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Glossary

Associated Countries

Third-country partners affiliated with the EU’s Security Research programme: Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Faroe Island, FYROM, Herzegovina, Iceland, Israel, Liechtenstein, Moldova, Montenegro, Norway, Turkey, Switzerland.

ATM

Air traffic management:  increasingly handled at European level by Eurocontrol and an essential critical infrastructure service.

Biometrics

The use of a user’s physical characteristics to determine access.

Bio-threats

Pathogens malevolently intended to kill or incite terror.

Body scanners

Security devices that create an image of a person's body as part of the search for hidden or dangerous objects and substances; increasingly used airport security checks; see also “Security scanners”.

CA

Conformity assessment: methods used to determine that a process, product, or service meets relevant technical standards and fulfills relevant requirements.

CAP

Conformity assessment procedure: methods used, directly or indirectly, to determine that relevant requirements in technical regulations or standards are fulfilled.

CBRNE

Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, explosive.

CEN

The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) is one of the three European Standardization Organisations (ESOs). A business facilitator in Europe, removing trade barriers for European industry and consumers. Its mission is to foster the European economy in global trading, supporting regulation where it has technical aspects, the welfare of European citizens and the environment. Through its services it provides a platform for the development of European Standards and other technical specifications.

More than 60 000 technical experts and 30 member countries are involved in the CEN.

CENELEC

CENELEC, the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization, is one of the three European Standardization Organisations (ESOs).

CENELEC provides the electrotechnical standards requested by the market and harmonized standards in support of European legislation (15 000 technical experts from 30 European countries).

CFP

Call for proposals: a request for interested parties to present a project research proposal, including budget estimate, to meet a stated research brief.

CI

Critical infrastructure: any public or privately owned system, service and physical network for which the disruption or destruction would have significant impacts on the functioning of society.

CIP

Critical infrastructure protection: measures to safeguard against, respond to and mitigate impacts of attacks or disruption of critical infrastructure.

CLP

Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Chemicals.

CM

Crisis management: measures to mitigate impact of adverse incidents on society, whether natural or malevolent; includes training and preparedness of staff and prior planning; see “Resilience” or “Disaster Response”.

CP

Capability Project: development of a single innovative security technology or capability, with typical budget in range of EUR 1 million to 5 million.

CR

Cognitive radio: two-way radio where “smart” software and components  automatically adjust and optimize communications variables (electromagnetic frequency, wavelength, etc.) in line with user needs and network conditions: See also “software-defined radio”.

CSA

Coordination and Support Action.

C-T

Counter-terrorism.

CTS

Common technical specifications.

Data Mining

Techniques used to analyze existing information, usually with intent of generating new business opportunities, but also has security implications.

Defence Technological and Industrial Base (DTIB)

The DTIB is a term used to describe the technological and industrial strength of a defence market. The European Defence Agency (EDA) has developed a strategy, approved by EU Ministers of Defence - with the exception of Denmark which does not participate in the EDA - on 14 May 2007, to ensure that the European DTIB dependably supplies Europe's armed forces with their needs even in times of conflict, and which provides for appropriate national sovereignty and EU autonomy. This strategy is available on the European Defence Agency (EDA) website.

Disaster Recovery

Ability of organizations and societies to re-establish normal conditions following a man-made or natural disaster; see also “Resilience”.

DP

Demonstration Project: large-scale Security Research projects that integrate, validate and demonstrate wide-area capabilities based on high levels of technical interoperability; often combine results of Integration and Capability projects (see relevant entries), and have budgets in excess of EUR 10-30 million; see also “System-of-systems”.

Dual-use technology

Product or service whose application and capabilities have utility for both military and civilian functions. Examples: UAV or soft-defined radio.

EFC

European Framework Cooperation: cooperation mechanisms  to strengthen complementary R&D activities across the Commission, EDA and ESA.

ESA

European Space Agency: Paris-based inter-governmental agency that oversees development of space research and technologies and their applications on behalf of its member nations.

ESRAB

European Security Research Advisory Board: an assembly of end-user and industry experts whose 2006 report helped shapd the objectives of the EU’s subsequent 2007-2013 Security Research programme.

ESRIF

The European Security Research and Innovation Forum: the group of industry experts, members of the European Parliament , national officials and representatives from international organisations and research institutes whose December 2009 report focused on the link between security research and needs of the wider stakeholder community; See “GoP”.

ESRP

European Security Research Programme: component of Seventh Framework Programme for research focused on security topics; funded at EUR 1.4 billion for 2007-2013.

ESS

European Security Strategy: EU’s externally oriented security strategy, promulgated in December 2003, updated in December 2008.

ETA

European Technical Approval: a favourable technical assessment of a an individual product or technology based upon its fitness for an intended use, which is issued when it is judged a European standard is not possible.

Ethical review

Process by which SR projects are vetted for ethical standards of research, and respect for protection and privacy of personal data.

ETP

European Technology Platform: industry-led stakeholder forum charged with defining research priorities in a broad range of technological areas.

ETSI

The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is one of the three European Standardisation Organisations (ESOs). Based in Sophia Antipolis - a high tech research park in southern France - ETSI unites 789 members from 52 countries inside and outside Europe, and represents administrations, network operators, manufacturers, service providers, research bodies and users.

Eurocontrol

European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation: Brussels-based agency composed of 37 national air traffic control agencies and responsible for coordinating efficient ATM in Europe, including the “European Single Sky” project known as SESAR; see also “ATM”.

European Defence Agency (EDA)

The European Defence Agency (EDA) was established by the Council of Ministers on 12 July 2004 "to support the Member States and the Council in their effort to improve European defence capabilities in the field of crisis management and to sustain the ESDP as it stands now and develops in the future". All EU Member States, with the exception of Denmark, participate in the EDA.

The EDA's main functions are to:

  • develop defence capabilities;
  • promote Defence Research and Technology;
  • promote armaments co-operation; and
  • create a competitive European Defence Equipment Market and strengthen the European DTIB.

More information on the work of the agency can be found on the EDA official website.

European Innovation Scoreboard (EIS)

As part of the EU Innovation Policy, the EIS provides since 2001 an annual comparative assessment of innovation performance of the economies across the EU.

Europol

European law enforcement agency based in The Hague.

EUROSUR

European Border Surveillance System: widespread effort by EU and national institutions to strengthen management of the EU’s external border via information exchange and cooperation between member states' border control authorities and Frontex.

First-responders

Personnel engaged in “frontline” emergency services; ie, police, fire, paramedic, emergency search and rescue, etc.

FP7 – Seventh Framework Research Programme

EU’s general research budget for 2007-2013.

Fragmentation

The technical and commercial barriers that keep Europe’s economy splintered into separate, high-cost national markets.

Frontex

EU’s Warsaw-based agency responsible for managing/coordinating the 27 member states’ collective external land and sea borders.

G-3

Unit within Directorate General Enterprise and Industry that oversees Security Research.

Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES)

GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is a European initiative for the implementation of information services dealing with environment and security. GMES will be based on observation data received from Earth Observation satellites and ground based information. These data will be coordinated, analysed and prepared for end-users. It will develop a set of services for European citizens helping to improve their quality of life regarding environment and security. GMES plays a strategic role in supporting major EU policies by its services.

GoP

Group of Personalities: set up in 2003 to identify key principles and guidelines for the creation of a European Security Research programme to support the aims of the EU’s security policy; succeeded by ESRAB.

Horizon 2020

Name given to the EU’s next multi-year general research budget for 2014-2020.

HS

One "Harmonised standard" is a standard used for implementing a given Directive. It translates in precise technical terms the Directive essential requirements.

A European standard, adopted by CEN, CENELEC or ETSI, following a mandate issued by the European Commission after consultation of Member States enters into force as a "Harmonised standard" when it is referenced as such in the OJEU. They are developed through an open and transparent process, built on consensus between all interested parties.

Compliance with harmonised standards provides presumption of conformity to the corresponding essential requirements of the EU new approach Directives. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements.

HUMINT

Intelligence gathered by human means versus that of machines.

IEDs

Improvised explosive devices; otherwise known as home-made bombs.

Impact assessment

EU’s procedure for evaluating benefits and costs of a policy action or initiative; it must address all significant economic, social and environmental impacts.

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)

ICTs include any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning.

ICTs are rapidly changing global production, work and business methods and trade and consumption patterns in and between enterprises and consumers. ICT enables a radical change in structures of organisations and means of learning, researching, developing, producing, marketing, distributing and servicing digital and traditional goods and services. It also has a great potential to enhance the quality of life.

Integrated Project (IP)

Security Research projects that bring together several technologies and/or sources of knowledge for a mission-specific combination of capabilities. These tend to have budgets in the area of EUR 5-10 million.

Intellectual Property (IP)

Intellectual property (IP) refers to intangible assets resulting from the creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce.

Intellectual property can be protected by formal or informal methods. Formal protection consists in granting to the owners exclusive Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) under intellectual property law. Informal protection consists in methods like secrecy, confidentiality, defensive publishing, fast innovation cycle etc

Intellectual property rights are divided into two categories: industrial property, which includes inventions, trademarks, industrial design, and geographical indications of source; and copyright, which includes literary and artistic works such as novels, films, musical works, paintings, photographs, and

ISO

ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world's largest developer and publisher of International Standards other than electrotechnical or telecommunication ones.

ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 162 countries, based in Geneva.

Therefore, ISO enables a consensus to be reached on solutions that meet both the requirements of business and the broader needs of society.

ISS

Internal Security Strategy: approved by EU in December 2009.

Joint Technology Initiatives (JTI)

Joint Technology Initiatives are a major new element of the EU's 7th Research Framework Programme. They provide a way of creating new partnerships between publicly and privately-funded organisations involved in research, focussing on areas where research and technological development can contribute to European competitiveness and quality of life.

JRC

EU’s Joint Research Centre; involved in a number of SR projects.

Malicious code

Software that appears as legitimate, but designed to gain unauthorized access to a system or to trick user into launching other malicious codes; an increasingly serious threat to the security of CI systems.

Maritime surveillance

EU’s goal of integrating archival and real-time national border control, safety, security, fisheries control, customs, environmental and naval surveillance data across the 27 member states.

NBC

Nuclear, biological, and chemical.

NoE

Network of Excellence: an instrument for strengthening excellence by tackling the fragmentation of European research, where the main deliverable is a durable structuring and shaping of the way that research is carried out on the topic of the network. See also, “Fragmentation”.

Non-sensitive research projects

Security Research projects with no classified or sensitive data are transferred to the REA for administration; projects with classified or sensitive information remain under aegis of unit G-3 (Security Research) of Directorate General Enterprise and Industry.

O&M

Overhaul and maintenance:  the cost and effort required to maintain complex systems such as aircraft, surveillance or critical infrastructure networks in safe working order.

OSINT

Open-source intelligence such as newspapers, magazines the internet and other media.

OTC

Over the counter: security products and services readily available in the marketplace and thus do not need to be developed with R&D money.

OTS

Off the shelf:  synonymous with OTC.

PASR

Preparatory Action for Security Research: the EU’s 2004-2006 pilot projects that led to today’s larger 2007-2013 SR programme.

Pre-commercial procurement (PCP)

Using public-sector demand to drive development of innovative solutions from Europe’s research and private sectors.

Precursors

Chemicals or compounds needed to induce a sequential chemical reaction that causes an explosion, and the target of increasing research and regulation in Europe.

Privacy by design

Designing products, networks and databases to integrate safeguards on privacy.

Public-private partnership

A government service or private business venture funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies.

R&D

Research and development.

R&T

Research and technology.

Research Executive Agency (REA)

Created by European Commission as funding and managerial body to oversee specific areas of research and innovation; manages parts of the FP7 programme, including Security Research projects.

Resilience

Ability of organizations or societies to quickly re-establish normal conditions following a man-made or natural disaster; depends heavily on readiness and capabilities of first-responder authorities; see also “Disaster Response”.

Security Advisory Group (SAG)

Advises the Security Research unit of Directorate General Enterprise and Industry on the annual security research work programme.

Security by design

Integrating safeguards into the design of technology, systems and networks to conform with privacy and security norms.

Security end-users

A professional or consumer benefiting of and/or affected by security research results.

Security Missions

The four policy areas to which the EU aligns its security policy and research objectives: security of the citizen, security of infrastructures and utilities, intelligent surveillance and border security and, finally, restoring security and safety in case of crisis.

Security Research (SR)

European Commission’s 2007-2013 R&D programme worth EUR 1.4 billion.

Security Research Conference (SRC)

Annual meetings of EU civil security stakeholders; first event took place in Vienna in 2006, followed by others in Berlin, Paris, Stockholm, Ostend (Belgium) and Warsaw.

Security scanners

Devices that create an image of a person's body to detect hidden or dangerous objects and substances; increasingly being deployed for airport security checks; see also “body scanners”.

SESAR

Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research Programme managed by Eurocontrol and partially funded by the Commission.

Situational awareness

Perception of operating environment in terms of time, space and activity; critical for preparedness and “real-time” response in many civil security policy areas.

SME

According to Article 2 of the Annex to Recommendation 2003/361/EC, the category of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is made up of enterprises which employ fewer than 250 persons and which have an annual turnover not exceeding €50 million, and/or an annual balance sheet total not exceeding €43 million (see: SME definition). SMEs are the backbone of the EU economy - they represent 99% of all enterprises in the EU. Some 23 million SMEs provide around 75 million jobs.

Societal research

Study of the social dimensions to Security Research and their implications for society/economy at large.

Societal Resilience

Defined as the capacity of a social system to react when faced with alterations, risks or disasters. See also “Crisis Management” and “Disaster Response”.

Software-defined radio (SDR)

Exploits computing processes to replace physical tuning, reception and other traditional radio hardware in order to produce more flexible and secure communications.

Stakeholder

Person, group, organization or system involved in or affected by civil security.

System-of-systems

Integrated, task-oriented systems that pool resources and capabilities to create more complex functions and performance than the sum of their constituent systems; see also “Demonstration Project”.

Technology transfer

Also known as knowledge transfer or knowledge sharing. The process whereby an enterprise converts scientific findings from research laboratories and universities into products and services in the marketplace.

Tenders Electronic Daily (TED)

Online version of supplement to the EU’s “Official Journal” which focuses on all public tenders and procurement awards granted by the EU and the 27 member states.

UAS

Unmanned Aircraft Systems.

UAV

Unmanned aerial vehicle: single pilot-less platform.

Vulnerability

Weakness in system or its security procedures, internal controls or implementation susceptible to attack or exploitation by a threat source.

WCO

World Customs Organisation: global entity based in Brussels representing national customs authorities; directly involved in efforts to secure maritime supply chains and their logistics.

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