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REDUST - Best winter maintenance practices to reduce respirable street dust in urban areas - demonstration of best practices, strategy development and implementation

LIFE09 ENV/FI/000579


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Contact details:

Contact person: Outi VÄKEVÄ
Tel: +358 9 310 315 16
Email: jari.viinanen@hel.fi



Project description:

Background

Street dust is composed of mineral particles from pavement wear and/or from traction sand that accumulate in the street during winter. In spring, when snow and ice melt and surfaces dry out, the particles become airborne and are a major source of urban air pollution (PM10) in sub-arctic regions (e.g. Scandinavia, the Baltic, North America and Japan). In Finland, it is considered to be one of the most problematic air pollutants, causing most of the high pollution episode days in urban areas. City residents are very aware of the street dust problem, which causes annoyance and health problems, especially for those who suffer from respiratory diseases. For this reason, the issue attracts considerable media attention. Although the Finnish municipalities have done much to mitigate street dust, these efforts were not enough to meet the limits required by the EU directive on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (2008/50/EC). Although the Finnish municipalities have done much to mitigate street dust, these efforts have not been enough to meet the limits required by the EU directive on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (2008/50/EC).


Objectives

The REDUST project aimed to: 1. Find best winter practices in the fields of traction control, dust suppression and street cleaning, and accelerate their implementation in order to reduce levels of respirable street dust (PM10) in urban areas (The project would demonstrate the emissions reduction potential and air quality benefits of these best practices. Associated costs would be estimated and compared with the current state.); and 2. Develop and implement a strategy to reduce levels of respirable (PM10) street dust by means of better winter maintenance practices in urban areas in Finland.


Results

The REDUST project demonstrated best practices to reduce PM10 street dust by means of winter maintenance. It carried out traction control practices (winter tyres, traction sanding), dust binding practices (dust binding solutions, dispersion techniques) and street cleaning practices (mechanical and vacuum sweepers, street scrubbers, combinations). These measures were shown to have the potential to significantly reduce street dust episodes and associated respiratory problems.

During the project implementation, the number of days when respirable particles (PM10) exceeded the daily limit (>50 µg/m3) decreased in Helsinki’s city centre. Furthermore, the margin of particle levels exceeding the threshold on poor air quality days also declined, further indication that air quality is improving. The limit value was also not exceeded in Vantaa or Espoo.

This declining trend is supported by both short- and long-term air quality measurements. Emission reductions and the costs of current as well as additional measures were calculated. Based on these calculations, an economically feasible street maintenance strategy was developed and implemented. The significant reduction in PM10 that occurred during the project is believed to be related to the improved strategic street maintenance actions.

For example, the dust binding and street cleaning measures carried out on a 10 km Helsinki city route in spring 2014 led to a 15% reduction in PM10 dust emissions (~ 1 600 kg). The dust emission reduction is based on the estimation method devised by the project and is not an exact figure. The effectiveness of measures was expressed as percentage reductions in order to compare their relative efficiency when deployed on different streets in the participating cities. The project estimates that up to a 25% reduction in PM10 street dust emissions during spring can be achieved in busy urban traffic locations with improved dust binding and street cleaning actions.

Communication activities were very important to the success of REDUST. Annual street dust seminars aimed at national expert were held during the four years of the project. Two international seminars were held for Scandinavian and Baltic audiences and the project experts attended in several international conferences and meetings to spread the project results to an even wider audience. The beneficiary has received significant interest from other cities in Finland. Investing in modern street scrubber may pose a challenge for smaller cities, but cooperation among cities and private contracting might reduce the financial burden on them.

The best practices demonstrated have helped the city authorities to comply with the EU Directive 2008/50/EC on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe. Furthermore, the city of Helsinki has started to prepare a new air quality action plan (2017-2024), which will be completed in 2016. One of the aims of the plan is to reduce the risk of exceeding the PM10 limit value so the best practices demonstrated in REDUST will be included in the street dust section of the new air quality action plan, as they have been shown to be cost-effective means to reduce emissions of street dust.

In the longer term, the city of Helsinki has adopted a new environmental policy where the aim is to reduce the annual maximum number of PM10 exceedances per year from 35 to 18 by year 2050.

Further information on the project can be found in the project's layman report and After-LIFE Communication Plan (see "Read more" section).


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Environmental issues addressed:

Themes

Air & Noise - Air quality monitoring
Risk management - Human health protection


Keywords

urban area‚  emission reduction‚  air pollution‚  traffic emission‚  public health


Target EU Legislation

  • Air
  • Directive 2008/50/EC - Ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (21.05.2008)

Natura 2000 sites

Not applicable


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Beneficiaries:

Coordinator City of Helsinki Envinronment Centre
Type of organisation Local authority
Description Helsinki is the capital of Finland and the city municipality is responsible for basic infrastructure such as roads streets and parks, as well as for environmental quality and health, including air quality.
Partners City of Espoo, Finland City of Vantaa, Finland Nordic Envicon Oy, Finland Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Finland Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Finland

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Project reference LIFE09 ENV/FI/000579
Duration 01-JAN-2011 to 31-DEC -2014
Total budget 1,046,150.00 €
EU contribution 500,000.00 €
Project location Uusimaa(Finland Suomi)

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Read more:

Project web site Project's website
Publication: After-LIFE Communication Plan After-LIFE Communication Plan
Publication: Case study "Description of the Winter Maintenance Strategy wi ...
Publication: Guidelines-Manual "REDUST: Best practices in winter maintenance to r ...
Publication: Layman report Layman report
Publication: Technical report "PM10 dust emission estimates for current measures ...
Publication: Technical report "Deliverable product of the Redust Action 4: Winte ...
Publication: Technical report "Deliverable product of the REDUST Actions 1 and 2 ...
Publication: Technical report Project's Final technical report
Slides Presentation "Adverse health effects of street dust. In: ...
Slides Presentation "Action 1 and 2: Results of the 2014 demonstration ...
Slides Presentation "Objectives and Actions of the REDUST Project 2011 ...
Slides Presentation "Results of the REDUST demonstration tests. In: ...
Slides Presentation "Cost-efficiency of the dust binding and street cl ...
Slides Presentation "Winter tyre emissions in REDUST demonstrations an ...
Slides Presentation "Air quality in Helsinki region during Redust proj ...
Slides Presentation "Operational measures against PM10 pollution in St ...
Slides Presentation "Norwegian Dust: Status of roaddust in Norway, and ...
Slides Presentation "Winter maintenance strategies and better practise ...
Slides Presentation "Non-exhaust traffic emissions: Knowledge gained i ...
Slides Presentation "Winter maintenance redusing street dust in Oslo. ...
Slides Presentation "Cost-efficiency of the dust binding and street cl ...
Slides Presentation "PM10 reduction by the application of liquid Calci ...
Slides Presentation "Street dust sources and introduction to REDUST pr ...
Slides Presentation "Description of the measurement vechiles" (690 KB)
Slides Presentation "First year demonstration tests - test results 201 ...
Slides Presentation "Deliverable product of the REDUST LIFE09 ENV/FI/0 ...
Slides Presentation "Deliverable product of the REDUST LIFE09 ENV/FI/0 ...
Slides Presentation "Deliverable product of the REDUST LIFE09 ENV/FI/0 ...
Slides Presentation "Description of the demonstrations" (1.00 MB)
Slides Presentation "Upwind-downwind measurements for estimating vehic ...

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Project description   Environmental issues   Beneficiaries   Administrative data   Read more   Print   PDF version