1. Historical and Organisational Background
Environmental concerns did not figure on the international agenda when the UN was created. This explains the absence of a UN role in environmental protection in the UN Charter. However, with increasing evidence of deterioration of the environment scale in the following decades, the UN became a leading advocate for environmental concerns and sustainable development.
Following the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm in 1972, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) was established as the main UN body in the field of environment. As a subsidiary of the General Assembly, the Governing Council of UNEP reports to the Assembly, which considers and decides on selected environmental and environment-related issues, including institutional arrangements and related international processes.
The Economic and Social Council may make or initiate studies and reports with respect to international economic, social, cultural, educational, health and related matters (including environment) and may make recommendations to the General Assembly, to the UN members to the concerned specialised agencies.
In the post-Stockholm years, mounting concern over continuing environmental degradation led the UNGA to convene the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1983. The report of the Commission (the Brundtland Report) was a catalyst for the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCCD), also known as the Earth Summit. Among other outcomes, the Summit adopted Agenda 21, a comprehensive plan of action for addressing both environment and development goals in the 21st century and the Rio Declaration.
To ensure effective follow-up of Agenda 21 and UNCED as a whole, the General Assembly established in 1992 the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) as a functional commission of the ECOSOC. The UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) provides the secretariat for CSD.
A five-year review of UNCED progress, what became known as Rio+5, was made in 1997 by the UNGA meeting in special session.
A Summit-level ten-year review of UNCED, the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) was held from 26 August - 4 September 2002, in Johannesburg, South Africa, with the purpose of reinvigorating the global commitment to sustainable development. The WSSD negotiated and adopted two main documents: the Johannesburg Declaration and a Plan of Implementation designed as a framework for action both to implement the commitments originally agreed at UNCED as well as new commitments.
2. European Commission and UN Cooperation on the Environment
Conscious of the gains to be made by cooperating actively with the UN, in 2004 and 2005 the European Commission significantly upgraded its links with UNEP. In September 2004 the Commision and UNEP signed a Memorandum of Understanding which aims inter alia to reinforce synergies, thereby contributing to the achievement of the environmentally related UN Millennium Development Goals and to the implementation of the WSSD environment commitments. Further objectives include: policy exchanges on issues of common interest, cooperation on analysis and assessment and utilisation of each other's comparative advantage.
Under the MoU, the Commisison and UNEP held a first High-Level Meeting on 23 May 2004. The meeting discussed major technical and operational policy issues and agreed a joint Work Programme designed to further the work of the MoU. Read the press release.
Subsequent meetings under the MoU (with review meetings every six months) will review progress on the Work Programme and concentrate on achieving practical outcomes through cooperation.
One aspect of practical cooperation was the provision of information in preparation for the February 2006 UNEP Governing Council / Special Session at which issues such as chemicals management, energy and tourism and their respective influence on the environment were considered.
On a further level, that of international environmental governance, the European Commission and UNEP see opportunities for synergy and cooperation. At its June 2005 European Council, the EU, conscious of the need to improve international environmental governance, called for negotiations at the UN which could lead to the gradual upgrading of UNEP into a Nairobi-based United Nations Environment Organisation (UNEO). Such an organisation should better be able to address the environmental dimension of sustainable development in an integrated and consistent manner.
Finally, in 2005 the European Commission also agreed to support UNEP policy on sustainable consumption and production, mercury reduction and strategic chemicals management through a number of direct grants. The Commission sees that support for UNEP in theses areas is an excellent way to further European standards and policies on a wider, indeed on a global scale.
Building on this partnership, in June 2014 the EC and UNEP signed a revised Memorandum of Understanding aiming to capture shared priorities and to respond to the outcome of the Rio+20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development held in June 2012, which strengthened the role of UNEP as the leading global environmental authority that sets the global environmental agenda. The areas of interest will be included in an Annex to the MoU that is still being developed.
The main UN website is http://www.un.org/
The UN System (the whole UN family of organisations) has a separate website at http://www.unsystem.org/
UN documents can be found at: http://www.un.org/documents/
There is a comprehensive website on the EU at the UN, under the following address: http://europa-eu-un.org/. This contains extensive links, a description of EU policies at the UN, EU Statements, EU priorities for each General Assembly, EU publications on UN issues, etc.Specific information about the European Commission's environmental policy of global relevance, statements and speeches on the environment and sustainable development can be found the above-mentioned website.
The European External Action Service (EEAS) has created a webpage on the EU's relations with the UN, including an overview of relations between the two bodies, useful links and publication.
Other useful links: