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VOC Solvents Directive

Reduction of emissions and substitution of solvents - an annotated list of useful links

The following websites provide information on various aspects of reducing emissions of solvents. Note that information provided on these external websites does not necessarily reflect the Commission’s position.

Details of the sectors of solvent-consuming activities under Directive 99/13/EC, to which the links apply, are provided in the main guidance documents page.

English language sites

Owner

Summary & Link

Activity

European Commission

Reference document on Best Available Techniques on Surface Treatment of Solvents. The document discusses: three printing processes using solvents on a large scale (heatset web offset, flexible packaging and publication gravure); coating and/or painting of winding wires, transport vehicles, steel and aluminium coil, metal packaging, furniture and wood, as well as other metal and plastic surfaces; adhesive application in the manufacture of abrasives and adhesive tapes; impregnation of wood with preservatives; and cleaning and degreasing associated with these activities. (guidance by authority)
http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reference/

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 17

European Commission

Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Textiles Industry. This BREF document presents the best available techniques in the textile industry, including measures to reduce VOCs emissions. (guidance by authority)
http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reference/

8

European Commission

Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in Common Waste Water and Waste Gas Treatment/Management Systems in the Chemical Sector. This BREF document covers waste gas, including VOCs, treatment techniques which are applicable regardless of the sector or industry. (guidance by authority)
http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reference/

General

European Commission

Reference Document on Best Available Techniques on Emissions from Storage. This BREF document covers the storage, transfer and handling of liquids, liquefied gases and solids, regardless of the sector or industry. Furthermore it addresses emissions to air, soil and water, however, most attention is given to emissions to air. Information about air emissions from the storage and handling/transfer of solids focuses on dust. (guidance by authority)
http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reference/

General

European Commission

Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Manufacture of Organic Fine Chemicals. This BREF document focuses on the batch manufacture of organic chemicals in multipurpose plants. Specifically this document targets the following sections from ANNEX 1 of the IPPC Directive: (a) 4.1j Dyes and Pigments, (b) 4.4 Plant health products and biocides, and (c) 4.5 Pharmaceutical products (chemical and biological processes). As part of the section of best available techniques, this BREF also presents measures to reduce VOC emissions. (guidance by authority)
http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reference/

General

European Commission

Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Surface Treatment of Metals and Plastics. It also covers surface treatment for (alternative) non solvent based processes. (guidance by authority)
http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reference/

4, 5, 8

IMPEL / EU network

This link highlights the results of a 2005 IMPEL workshop to exchange information on the use of VOC and comprises a main report and a number of annexes which, in particular, contain useful information on: Annex 2 – VOC-Directive; Annex 3 – Implementation in Austria; Annex 4 - Implementation in Sweden; Annex 5 - Implementation in Italy; Annex 6 – VOC-regulation in Switzerland; Annex 7 – Case Study "Printing"; Annex 8 – Case Study "Coating"; Annex 8A – Case Study "Coating-Wood, Germany"; Annex 8B – Case Study "Coating trucks, Germany"; Annex 9 – Case Study "Pharmaceutical Industry"; Annex 10 – Case Study "Surface Cleaning".
http://impel.eu/

1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 20

Envirowise / UK Government funded programme

Site offering support on practical ways for businesses to increase profits, minimise waste and reduce environmental impact across a range of areas. VOC information on this site related to specific activities are mentioned in links further below, but a range of more general VOC publications are available on the site.GG413 Reducing solvent costs - Good housekeeping and practical measures, GG203 Monitoring VOC Emissions: Choosing the Best Option; GG405 Paint and powder coating: Reducing quantities and costs. (guidance by authority)
http://www.envirowise.gov.uk/

General

Envirowise / UK Government funded programme

Metal Finishing Sector: Industrial Organic Coating. This internet link describes a generalised approach with simple measures and techniques that can be applied to reduce emissions in the metal finishing sector. These measures are also applicable in other coating activities. (guidance by authority)
"Metal Finishing Sector: Industrial Organic Coating"

8

Envirowise / UK Government funded programme

Furniture Sector: Solvent Use Reduction. This is a useful website that provides information regarding legislation, alternative coatings, measures and techniques that can be used to reduce emissions in the furniture sector. (guidance by authority)
"Furniture Sector: Solvent Use Reduction"

10

Envirowise / UK Government funded programme

Solvent reduction online workshop. This internet link is an online workshop on how to develop a solvent management plan. (guidance by authority)
"Solvent reduction online workshop"

General

US EPA / Government

Pollution Prevention in the Printing Industry - A Manual for Pollution Prevention Technical Assistance Providers. This website provides a ‘basic’ overview of pollution prevention in the printing industry, at all stages in the printing process. It covers all waste forms (solid, wastewater, air emissions) including solvent emissions, and discusses simple ways to minimise solvent emissions and potential alternative materials. (guidance by authority)
"Pollution Prevention in the Printing Industry - A Manual for Pollution Prevention Technical Assistance Providers"

1, 2, 3

RTI / Industry

This internet link presents SAGE, a Solvent Alternative Guide, designed to provide pollution prevention information on solvent and process alternatives for parts cleaning and degreasing. SAGE was developed by the Contamination Control Program at RTI International in cooperation with the U.S. EPA Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division (APPCD). (guidance by authority)
http://www.p2pays.org/ref/19/18161/altern.cfm.htm

General

ESIG / Trade association

ESIG abatement advisor program. This program enables a comparison of the technical and economic aspects of all the main VOC abatement techniques. It uses details of the process stream and determines which abatement methods are technically suitable for that stream. It then calculates the operating and investment costs of each suitable technique
ESIG abatement advisor program

All

TURI / Academic institute

Toxics Use Reduction Institute, Surface Solutions Laboratory, University of Massachusetts Lowe. A database has been created by Surface Solutions Laboratory. It presents the results of a number of tests trialing different products as substitutes to conventional solvents used for surface cleaning. This is primarily applied to US based installations.
http://www.cleanersolutions.org/

General

Kooperationsstelle Hamburg funded by European Commission

Clean tool database. This database was developed a part of the CLEANTOOL project (2001-2004), a European Innovation Project, which aimed to create a database of best practice for the cleaning of metal surfaces. More than a 100 enterprises have participated in this project.
http://www.cleantool.org/lang/en/start_e.htm

All

UK Defra / Sepa, Environment Agency / Government

The Secretary State’s guidance documents on solvents sector cover all activities in the VOC Solvents Directive. These guidance documents provide information on best available techniques for each activity, solvent management plans and solvent inventories and other general control measures to meet the requirements of the VOC Solvents Directive. (guidance by authority)
http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/ppc/localauth/pubs/...

All

British Coatings Federation / Industry Association

The UK Secretary of State's Guidance Note for The Manufacture of Coatings Materials , PG6/44(04) (see Link L017) makes reference to the British Coatings Federation's VOC Workbook, as a means of demonstrating compliance (for UK organizations) with the VOC total emission limits and as a basis for preparation of solvent management plans. The VOC Workbook has been developed with the appreciation that the very low level of VOC emissions from coatings manufacturing installations required a different methodology to that applicable to industrial and professional users of coatings and inks. An accompanying spreadsheet also provides a framework for calculation of VOC contents and emissions from various sources within coatings materials manufacturing installations.
http://www.coatings.org.uk/...

17

US EPA / Government

Envirosense, part of the U.S. EPA’s web site, provides a repository for pollution prevention, compliance assurance, and enforcement information and data bases. Included is a link into the Integrated Solvent Substitution Data System, a prototype intelligent system which helps in the selection of alternative surface cleaning options. (guidance by authority)
http://www.epa.gov/envirosense/

General

Curzons et al. / Academic research

A paper which gives guidance on solvent selection for synthetic chemical processes such as pharmaceutical production.
Solvent selection guide: a guide to the integration of environmental, health and safety criteria into the selection of solvents (pdf ~435 KB)

20

National Center for Manufacturing Sciences

Contains health and safety, chemical and physical, regulatory and environmental fate data on a wide range of commercially available solvents.
http://solvdb.ncms.org/

General

Dr. Claude Yoder / Private

An overview of common solvents with their melting point, boiling point, density, refractive index, dielectric constant, molar refraction and dipole moment.
"Table 26. Physical Characteristics of Solvents"

General

US EPA / Government

A guide to alternatives to solvent borne coatings. (guidance by authority)
"Alternatives to Solvent-Borne Coatings"

7, 8, 9, 10

Spectrum Laboratories Inc / Industry

Index to Chemical Fact Sheets for hundreds of substances, which describe the environmental impact and fate of each substance as well as physical properties and uses.
http://www.speclab.com/compound/chemabc.htm

General

ESIG / Trade association

The European Solvents Industry Group provides various information about solvents, use, life cycle, environmental impacts and different ways of reducing solvent emissions. Publications, guidelines, etc, are available from the website.
http://www.esig.org/

General

SUBSPRINT / University

Publications from the SUBSPRINT-Project “Substitution of Organic Solvents in the Printing Industry”. The publications are in various languages; a few are available as PDF-files (in German), others can be ordered via email.
http://www.rrz.uni-hamburg.de/kooperationsstelle-hh/...

1, 2, 3

Kooperationsstelle Hamburg funded by European Commission

VOFAPro is a research project on vegetable oil based cleaning agents as substitutes for organic solvents in industrial processes.
http://www.rrz.uni-hamburg.de/kooperationsstelle-hh/...

General

Berufsgenossenschaft / Industry

A guide to washing and cleaning agents for the offset printing industry.
http://www.bgdp.de/e/pages/health-safety/initiative.htm

1

GCC / Trade association

UV cured inks can effectively be considered solvent free, however solvents are still used for press wash-up. Health and safety and environmental precautions for UV process hazards are provided.
http://www.gciu.org/safety/uv.shtml

General

Volkswagen / Industry

Technical progress and environmental protection: paint shop technology at Volkswagen.
"Paint-shop Technology at Volkswagen" (pdf ~658 KB)

6

Ireland EPA / Government

Environment Agency of Ireland website providing guidance on solvent use in various industries. (guidance by authority)
http://www.epa.ie/TechnicalGuidanceandAdvice/SolventRegulations

General

RTI / Research

Cage - Coating alternatives guide.
"Coatings Guide (TM)" (pdf ~219 KB)

8

Wisconcin Department of Natural Resources / Government

Conversion from solvent to waterborne coatings for wood finishing. (guidance by authority)
"Pollution Prevention Case Study" (pdf ~110 KB)

10

French language sites

Owner

Summary & Link

Activity

French Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development / Government

French Government web site for the Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development, providing an overview of the approach to reducing industrial VOC emissions. This covers aims for solvent management. Linked from this site are several sector guidance documents on VOC emission reduction and solvent management – see LF02 to LF05 below. (guidance by authority)
"Réduction des émissions des composés organiques volatils (COV)"

General

ADEME / French government environment and energy research organization / Government

Sector guide for VOC emission and solvent management. This document was produced by ADEME in association with the Industry Federation for Paints, Inks, Colours, Glues and Adhesives (FIPEC). (guidance by authority)
"Les émissions de COV dans le secteur de la production des peintures , vernis, encres d'imprimerie, colles et adhésifs" (pdf ~702 KB)

17

ADEME / French government environment and energy research organization / Government

Sector guide for VOC emission and solvent management. This document was produced by ADEME in association with the National Syndicate for Rubber and Polymers (SNCP). (guidance by authority)
" Guide de rédaction du schéma de maîtrise des émissions" (pdf ~1648 KB)

18

Mechanical Industries Federation
/ Trade association

Sector Guide prepared by the Mechanical Industries Federation. This includes an example solvent management plan.
" Guide de rédaction du schéma de maîtrise des émissions de COV - Secteurs de la mécanique, la plasturgie (peintures et vernis), l'électricité et l'électronique" (pdf ~1483 KB)

General

SICOS / Industry

Technical guide for VOC emissions management from the fine pharmaceuticals sector.
" Guide technique de mise en place des schémas de maîtise des émissions dans le secteur de la chimie fine pharmaceutique" (pdf ~457 KB)

20

French Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable
Development / Government

French Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development web site, providing an overview of the plans for the reduction in the emission of ozone precursors. (guidance by authority)
"La réduction des émissions des précurseurs de l'ozone"

General

ADEME / French government environment and energy research organization / Government

ADEME / Agence de l’Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l’Energie (French government environment and energy research organisation). Centre of information for emissions management. (guidance by authority)
http://www.ademe.fr/

General

French Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development / Government

Website providing an overview of legislation for the regulated sectors (including solvent emission ceilings) and guidance on best available technologies for pollution management. (guidance by authority)
http://aida.ineris.fr/

General

French Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development / Government

The French Government Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development is regionally represented by the DRIRE (Directions Régionales de l’Industrie, de la Recherche et de l’Environnement). The DRIRE co-ordinate and lead the inspection and compliance at the regional level with legislation governing classified installations, air pollution and waste. This main website links through to the regional DRIRE offices where information on VOC emissions levels, solvent usage and management techniques for local polluters can be found. (guidance by authority)
http://www.drire.gouv.fr/

General

IFEN / Government

The Institut Français de l’Environnement (IFEN) is an organisation established by the French Government Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development. Its aim is to gather, treat and publish statistics relating to levels of environmental pollution. It is also a centre of expertise for the development of measuring protocols. (guidance by authority)
http://www.ifen.fr/

General

CITEPA / Research
centre

CITEPA (Centre interprofessionnel technique d’études de la pollution atmosphérique) is a technical centre in which up-to-date information about policy and technology on atmospheric pollution circulates. CITEPA regularly produces estimations of quantities emitted into the atmosphere from different sources including industrial solvent usage.
http://www.citepa.org/emissions/index.htm

General

INRS / Research centre

The Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité is a French institute whose objective is the Health and Safety of workers. The site contains a Dossier on Solvents.
http://www.inrs.fr/

General

Flanders Environment Ministry

Measuring method for fugitive solvent emissions in flexible packaging. (guidance by authority)
http://www.sitmae.nl/htmls/Fugitives_Sitmae_FPE.htm

3

German language sites

Owner

Summary & Link

Activity

PIUS / Technology Network

Information about "Production Integrated Environmental Protection" ("Cleaner Production") in Germany , including experiences for the reduction of solvents. The website is provided in German and English.
http://www.pius-info.de/

General

EFA / Regional Government

Information about sustainable development in North Rhine-Westphalia, including experiences for the reduction of solvents. The website is provided in German and English.
http://www.efanrw.de/
http://www.owlquadrat.de/

General

Kooperationsstelle Hamburg / Regional Government

Provides information on good practice with substitution of solvents. A list of substitute solvents is also given. The website is provided in German and English.
http://www.rrz.uni-hamburg.de/kooperationsstelle-hh/

General

IG Metall / Trade Union

IG Metal (union for metal manufacturing companies) took part in a LIFE project from 1997 to 2000 investigating opportunities for cleaning metals with a substitution for ester. Substitution solvents are based on plant oils.
http://www.loesemittelersatz.de/11.html

5

Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health / Government

List of most technical rules (TRGS) for various hazardous compounds. TRGS are German guidelines for good practice of handling hazardous materials from the Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (FIOSH; in German, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, BAuA).
http://www.baua.de/prax/ags/trgs.htm

General

Umwelt / Government

Link providing all guidelines for hazardous substances (TRGS) which are part of the hazardous substances regulations and a direct link to the 31 BimSchV. The umwelt-online.de website is useful for finding any German legislation related to environmental issues although an annual subscription fee is required. (guidance by authority)
http://www.umwelt-online.de/recht/t_regeln/trgs/trgs0/uete.htm
http://www.umwelt-online.de/recht/luft/bimschg/vo/31bv_ges.htm

General

DFIU / University

Guideline for using water based paint in small and medium enterprises for garages and car repair.
http://www.ubka.uni-karlsruhe.de/cgi-bin/psview?document=/2000/wiwi/4

6

Ver.di / Trade Union

Details and advice for printing companies (offset print) which are not allowed to use VOCs any more. Information provided before EU solvent directive was implemented, but it is still relevant and useful advice.
http://www.verdi-druckundverlage.de/

1

Spanish language sites

Owner

Summary & Link

Activity

Spanish Government

The Spanish environment ministry has developed guidance for firms trying to comply with requirements in Directive 1999/13/EC (VOC). The document is intended to help Spanish industry interpret, adapt to and comply with the law (guidance by authority).

Homepage on VOC from Spanish Environment Ministry

Guidance supporting the implementation of the Royal Decree 117/2003

Excel tool for the Solvent Management Plan

General

Dutch language sites

Owner

Summary & Link

Activity

Flanders Environment Ministry

Comprehensive and detailed evaluation of the emission reduction potential of VOC emissions in the printing sector. Details on the use of substitutes and abatement cost curves. (guidance by authority)
"Evaluatie emissiereductiepotentieel voor VOS-emissies van de grafische sector" (pdf ~2007 KB)

1, 2, 3

Flanders Environment Ministry

Contains 3 documents with guidance on implementation of the VOC Solvents Directive and a list of Frequently Asked Questions. (guidance by authority)
http://www.mina.be/VOS.html

General

Flanders Environment Ministry

Guidance on producing annual documents substantiating compliance with the Flemish transposition of the Solvent Emissions Directive. (guidance by authority)
Handleiding VOS-documenten - Handleiding voor de opmaak van VOS-documenten zoals bedoeld in VLAREM II ART. 5.59.3.2 § 1 (pdf ~183 KB)

General

Flanders Environment Ministry

Clarifications and answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Flemish transposition of the Solvent Emissions Directive. (guidance by authority)
Verhelderingen en antwoorden op veel gestelde vragen behorend bij handeling voor de opmaak van VOS-documenten zoals bedoeld in VLAREM II ART 5.59.3.1. §1 (pdf ~465 KB)

General