POLES is a partial equilibrium world-wide energy market model, but has a different geographical split than PRIMES. It encompasses the whole world, but has a less detailed breakdown of Member States. This renders it an excellent tool to shed light on interactions with international energy markets as a consequence of EU carbon emission trading. As a deficit POLES is less suited to illuminate in detail the effects of sectorally and geographically limited permit markets. As PRIMES, the POLES model fails to capture general economy-wide effects like changes in international trade.