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The RAINS model which will be used as basis for the CAFE baseline scenario and for the integrated assessment modelling is designed to work on 50 * 50 km grid. Although this scale is considered to be adequate for regional scale pollution, it does not give appropriate answers to local problems, mainly in urban areas. It will be necessary to better understand the links between the regional and the local (urban) situation of air quality.

In order to address this problem, Joint Research Centre, EMEP, EUROTRAC and IIASA launched a research exercise on modelling and urban scale, called "City Delta" in association with eight volunteer cities.

The RAINS model has been extended to also assess air pollution in the urban background through the CITY DELTA II project led by IIASA. The final report of the CITY DELTA II project gives the details on how the methodology of parameterisation of air pollution in the urban background has been performed.

Other urban scale projects are currently developed and could be used in the framework of the CAFE programme, such as INTEGAIRE launched by EUROCITIES.

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