"Properties and quantities of marine litter do not cause harm to the coastal and marine environment"
Marine litter is a global concern, affecting all the oceans of the world. Every year, millions and millions of tonnes of litter end up in the ocean worldwide, posing environmental, economic, health and aesthetic problems.
Poor practices of solid waste management, waste water (including storm water) collection and treatment, lack of infrastructure and awareness of the public at large about the consequences of their actions aggravate substantially the situation.
Cleaning up the oceans is one option, it is however not the most efficient method against marine litter. You could compare it to scouring the sand in the desert and this is simply something that no county could afford. The solution is to tackle the problem at its source.
Marine litter is also one of the clearest symbols of a resource inefficient economy. Valuable materials are polluting our beaches and damaging our environment instead of being pumped back into our economy. Therefore, a circular economy approach which puts the emphasis on preventing waste and on recycling and reuse of materials and products in the first place, is the best solution to the marine litter problem.
Main sources of marine litter are:
It is estimated that more than 150 million tonnes of plastics have accumulated in the world's oceans, while 4.6-12.7 million tonnes (from Jambeck et.al) are added every year.
It is broadly assumed that approximately 80% of marine litter is land-based, with regional fluctuations (for example, in the Northeast Atlantic, shipping and fishing are very important litter sources).
Marine litter can cause serious economic damage: losses for coastal communities, tourism, shipping and fishing. Potential cost across EU for coastal and beach cleaning was assessed at almost €630 million per year, while the cost to the fishing industry could amount to almost €60 million, which would represent approximately 1% of total revenues of the EU fishing fleet (in 2010). Taking into account its accumulation and dissemination, marine litter may be one of the fastest growing threats to the health of the world's oceans.
An overview of relevant EU legislation, policies and strategies can be found in a Commission Staff Working Document from 2012.
The 7th Environment Action Programme calls for the development of an EU-wide "quantitative reduction headline target for marine litter, supported by source-based measures and taking into account marine strategies established by Member States". The Circular Economy Package sets a target for reducing by 30% beach litter and list fishing gear until 2020. A Strategy for Plastics will be presented by the Commission in 2017, which will address leakages of plastic and microplastics to the environment. The Ocean Governance Communication, adopted by the Commission in November 2016 puts the problem in a broader marine pollution and international context, and includes a list of actions.
At EU level, the abovementioned MSFD is the dedicated binding legal instrument for assessing, monitoring, setting targets and reaching good environmental status with regard to marine litter. A group including technical experts appointed by the Member States to support them in reaching Good Environmental Status (GES) for marine litter is co-chaired by JRC; and has developed, inter alia, Guidance on Monitoring of Marine Litter in the European Seas, and more recently, thematic reports on sources of litter and on riverine litter monitoring. More information in the MSFD Competence Centre (MCC) for marine litter.
The EEA has developed Marine LitterWatch, a citizen science based tool that can help fill data gaps relevant for policy, while raising awareness about the problem of litter and the policy response to it; it is already being used in European-wide campaigns, such as the Ocean Initiatives.
While litter is a key marine environment and biodiversity challenge, its generation and prevention are linked to a variety of human activities and policy areas, such as waste and wastewater management, product design, shipping, fisheries policies, consumption and behavioural patterns.
Marine litter can be prevented efficiently through improved waste, in particular plastic waste, management, increased recycling, avoidance of single use products and product eco-design (e.g. to minimise release of microplastics in the marine environment) and through intensive education and awareness actions and campaigns.
Successful implementation of waste policy is therefore a prerequisite to avoid plastic litter entering the marine environment. The Green Paper on a European Strategy on Plastic Waste in the Environment addresses plastic marine litter and ways to reduce it.
A Directive to reduce the use of plastic bags, many of which end up as waste in the marine environment has been adopted.
The Port Reception Facility Directive outlines the responsibilities of the various operators involved in delivery of ship-generated waste at EU ports. A report of an effectiveness review of this Directive is available.
In order to protect and restore marine biodiversity and ecosystems in the framework of sustainable fishing activities, the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF) may support the collection of waste by fishermen from the sea such as the removal of lost fishing gear and marine litter..
Besides the policy and legislative activities, the EU is dedicating substantial resources to better understanding and combating marine litter through a number of RTD or other projects, including enlargement neighbourhood funding (e.g. the H2020 initiative for the depollution of the Mediterranean) and regional ( e.g. Interreg) funding.
Ongoing or recently finalised projects include
MARELITT, MARLISCO, the Interreg 2 Seas MICRO project and a project investigating contribution of rivers in marine litter, Clean Sea Project, Defishgear
As a follow-up to the MARELITT project, a large-scale fishing gear removal project in the Baltic is ongoing .
A project for coordinating methodologies for monitoring impacts of litter on sea turtles and other marine animals started in February 2017 (INDICIT).
The LIFE Programme also supports related projects such as SMILE, AMMOS , GHOST, LIFE DEBAG, LIFE LEMA, and MERMAIDS .
In 2014, a study assessed the reductions made possible through amendment of the EU waste legislation.
This study also provided an initial analysis of the possible contribution from other potentially relevant legislation, as well as some behavioural measures which could be introduced to drive reductions in marine litter. It builds on three pilot projects launched in 2011, which looked at the sources of marine litter generally and plastic litter in particular as the largest and most persistent component of litter encountered in the marine environment.
The abovementioned pilot projects are:
As the studies are closely linked, a common chapter has been developed integrating the respective results.
The Commission services have organised a series of workshops and stakeholders meetings at various levels to explore and implement solutions for marine litter. An important milestone was the International Conference on Prevention and Management of Marine Litter in European Seas that took place in Berlin, Germany, from 10 to 12 April, 2013.
Within the Regional Seas Conventions around Europe, action plans on marine litter are finalized and under implementation (Mediterranean and Northeast Atlantic) and (Baltic) or starting (Black Sea). They focus on prevention or reduction of marine litter address both land- and sea-based sources of marine litter, through a range of actions at national or regional level such as improved waste and waste water management, port reception facilities, targeted fishing for litter, education, awareness raising and outreach activities. The EU participates actively in the development and implementation of these action plans and promote their coordination. A project supporting implementation of the Regional Plan against marine litter of the Barcelona Convention started in 2016. The project summary is available here.
The EU participates actively and contributes substantially to international efforts for preventing and reducing marine litter and for mitigating its impacts, including through development aid and other financial instruments, such as the Partnership Instrument.
The G7 Summit adopted in June 2015 an Action Plan, covering land and sea-based sources of marine litter, awareness raising and outreach, as well as removal actions.
The Global Partnership on Marine Litter
The Global Partnership on Marine Litter (GPML) was launched in June 2012 at Rio + 20 in Brazil. The GPML, besides being supportive of the Global Partnership on Waste Management, seeks to protect human health and the global environment by the reduction and management of marine litter as its main goal, through several specific objectives.
The Honolulu Strategy
The Honolulu Strategy is a framework for a comprehensive and global effort to reduce the ecological, human health, and economic impacts of marine debris. This document is intended to help improve collaboration and coordination among the multitude of groups and governments across the globe in a position to address marine debris and to serve as a common frame of reference for action among these communities, as well as a tool for groups to develop and monitor marine debris programs and projects.
Accumulation of litter in the oceans
Great accumulation zones occurring in oceanic gyres are sometimes also referred to as a "plastic soup" of waste. . More recent research reveals that most of the plastic litter there is actually microplastics and not large piles of material forming "islands", whereas, it is assumed, most of the plastic released in the ocean finds its way to the sea floor. Concentration of litter is high also on the beaches. Furthermore, the problem is far from limited in subtropical regions and affects seas around Europe. For example, the Mediterranean displays a plastic particle distribution and density largely equivalent to that found in the 5 global gyres. The sources are mainly land-based (approximately 80%) and associated with poor waste (in particular plastic) and wastewater management.
Microplastics (in principle items smaller than 5mm) are of particular concern due to their potential toxicity and size, and consequent harm to the animals that ingest them. Although the consequences of plastic build-up in the food chain are not fully known yet, human-health concerns are being raised, since many of the marine animals affected end up on our plates as seafood. Recent EU-funded research in the Mediterranean revealed that more than 80% of marine litter items collected were microplastics. It further showed that even relatively clean rivers with thinly populated catchment areas (just 250,000) can transport as many as 50 billion microplastic particles annually. We also find significant loads of microplastics in analyses of plastic pollution in ice cores in the Arctic.
Used directly in products (such as exfoliants or industrial abrasives), fragmenting from larger pieces of plastic waste, or generated during the use of products (for example when washing clothes or by car tyre abrasion) and carried by sewage, microplastics are released and accumulate in the marine environment.. The scientific literature in relationship to sources, pathways and impacts of microplastics is already substantial and constantly growing.
Following a request from the first UN Environment Assembly in 2014, UNEP produced in 2016 a study on marine plastic litter and microplastics.
Closely related to this study are the UNEP Marine Litter Vital Graphics.
GESAMP, an advisory body consisting of specialized experts on marine environmental pollution presented recently the second phase of its work on microplastics .
The Biodiversity Convention issued recently an updated report on marine litter impacts.