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Activity and Emissions

These sector-specific models focus on the energy, transport and respectively agricultural sector and provide support to policies such as emission standards for vehicles, subsidy policies for agriculture or carbon energy taxes. The models can account for specific environmental conditions and constraints such as carbon dioxide (CO2), and depending on the model, other greenhouse gas emissions as well as air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).


  • to study the effects of different policies on emissions generated by different sectors (e.g. energy sector, transport sector, agricultural sector) so as to support the integrated assessment of cost-effective pollution control strategies meeting air pollution and climate change targets.


PRIMES (energy), used for the analysis of coherent climate strategies combining renewable energy with energy efficiency improvements and carbon capture

POLES (energy) was used for the analysis of policies to meet the EU 2 degree Celsius target for climate change

TREMOVE (transportation) was used for the analysis of Euro (5 and 6) emission standards for vehicles in the EU

CAPRI (agricultural sector) was used to estimate future livestock numbers and fertilizer use in the EU to estimate the impact on ammonia emissions.