy. The overall objective of the project was to transfer and exchange best practice between different South-East European countries (Romania, Bulgaria and Greece) and three protected areas in Italy.




October 2011

Who's Afraid of the Big, Bad Wolf? Young People's Responses to the Conflicts Over Large Carnivores in Eastern Norway

Aside from the growth of the pro-carnivore middle-class segments, the most significant effect of modernization appeared to be the removal of many young people from the subject matter of the conflict. A “subculturalization” of the working-class hunting culture also could be discerned, however.


K. Skogen (NINA) and the University of Oslo, in: Rural Sociology 66(2)



The Action Plan for the Conservation of the Marsican Brown Bear (PATOM)

PATOM is an initiative of the Italian Ministry for the Environment and the Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research – ISPRA focused on the Apennine region in Italy, especially the Abruzzo National Park. It includes a Memorandum of Understanding involving a large number of interest groups and organisations. Included in the Plan are a series of concrete actions including a section addressing conflict resolution. Measures focus on hunting management, reducing conflict with livestock owners, disease management, problem bear management, habitat and disturbance management. In addition, a number of communication actions are established such as a website and dissemination and education activities.


R. Grimaldi et al., in: Quaderni di Conservazione della Natura 37


January 2010

Changes in attitudes toward wolves in Croatia

Against a background of an evolving wolf policy process the authors carried out personal structured interviews with residents of three regions within Croatian wolf range in 1999 and repeated the study, using the same methodology in 2003. The authors documented a change in public support for wolf conservation and support for control of wolves. Using human dimensions research as an evaluative tool can help large carnivore managers be more adaptive and thus effective in their management solutions.


A. Majíc & A.J. Bath, in: Biological Conservation 143(1)

For more key literature on human-wildlife conflict topics and species, amongst others bears, please see the link to the resource centre of the IUCN Human-Wildlife Conflict Task Force.