Studies and publications
- Results of the SME panel on-line consultation
- First Survey on the attitudes of Europeans towards tourism (February 2009)
- Second survey on the attitudes of Europeans towards tourism (October 2009)
- Study on the Competitiveness of the EU tourism industry
- The impact of major cultural and sporting events on tourism-oriented SMEs (2007)
- The European tourism industry in the enlarged Community (2007)
- Innovation in tourism - How to create a tourism learning area (2006)
- ICT and e-Business in the tourism industry (e-Business W@tch Sector Study)
- Trends and skill needs in tourism 2005 (CEDEFOP Panorama Series)
- The European tourism industry: a multi-sector with dynamic markets. Structures, development and importance of Europe's economy (2004)
- Improving information on accessible tourism for disabled people (2004)
- Feasibility and preparatory study concerning the networking and partnership of tourism stakeholders and destinations, and of bodies developing and providing knowledge and competence regarding tourism (2004)
- Early warning system for identifying declining tourism destinations, and preventive best practises (2004)
- Making the best use of Structural Funds (2003)
- QUALITEST - a manual for evaluating the quality performance of tourist destinations and services (2003)
- Structure, performance and competitiveness of European tourism and its enterprises (2003)
- Using natural and cultural heritage for the development of sustainable tourism in non-traditional tourism destinations (2002)
- Towards quality tourism: Integrated Quality Management (IQM) for destinations (2000)
- Towards quality coastal tourism: Integrated Quality Management (IQM) for coastal destinations
- Towards quality rural tourism: Integrated Quality Management (IQM) for rural destinations
- Towards quality urban tourism: Integrated Quality Management (IQM) for urban destinations
Studies and publications
For more publications related to 'Tourism', please visit the Tourism publications' section in our newsroom.
For more general publications, please visit our Publications web page.
Results of the SME panel on-line consultation
The consultation was run using the SME Test of the Enterprise Europe Network (The Enterprise Europe Network is made up of close to 500 partner organisations in more than 40 countries) during a six week period starting beginning of March until mid-April 2009. It was an ad-hoc survey on the situation in some of the main tourism industry sectors and was designed with regard to the current economic situation in SMEs.
There were 2749 answers, whose results (full report and results by sector) are in the attached documents:
Full report [76 KB]
- Gastronomy sector [77 KB]
- Accomodation sector [80 KB]
- Travel agencies & Tour operators [75 KB]
- Transport [80 KB]
First Survey on the attitudes of Europeans towards tourism (February 2009)
The Flash Eurobarometer survey “Survey on the attitudes of Europeans towards tourism” was conducted to collect citizens' views, details of holidays and travel in 2007 and 2008 and their plans regarding holidays in 2009.
The fieldwork was conducted from 14 to 18 February 2009. Over 27,000 randomly selected citizens aged 15 and over were interviewed in the 27 EU Member States.
Second survey on the attitudes of Europeans towards tourism (October 2009)
The Flash Eurobarometer 281 on the “Survey on the attitudes of Europeans towards tourism, Autumn 2009” was conducted at the request of Directorate General Enterprise and Industry to collect EU citizens’ views on travel, details of their (planned) holidays and travel in 2009 and their expectations regarding holidays in 2010.
The fieldwork was conducted from 7 to 11 September 2009. Over 24,000 randomly selected citizens aged 15 and over were interviewed in the 27 EU Member States. The sample size varied within Member States; in most countries the target sample size was 1,000 respondents, but 500 interviews were made in the smaller countries (please see the Survey Details section in the Annex for details of the actual sample sizes for the 27 countries).
Special emphasis was put on the financial aspect of taking a holiday, as this is becoming a prime concern for both travellers and the tourism industry in the midst of the serious economic downturn affecting all EU economies.
Study on the Competitiveness of the EU tourism industry
In international tourist arrival statistics, the EU consistently appears as the number one tourism destination in the world. With approximately 380 million international tourist arrivals in 2007, the EU received 42% of the total number of international arrivals in the world.
The Study on the Competitiveness of the EU tourism industry - with specific focus on the accommodation and tour operator & travel agent industries - was commissioned by the Commission and run by Ecorys.
Disclaimer : The views and proposals expressed in the study are those of the experts and do not necessarily represent any official view of the European Commission or any other organisations mentioned in the Report.
- Full study [3 MB]
The impact of major cultural and sporting events on tourism-oriented SMEs (2007)
This study was launched in 2005 with the aim of assessing the social, economic and environmental impact of major cultural and sporting events (MCS events) on destinations and local enterprises. The findings of the study aims to raise awareness among all stakeholders (policy makers, SMEs, local community) about the potential of these events and the need to work together in partnership at the regional level to organise them in a sustainable way. A Handbook has been finalised as a result of the project to provide a set of guidelines on how to successfully exploit at the regional level their potential for economic growth, competitiveness and employment, in the short and in the long term.
Monographies on the case-studies:
The European tourism industry in the enlarged Community (2007)
This report updates the Commission’s first analysis of the European tourism sector and extends it to the tourism industry of the enlarged Community.
It reveals that Europe is a very stable tourist destination compared to other large regions in the world. The enlargement process contributed to this by inducing international arrivals not only in the new Member States, but also between old and new Member States. The still existing gaps in income and the differences in travel habits open a tremendous number of business opportunities and offer incentives to improve competitiveness.
Full report [1024 KB]
Executive Summaries [65 KB]
Innovation in tourism - How to create a tourism learning area (2006)
This Handbook (the printed version is accompanied by a CD-ROM) is a practical guide for the implementation of learning areas, which is a concept of multi-stakeholder, inter-sectoral, problem-solving approach aimed at improving SMEs performance and human potential in the tourism sector at the destination level. It is one of the specific actions to promote the economic and social stability of European tourism, foreseen in the Commission communication "A Renewed EU Tourism Policy: Towards a Stronger Partnership for European Tourism" of 2006. The main target groups are government departments, business associations and social partners that deal with tourism, education, employment, environment and information technology. Interested parties are invited to follow the recommended registration process since this will facilitate vertical and horizontal information exchange between tourism learning areas.
ICT and e-Business in the tourism industry (e-Business W@tch Sector Study)
This document is a sector study by e-Business W@tch, focusing on the tourism industry. Its objective is to describe how companies in this industry use ICT for conducting business, to assess the impact of this development for firms and for the industry as a whole, and to indicate possible implications for policy. Analysis is based on literature, interviews, case studies and a survey among decision-makers in European enterprises from the tourism industry about the ICT use of their company.
Trends and skill needs in tourism 2005 (CEDEFOP Panorama Series)
This publication highlights the latest trends and skill needs in the hotel, catering and tourism sector in an international perspective. The publication is based on the proceedings of an international workshop held in Halle, Germany, 29-30 April 2004. Trends and developments in tourism in the old and new Member States of the European Union, and some countries hoping to join the EU, were discussed against the background of changes taking place in North America. Such discourse demonstrated many similarities and, in some cases, helped to identify possible future trends and useful solutions for Europe.
The European tourism industry: a multi-sector with dynamic markets. Structures, development and importance of Europe's economy (2004)
Because of its particular complexity and diversity the tourism sector is hardly comparable to other sectors of the economy, manufacturing industry as well as many business services. The present report aims to provide the reader with the information necessary for better understanding the tourism industry, its structure, interdependences and the interactions of the various segments on the demand and the supply side.
The European tourism industry [592 KB]
Improving information on accessible tourism for disabled people (2004)
Disabled people represent a large and growing market in the EU, for both business and leisure travel. In the European Union, about 37 million people are disabled. This is expected to rise in the future as the average age of the population increases. Research shows that disabled people are loyal customers, often returning to places that provide good accessibility. This Guidance describes how tourist facilities, large and small, and destinations as a whole can improve the quality of the service that they offer to disabled people and others who will benefit from better accessibility.
Feasibility and preparatory study concerning the networking and partnership of tourism stakeholders and destinations, and of bodies developing and providing knowledge and competence regarding tourism (2004)
On 13 November 2001, the Commission adopted its Communication "Working together for the future of European tourism" (COM(2001) 665).
In this Communication, the need was recognised to increase interaction with destinations and their representatives, and to mobilise existing competence and support centres for the development of knowledge and observation of tourism.
This increased interaction supports a strategic approach for creating the conditions and providing the basis for sustainable, high-quality tourism and competitive European tourism businesses. To meet this need, the commission proposed to provide the initial stimulation necessary for networks and partnerships that would make it possible to co-operate at European level (Measure 4 of the communication), and networking services and support functions ensured by competence centres (Measure 5).
By creating a network, increased interaction between the tourism stakeholders and destinations and partnerships between the various players (destinations/regions; economic and social stakeholders in private and public spheres and associations) will make it possible to co-operate at European level to promote sustainable, high-quality tourism and competitive businesses. In this way it will help strengthen the image of Europe as a tourist destination.
The role of the Commission will be limited to providing the initial stimulation necessary for creating networks and partnerships, in close co-operation with the Member States and in recognition of the breakdown of responsibilities between public and private stakeholders and associations.
Summary of the Study [76 KB]
A number of Good Practice Examples of networks, partnerships and competence bodies generated during the project :
Early warning system for identifying declining tourism destinations, and preventive best practises (2004)
Decline of tourist destinations can occur in any part of Europe where tourism has been developed in the past, and generally affects destinations with a certain tradition in providing tourism. The decline of a tourist destination normally results in economic losses or failure. This publication aims primarily to contribute to their understanding of the phenomenon of declining destinations by discussing the underlying aspects of decline. In the second place this publication shows how early warning on declining destinations operates in practice. Finally, it provides guidelines for using methods and developing a system for early warning.
Making the best use of Structural Funds (2003)
The European Union manages vast sum of money for the betterment of the European economy, the public sector and the citizens. The series of documents "Making the best use of structural funds" explained briefly how small and medium sized businesses, intermediary/representative organisations and local and regional public administrations in the Member States could obtain financial support for a huge range of projects and initiatives in the tourism and commerce sectors.
- Austria [49 KB]
- Belgium [248 KB]
- Denmark [47 KB]
- Finland [256 KB]
- France [280 KB]
- Germany [48 KB]
- Greece [179 KB]
- Ireland [256 KB]
- Italy [294 KB]
- Luxembourg [240 KB]
- Netherlands [256 KB]
- Portugal [244 KB]
- Spain [252 KB]
- Sweden [255 KB]
- United Kingdom [255 KB]
CORRIGENDUM [56 KB]
With the publications listed below the Commission seeks to inform enterprises in commerce and tourism, their intermediary organisations, and policy makers at national, regional and local levels about the possibilities which the community inititives offer for the future development of the commerce and tourism sector.
- EQUAL [29 KB]
- INTERREG III [29 KB]
- LEADER+ [27 KB]
- Objective 1 [28 KB]
- Objective 2 [25 KB]
- Objective 3 [29 KB]
- URBAN II [29 KB]
QUALITEST - a manual for evaluating the quality performance of tourist destinations and services (2003)
Quality is vital for a successful tourism industry. Europe’s tourism industry today faces the need to be ever more quality conscious to continue to attract tourists in a global marketplace. Quality is rapidly becoming the decisive competitive instrument in tourism.
This manual provides a tool to facilitate measuring, monitoring and benchmarking the quality performance of a tourist destination and services: it is called “QUALITEST”. This manual presents headline indicators for use in Quality Performance Evaluation of tourist destinations and provides detailed instructions for their use.
Qualitest manual [525 KB]
Structure, performance and competitiveness of European tourism and its enterprises (2003)
In a business environment characterised by rapid changes such as mergers, co-operation systems and the take-up of new technologies it is crucial to have reliable and comprehensive information on the structure, performance and competitiveness of the tourism industry. This study was aimed at helping to design policy issues supporting the tourism sector to exploit growth prospects and respond to structural changes in the tourism industry demand in Europe. The study has been recently updated.
Read document [172 KB]
Using natural and cultural heritage for the development of sustainable tourism in non-traditional tourism destinations (2002)
This study looks at the opportunities and challenges of developing tourism based on natural and cultural heritage in non-traditional tourist destinations in Europe. As such, it concerns primarily leisure rather than business tourism and focuses on rural areas rather than on urban or already popular coastal or mountain resorts. The publication is intended to provide a useful overview of the particularities of developing tourism based on cultural and natural heritage for all those who are interested or involved in this form of tourism, be they SMEs, specialised interest groups, site administrations, NGOs, local and regional authorities or tourism professionals.
- Introduction [25 KB] Content: Tourism in Europe - at a crossroad?
- Recent market trends [78 KB] An expanding market segment; a multiplicity of definitions ; recent trends in natural and cultural heritage tourism; market potential.
- Europe's natural & cultural wealth [574 KB] Defining natural and cultural heritage; Europe's landscape; protected nature areas; European cultural heritage; non-traditional tourism destinations.
- Prospects and limits of tourism [51 KB] Benefits of tourism; contraints; particular issues for tourism based on heritage.
- Key success factors [195 KB] Designing a tourism offer, the 'art' of tourism, ten key success factors.
- Assessing tourism potential [121 KB] Best practice guidance; principles of tourism supply and demand; tourism supply; tourism demand; the final assessment.
- Devising a tourism strategy [200 KB] Why a tourism strategy; defining an objective and setting targets; choice of facilities and services; product diversification; quality products; marketing strategy; pricing and packaging; finding allies and networking; updating and adjusting the strategy.
- Creating a viable tourism product [59 KB] Implementation; SMART projects and business plans; choice of lead organisation; sectoral support; overall coordination and financing.
- Monitoring and fine-tuning [72 KB] The need for regular monitoring; essential ingredients of monitoring programme; performance indicators; adaptive management response.
- Glossary [31 KB] Useful contacts and bibliography.
- Kuusamo-Finland [125 KB]
- Pays Cathare-France [284 KB]
- Shannon-Ireland [146 KB]
- Eichsfeld-Germany [244 KB]
- Extremadura-Spain [217 KB]
Towards quality tourism: Integrated Quality Management (IQM) for destinations (2000)
Quality tourism can contribute to the sustainable development of coastal, rural and urban areas by improving business competitiveness, meeting social needs and preserving the cultural and natural environment. If tourist destinations are to be successful in all these areas, they must take a global approach that focuses on tourist satisfaction and is based on the principles of sustainable development set out in this publication on integrated quality management (IQM). The purpose of these 3 publications is to draw lessons from the experience of those destinations which are making real efforts in this direction and to make recommendations useful for coastal, rural and urban tourist destinations.
Towards quality coastal tourism: Integrated Quality Management (IQM) for coastal destinations
Towards quality coastal tourism [10 MB]
Towards quality rural tourism: Integrated Quality Management (IQM) for rural destinations
Towards quality rural tourism [14 MB]