A number of space policy think-tanks exist across Europe and contribute to policy formulation and research.
Three main institutes contribute to policy formulation and research in the field of space.
European Space Policy Institute ( ESPI)
Based in Vienna, the ESPI carries out research that provides decision-makers with independent views on important issues relating to governance.
Interdisciplinary Centre for Space Studies ( ICSS )
The ICSS was established at the Katholieke Universteit Leuven (Belgium) in 2004. It works closely with Systemics Network International, in particular in developing the series of European space policy workshops that have become known as the 'Leuven Process'.
United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs ( UNOOSA)
The UNOOSA is the UN office responsible for promoting international co-operation on the peaceful use of space. It is located at the UN offices in Vienna.