Pulp and paper
Pulp - the basic ingredient for the manufacture of paper and board - is produced mainly from fresh wood, woodchips from sawmills and recovered paper.
Paper is a product, manufactured from a natural and renewable raw material - wood. It can also be made out of recovered paper.
Packaging, hygiene and household products, office paper and stationery and other products (such as wallpaper, bookbinding, etc.) are the main subsectors of the paper and board converting industry.
Graphic papers : these include newsprint (paper mainly used for printing newspapers), uncoated mechanical (also called groundwood or wood-containing paper; suitable for printing or other graphical purposes where less than 90% of the fibre furnish consists of chemical pulp fibres), uncoated woodfree (paper suitable for printing or other graphical purposes where at least 90% of the fibre furnish consists of chemical pulp fibres e.g. most office papers and stationery) and coated papers (all paper suitable for printing or other graphical purposes and coated on one or both sides with minerals such as kaolin).
Sanitary and household : this covers a wide range of tissue and other hygienic papers for use in households and on commercial and industrial premises.
Packaging : this is the largest subsector of the paper and board converting industry. It includes corrugated boxes, folding boxes, beverage cartons, solid board boxes, paper sacks and flexible packaging. Packaging is a fairly fragmented sector which depends very much on the technology used.
Stone ground wood : pulp produced by grinding wood into relatively short fibres. This pulp is used mainly in newsprint and wood-containing papers.
Thermo-mechanical (TMP) : pulp produced in a thermo-mechanical process where wood particles are softened by steam before entering a pressurised refiner. In general, TMP has the same end-uses as stone ground wood.
Sulphite : pulp produced by cooking wood chips in a pressure vessel in the presence of bisulphite liquor. End-uses range from newsprint, printing and writing papers, tissue and sanitary papers. Sulphite can either be bleached or unbleached.
Sulphate (or kraft) : pulp produced by cooking wood chips in pressure vessels in the presence of a sodium hydroxide (soda) liquor. The pulp may be unbleached or bleached. End-uses are widespread, with bleached pulp particularly used for graphical papers, tissue and carton boards. Unbleached pulp is commonly used in liner for corrugated board, wrappings, sack and bag papers, envelopes and other unbleached speciality papers.