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1958 Agreement
The Agreement concerning the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions for Vehicles, adopted in 1958. It is administered by the World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29), which is a subsidiary body of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The Agreement has resulted in some 126 regulations on issues relating to safety, environmental protection, energy efficiency and anti-theft performances of motor vehicles. The EU became a Contracting Party to the Revised 1958 Agreement in March 1998.
1998 Agreement
The purpose of the 1998 Global Agreement is to further enhance the process of international harmonisation by the development of global technical regulations (GTR) which may also cover countries which are not contracting parties to the 1958 Agreement. The Global Agreement entered into force in August 2000. This agreement applies in parallel to the 1958 Agreement, and like the latter it operates under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).
Anti-lock Braking System
Alternative current
Agreement on Conformity Assessment and Acceptance of Industrial Products
Acceleration Severity Index
The index is used as a measure for ascertaining the severity of impacts of vehicles against road equipment devices. It takes into account the decelerations of vehicles in the longitudinal, transverse, and vertical directions compared to maximum tolerable values.
European Automobile Manufacturers Association
Advisory Committee on Community Policy regarding Forestry and Forest-based Industries
Actions which may affect the compliance of the works with the essential requirements are brought about by agents acting on the works or parts of the works. Such agents include mechanical, chemical, biological, thermal and electro-magnetic agents.
Active fire protection measures
Systems and equipment installed to reduce danger to persons and property by either detecting fire, extinguishing fire, removing smoke and hot gases, or any combination of these functions.
Each New approach directive has an "ADCO", i.e. the informal group of the national administrations in charge of the market surveillance for this directive. The ADCO group supports and complements the work of the formal committee or the working party of the directive. ADCO group provides administrative cooperation and consistent application of surveillance. At European level, joint market surveillance campaigns are carried out and information exchanged on irregularities found.
Administrative Cooperation for the RTTE
Aerosols Dispensers Directive
Adjoining works
Construction works with common or connecting building elements (Opposite: separated works).
Administrative burden
The cost of administrative activities that businesses conduct solely in order to comply with legal obligations.
Administrative costs
Costs incurred by businesses in meeting legal obligations to provide information on their action or production.
Accounting Directives i.e.4th Directive (78/660/EEC) and 7th Directive (83/349/EEC)
Advanced Therapy medicinal products
Advanced therapy medicinal products are new medical products based on genes (gene therapy), cells (cell therapy) and tissues (tissue engineering). These advanced therapies herald revolutionary treatments of a number of diseases or injuries, such as skin in burn victims, Alzheimer, cancer or muscular dystrophy.
Advisory Committee on Community Policy regarding Forestry and Forest-based Industries
Chaired by the Commission and established in 1983 by a Decision from the Commission, it acts as an advisory Committee on matters concerning the industrial aspects of Community policies affecting forest-based industries and forestry as well as on matters concerning the market and other economic considerations affecting forest products in the Community. It includes representatives from the forestry sector and from the woodworking, pulp and paper, printing and publishing industries.
Advanced Emergency Braking System
European Mutual Guarantee Association
Agreement on Conformity Assessment and Acceptance of Industrial Products (ACAA)
A type of mutual recognition agreement, based on the promise that a third country adopts part of the EU acquis and adopts its quality infrastructure in order to implement it, in return for access to the Single Market for the products covered.
Aerospace Industries Association, USA
Sudden attention or action for protection of persons or property (ISO 8201, 1987).
Air Mobility Comand
European consumer voice in standardisation
Attestation of conformity
Appropriate technical documentation
Simplified procedure in determining the product type as explained in Article 36 of the CPR.
General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China
AeroSpace and Defence Industries Association of Europe
Association of South-East Asian Nations
Asset allocation
A fund manager's allocation of his investment portfolio into various asset classes (e.g. stocks , bonds, private equity ).
Asset class
A category of investment, which is defined by the main characteristics of risk, liquidity and return.
Associated Countries
Third-country partners affiliated with the EU’s Security Research programme: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Faroe Island, FYROM, Herzegovina, Iceland, Israel, Liechtenstein, Moldova, Montenegro, Norway, Turkey, Switzerland.
Air Traffic Control
Equipment for use in potentially explosive atmospheres
Air Traffic Insertion
Air traffic management: increasingly handled at European level by Eurocontrol and an essential critical infrastructure service.
Automated Transfer Vehicle
Aurora programme
The European Space Agency's Aurora programme formulates and implements Europe's long-term plans for robotic and human exploration of the Solar System.
Autologous graft
Tissues removed and transplanted back to the same individual (Directive 2004/23/EC, preamble, paragraph 8 [242 KB] )
Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV)
The ATV is an unmanned re-supply spacecraft developed by ESA and designed to service the International Space Station.
Business to Business
Barrier to trade
Any national measure which is capable of hindering, directly or indirectly, actually or potentially, the free trade of goods in the European Union
Basel II
International rules on capital requirements for banks and investment firms. These rules are implemented in Europe through the Capital Adequacy Directive . They aim to make the international financial system safer by having the riskiness of banks' loan portfolios reflected in the capital charges they need to set aside against unexpected losses.
Basic Requirements of Construction Works (BWR)
Basic requirements for construction works set out in Annex I of the Construction Products Regulation that constitute the basis for the preparation of standardisation mandates and harmonised technical specifications.
Best Available Techniques
Biosafety Clearing House
A management tool for comparing performance against an organisation that is widely regarded as outstanding in one or more areas, in order to improve performance.
Better regulation / Cutting Red Tape
Cutting red tape is the process of reducing unnecessary bureaucracy. The EU is committed to developing a better regulatory environment for businesses - one that is simple, understandable, effective and enforceable. Cutting red tape should help business people and entrepreneurs improve competitiveness, as well as contribute to sustainable development.
The use of a user’s physical characteristics to determine access.
Pathogens malevolently intended to kill or incite terror.
The International Bureau for the Standardisation of Man-made Fibres
Blocking (98/34 procedure)
Reaction sent by the Commission on a draft notified if the Commission has started harmonization works or intends to do so in the area covered by the notified draft. This reaction extends the standstill period which shall reach 12 months and can, in some cases, even reach 18 months.
Beyond Visual Line of Sight
Body scanners
Security devices that create an image of a person's body as part of the search for hidden or dangerous objects and substances; increasingly used airport security checks; see also “Security scanners”.
Boxed Value
The Boxed Value, used at the ENV stage together with the National Application Documents, offered a National choice for a value. It has to disappear in the EN Eurocodes.
Better Regulation
Break-away safety
Passive safety of road equipment that ensures that the equipment readily disengages, fractures, or bends away from impacting vehicles.
Best available techniques reference document
Business angel
A knowledgeable private individual, usually with business experience, who directly invests part of his or her personal assets in new and growing unquoted businesses. Besides capital, business angels provide business management experience for the entrepreneur.
The Confederation of European Business
Business incubation
The provision of services related to the formation and acceleration of the business operations of newly created companies, such as business plan development, facilities management, marketing, legal advise, recuitment, access to finance, mentoring, and internationalisation.
Business model
Conceptualisation of the value proposition that distinguishes a firm from its competitors
A transaction in which a firm (or part of it) is acquired from the current shareholders (the vendors).
Command and Control
Conformity assessment: methods used to determine that a process, product, or service meets relevant technical standards and fulfills relevant requirements.
Clean Air For Europe
Candidate country (CC)
Countries which have been confirmed by the European Council as a candidate to accede to the European Union, once the accession negotiations have been successfully completed. CC's are Turkey, Croatia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. With the latter country, negotiations have not yet been started.
Conformity assessment procedure: methods used, directly or indirectly, to determine that relevant requirements in technical regulations or standards are fulfilled.
Common Agricultural Policy
Capital Adequacy Directive (CAD)
European implementation of the international rules on capital requirements for banks and investment firms. Globally the rules are often referred to as "Basel II". They aim to make the international financial system safer by having the riskiness of banks' loan portfolios reflected in the capital charges they need to set aside against unexpected losses.
Capital market
A market where debt and equity securities are traded. Both the primary market for new issues and the secondary market for existing securities are part of the capital market.
Competitive Automotive Regulatory System for the 21st century
Competitiveness in Biotechnology Advisory Group with Industry and Academia
Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, explosive.
Candidate Country
Common Commencement Date
Carbon Capture and Storage
European Confederation of the Footwear Industry
European Council for Motor Trades and Repairs
European Conformance mark complying with the European Acceptance Scheme
Central and Eastern European Countries
Cell fusion
The formation of a hybrid cell produced by fusing two different cells (European Commission. Biosociety Research Online, Bio-glossary).
CE Marking
CE Marking declares the completion of conformity assessment and that the equipment or assembly complies with the provisions of the Directive and meets the essential safety requirements.
The European Cement Association
The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) is one of the three European Standardization Organisations (ESOs). A business facilitator in Europe, removing trade barriers for European industry and consumers. Its mission is to foster the European economy in global trading, supporting regulation where it has technical aspects, the welfare of European citizens and the environment. Through its services it provides a platform for the development of European Standards and other technical specifications. More than 60 000 technical experts and 30 member countries are involved in the CEN.
CEN Technical Report
CEN Technical Specification
CENELEC, the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization, is one of the three European Standardization Organisations (ESOs). CENELEC provides the electrotechnical standards requested by the market and harmonized standards in support of European legislation (15 000 technical experts from 30 European countries).
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (Comité Européen de Normalisation Electronique)
Common Economic Space between the EU and Russia
Call for proposals: a request for interested parties to present a project research proposal, including budget estimate, to meet a stated research brief.
Common Foreign and Security Policy
Named 'Lunar Craft' in Sanskrit, this unmanned mission to the moon from the Indian Space Research Organisation was launched on 22 October 2008.
Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use
Chiefs of Defence (Staff)
Critical infrastructure: any public or privately owned system, service and physical network for which the disruption or destruction would have significant impacts on the functioning of society.
CIA Security judgement
In this judgement, the European Court of Justice concluded that national courts must decline to apply a national technical regulation which has not been notified in accordance with Directive 98/34/EC (Case C-194/94 of 30 April 1996).
Confederation of Indian Industry
Critical infrastructure protection: measures to safeguard against, respond to and mitigate impacts of attacks or disruption of critical infrastructure.
Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme
Communication and Information Resource Centre Administrator
The International Rayon and Synthetic Fibres Committee
CISPR, the Comité International Spécial des Perturbations Radioélectriques, translates from the French as the Special international committee on radio interference. It was founded in 1934 to set standards for controlling electromagnetic interference in electrical and electronic devices, and is a part of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).
Clinical Trials
Clinical trials are investigations in humans intended to discover or verify the effects of one or more investigational medicinal products.
Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Chemicals.
This is a group of interconnected companies and associated institutions (faculties, research centers, SMEs) in a particular field. The benefits of these networks include access to specialised human resources, suppliers and knowledge.
Clusters can be defined as a group of firms, related economic actors, and institutions that are located near each other and have reached a sufficient scale to develop specialised expertise, services, resources, suppliers and skills.
Crisis management: measures to mitigate impact of adverse incidents on society, whether natural or malevolent; includes training and preparedness of staff and prior planning; see “Resilience” or “Disaster Response”.
Common Market Organisation
CN Code
Combined Nomenclature
Certificate of Conformity
Codex alimentarius
The Codex Alimentarius is a body of standards decided on by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in international food trade. The Commission was created in 1963 by the Food and Agriculture Organisation and the World Health Organisation. It aims to strengthen the consistency of food standards throughout the international community. Understanding the Codex Alimentarius
In a wide sense, used in some Member States, codification means gathering all legislation on a particular topic into a single "book" (e.g. penal code). In a narrow sense, and as used in the EU context, codification consists of the adoption of a new legislative act which incorporates and repeals the previous ones (i.e. the basic act and all amending acts). This makes the law clearer and more easily accessible without changing its substance.
Columbus laboratory
This unit will be ESA's largest single contribution to the International Space Station. The 4.5 meter diameter cylinder will add extensive research and science facilities to ISS capabilities.
Reaction sent by the Commission, or by any Member State, on a draft notified under the procedure laid down by Directive 98/34/EC. This reaction does not extend the initial standstill period.
Committee (98/34 procedure)
Standing Committee consisting of representatives appointed by the Member States who may call on the assistance of experts or advisers; its chairman is a representative of the Commission.
Common Agricultural Policy
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one of the most important EU policies, accounting for some 45% of its budget. The main aims of the policy include ensuring reasonable prices for Europe's consumers, fair incomes for farmers, production of high quality products and the use of environmentally friendly production methods, through the Common Market Organisation. CAP can intervene by providing financial support when farmers are hit by natural disasters or outbreaks of animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth. The most recent review of the CAP, launched in 2007, will assess whether or not certain adjustments are needed to make the policy better able to cope with new challenges and opportunities.
Common Economic Space (CES)
The current framework for EU-Russia relations is a Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA), which was enhanced by the creation of roadmaps for 4 Common Spaces in 2005. The Common Economic Space covers trade and economic relations.
Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)
The CFSP was established in 1993 through the Treaty of Maastricht and further enhanced through the Amsterdam Treaty signed in 1999. The CFSP has five main objectives, to: safeguard the common values, fundamental interests, independence and integrity of the Union in conformity with the principle of the United Nations Charter; strengthen the security of the EU in all ways; preserve peace and strengthen international security, in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter, as well as the principle of the Helsinki Final Act and the objectives of the Paris Charter, including those on external borders; promote international co-operation; and develop and consolidate democracy and the rule of law, and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. The European Council defines the principles and general guidelines for the CFSP. Further information on the CFSP can be found on the European Commission website dedicated to External Relations.
Common Market Organisation
The Common Market Organisation is designed to monitor the European agricultural markets and to provide farmers and consumers with a steady income and secure food supplies respectively. It covers about 90% of the EU output. A single Common Market Organisation (CMO) now governs as many as 21 agricultural sectors which were until 2007 organised into 21 sector specific organisations. This initiative is an important step in the process of simplifying and streamlining the Common Agricultural Policy. Not only does it improve the quality of the legal texts, but it also replaces more than 650 legal articles with around 200. Without changing the substance of the existing instruments and mechanisms, these harmonised rules cover the classic areas of market policy - intervention, private storage, import tariff quotas, export refunds, safeguard measures, promotion of agricultural products, state aid rules, communications and reporting of data.
Communication on the future of the pharmaceutical sector
The Communication on the future of the pharmaceutical sector adopted on 10 December 2008 by the European Commission outlines the major health, economic and scientific challenges of Europe and the pharmaceutical industry, sets out a vision for the future of the sector and proposes deliverables for the years with 25 different measures on various topics.
Committe for orphan Medicinal Products
A competitive economy is an economy with a consistently high rate of productivity growth. Competitiveness depends on the performance of the economy's SME-fuelled industry. To be competitive, the EU must outperform its competitors in terms of research and innovation, information and communication technologies, entrepreneurship, competition, education and training. The Lisbon Strategy set out to make Europe the most competitive and dynamic economy in the world: competitiveness is therefore one of the top political priorities of the European Union.
Competitiveness and Innovation framework Programme (CIP)
The CIP brings together several existing EU activities that support competitiveness and innovation for the period 2007-13. The combination of programmes provides synergies like a common toolbox and the synchronisation of calls for proposals. The sub-programmes comprise the "Entrepreneurship and Innovation Programme", the "ICT Policy Support Programme" and the "Intelligent Energy Programme".
At the express request of the notifying Member State , which shall support any such request by reasons, the information supplied under the procedure laid down by Directive 98/34/EC is treated as confidential. The documents transmitted will then not be made available on the TRIS website.
Conformity Assessment
Conformity Assessment must be undertaken by the manufacturer or notified body, depending on the category of the equipment, in order to demonstrate that the essential safety requirements are met.
Conformity Assessment Module
The New Approach has introduced a modular approach to conformity assessment, thereby subdividing it into a number of independent activities. Modules differ according to the type of assessment (e.g. documentary checks, type approval, design approval, quality assurance) and the organisation carrying out the assessment (i.e. the manufacturer or a third party).
Conformity assessment procedure (TBT procedure)
Any procedure used, directly or indirectly, to determine that relevant requirements in technical regulations or standards are fulfilled.
Community Research and Development Information Service
Committee of the Permanent Representatives
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
CSR refers to the concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with stakeholders on a voluntary basis. SMEs which have integrated the concept of CSR behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families, as well as of the local community and society at large.
Capability Project: development of a single innovative security technology or capability, with typical budget in range of EUR 1 million to 5 million.
Construction Products Directive (89/106/EEC)
Construction Products in contact with Drinking Water
Comité Permanent des Industries du Verre Européennes
Community Plant Variety Office
Cognitive radio: two-way radio where “smart” software and components automatically adjust and optimize communications variables (electromagnetic frequency, wavelength, etc.) in line with user needs and network conditions: See also “software-defined radio”.
Community Reference Laboratory
Clarification Sheet
Coordination and Support Action.
Chemical Safety Assessment
Cement Sustainability Initiative
Certification Specification for Light Unmanned Rotorcraft Systems
Corporate Social Responsibility
Common technical specifications.
Common Understanding of Assessment Procedures
Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use
Detect and Avoid avionic system
Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency
Data Mining
Techniques used to analyze existing information, usually with intent of generating new business opportunities, but also has security implications.
Direct current
Debt instrument
Loans and other funding instruments that provide the investor with mostly fixed minimum returns and are at least partly secured.
Declaration of conformity
The declaration of conformity is a document that must always accompany the recreational craft, the components and the propulsion engines, and must always be attached to the owner's manual. It contains data on the manufacturer, the product and the administrative and legal procedures and information that have been taken into consideration when developing and manufacturing the product. The legal requirements regarding the content of the Declaration of Conformity can be found in Annex XV of the Recreational Craft Directive.
Defence Technological and Industrial Base (DTIB)
The DTIB is a term used to describe the technological and industrial strength of a defence market. The European Defence Agency (EDA) has developed a strategy, approved by EU Ministers of Defence - with the exception of Denmark which does not participate in the EDA - on 14 May 2007, to ensure that the European DTIB dependably supplies Europe's armed forces with their needs even in times of conflict, and which provides for appropriate national sovereignty and EU autonomy. This strategy is available on the European Defence Agency (EDA) website.
Design categories
Recreational crafts are divided into four design categories ("Ocean", "Offshore", "Inshore", "Sheltered waters"). The Design Categories are based on the parameters "significant wave height" and "wind force", to define the physical conditions that might arise in any category for design evaluation. This classification constitutes a reference for the application of the essential requirements regarding design and construction as well as for the conformity assessment procedure to be applied.
Detailed opinion
Reaction sent by the Commission, or by a Member State , on a draft notified under the procedure laid down by Directive 98/34/EC if this envisaged measure may affect the functioning of the internal market. This reaction extends the standstill period by three additional months for notifications relating to products and one additional month for notifications on information society services.
Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade of Canada
Dangerous Goods Safety Adviser
Disaster Recovery
Ability of organizations and societies to re-establish normal conditions following a man-made or natural disaster; see also “Resilience”.
Date of Applicability (of a standard as a harmonised European standard according to article 4(2)(a) of Directive 89/106/EEC)
Declaration of Conformity
Doha Round
The Doha Round (also named the Doha Development Agenda) of world trade negotiations was launched in Doha (Qatar) in November 2001. The agenda of the Doha Round is specifically targeted at addressing the needs of developing countries. The focus of negotiations has been on reforming agricultural subsidies, improving access to global markets and ensuring that new liberalisation in the global economy respects the need for sustainable economic growth in developing countries. You will find more information on the Doha round on the World Trade Organization official website.
Date of Withdrawal
Demonstration Project: large-scale Security Research projects that integrate, validate and demonstrate wide-area capabilities based on high levels of technical interoperability; often combine results of Integration and Capability projects (see relevant entries), and have budgets in excess of EUR 10-30 million; see also “System-of-systems”.
Dangerous Preparations Directive
Draft standard (98/34 procedure)
Document containing the text of the technical specifications concerning a given subject, which is being considered for adoption in accordance with the national standards procedure, as that document stands after the preparatory work and as circulated for public comments or scrutiny.
Drone aircraft
A pilotless aircraft operated by remote control
Defence Test and Evaluation Base
Defence Technological and Industrial Base
Dual-use technology
Product or service whose application and capabilities have utility for both military and civilian functions. Examples: UAV or soft-defined radio.
Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC)
European Aluminium Association
Executive Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation
Electric Arc Furnace
Early-stage capital
Financing for companies before they initiate commercial manufacturing and sales or generate any profit. Includes seed and start-up financing.
European Aviation Safety Agency
Early-stage investors for high growth businesses
European Business Angels Network
European e-Business Support Network for SMEs
European Business and Technology Centre in Delhi
European Commission
European Central Bank
European Climate Change Programme
EC-ESA Joint Secretariat
Under the EC-ESA Framework Agreement, the Joint Secretariat works on the definition of the structure and the preparation of the European Space Programme.
European Chemicals Agency
The European Communications Office (ECO) was formally established on 1 July 2009 following the merger of the European Radiocommunications Office (ERO) and the European Telecommunications Office (ETO) in January 2001 and the subsequent amendment to the ERO Convention to reflect this merger. The European Communications Office (ECO) is the permanent office of CEPT located in Copenhagen, Denmark. ECO mainly supports the Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) of the CEPT, mostly in handling radio spectrum matters.
European Communications Office
Ecodesign means taking into account the environmental impacts of a product at the early stage of design. Ecodesign is based on a life-cycle approach: the environmental impact of the product is analysed throughout its life-cycle, from cradle to grave. The EU has developed a coherent and integrated framework for the ecodesign of products placed on the EU market: the Ecodesign Directive, which allows analysing all the environmental impacts of the product at once, thus avoiding uncoordinated action (for example: a toxic substance is eliminated, which increases energy consumption).
Ecodesign Working Plan
According to the Ecodesign Directive, the Commission has to set out a Working Plan, which includes an indicative list of products to be considered as a priority for implementing measures during the next 3 years. The current Working Plan covers the period 2009-2011.
As defined by the OECD and Eurostat, eco-industries are activities which produce goods and services to measure, prevent, limit, minimize or correct environmental damage to water, air and soil, as well as problems related to waste, noise and eco-systems. This includes technologies, products and services that reduce environmental risk and minimize pollution and resources such as waste and waste water management, renewable energy sources, environmental consulting, air pollution and control, eco-construction.
Eco-innovation refers to products and processes that contribute to sustainable development.
Economic partnership agreements
An economic partnership agreement (or EPA) sets out rights and obligations for both parties entering the agreement. Mutual compliance with these obligations is essential to the whole undertaking. The focus of the EPA are African, Caribbean and Pacific countries. On the one hand, the EU is opening up its markets to products from these countries and, on the other, these countries are making preparations to strengthen their supply capacity and reduce transaction costs.
European Environmental Citizens Organisation for Standardisation
European Charter for Small Enterprises
European Defence Agency
European Defence Equipment Market
European Destinations of ExcelleNce
Department for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare
Event Data Recorder
European Defence Technological and Industrial Base
Enterprise Europe Network
European Framework Cooperation: cooperation mechanisms to strengthen complementary Researsh and Development activities across the Commission, EDA and ESA.
European Free Trade Association
Environmentally Friendly Vehicle
Expert Group on Dangerous Substances
European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service
European Handbook for Defence Procurement
eHealth tools or solutions include products, systems and services that go beyond simple Internet-based applications, for instance tools for health authorities and professionals, and personalised health systems for patients and citizens. eHealth can help to deliver better care for less money within citizen-centered health delivery systems and has been identified as one of the six relevant Lead Market Initiative for Europe.
European Investment Bank
Euro Info Centres
Europe-India Chamber of Commerce
Energy Intensive Industries
Entrepreneurship and Innovation Programme
European Institute of Innovation and Technology
Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative
Electrostatic discharge (ESD)
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden and momentary electric current that flows between two objects at different electrical potentials caused by direct contact or induced by an electrostatic field. The term is usually used in the electronics and other industries to describe momentary unwanted currents that may cause damage to electronic equipment.
European programme for Life and Physical Sciences
Emission Limit Values
End-of-Life Vehicles
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is the branch of electrical sciences which studies the unintentional generation, propagation and reception of electromagnetic energy with reference to the unwanted effects (Electromagnetic interference, or EMI) that such energy may induce. The goal of EMC is the correct operation, in the same electromagnetic environment, of different equipment which use electromagnetic phenomena, and the avoidance of any interference effects.
Electromagnetic compatibility
The Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive 2004/108/EC lays down requirements in order to preventing electrical and electronic equipment from generating or being affected by electromagnetic disturbances.
European Microfinance Network
European Standard
European Neighbourhood Policy
European Organisation for Technical Approvals
Environmental Product Declaration
Enterprise Policy Group
European Personal Selection Office
Environmental Quality Standards for metals
Equipment intended for use in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres (ATEX)
The ATEX Directive, named after the French term "ATmosphere EXplosible", provides the technical requirements for equipment intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres. It has been mandatory since 1 July 2003.
The (ordinary) share capital of a company. Typical features of equity capital include an entitlement to profits, a proportionate share of the proceeds upon liquidation and subordination to creditors.
Equity gap
Exists when there is a persistent capital market imbalance preventing supply from meeting demand at any price (or at a price acceptable to both sides). An often cited example is the lack of venture capital for a young, innovative firm. See also risk capital .
Essential Requirements
Environmental Risk Assessment
European Radiocommunications Office (permanent office of CEPT)
European Space Agency: Paris-based inter-governmental agency that oversees development of space research and technologies and their applications on behalf of its member nations.
European Space Agency
European Space Agency
Electrostatic discharge
European Security and Defence College
European Security and Defence Policy
Estimated Service Life
Electronic Stability Program
European Security Research Advisory Board: an assembly of end-user and industry experts whose 2006 report helped shapd the objectives of the EU’s subsequent 2007-2013 Security Research programme.
The European Security Research and Innovation Forum: the group of industry experts, members of the European Parliament , national officials and representatives from international organisations and research institutes whose December 2009 report focused on the link between security research and needs of the wider stakeholder community; See “GoP”.
European Security Research Programme: component of Seventh Framework Programme for research focused on security topics; funded at EUR 1.4 billion for 2007-2013.
European Security Research Programme
European Security Strategy: EU’s externally oriented security strategy, promulgated in December 2003, updated in December 2008.
Essential safety requirements (ESRs)
Essential safety requirements (ESRs) lay down the necessary safety elements for protecting public interest. Essential safety requirements for design, manufacture, testing, marking, labelling, instructions and materials, usually written in general terms, are mandatory and must be met before products may be placed on the market in the European Community.
European Space Research and Technology Centre
European Space Technology Platform
European Technical Approval: a favourable technical assessment of a an individual product or technology based upon its fitness for an intended use, which is issued when it is judged a European standard is not possible.
Environmental Technologies Action Plan
European Training Foundation
Ethical review
Process by which SR projects are vetted for ethical standards of research, and respect for protection and privacy of personal data.
European Technology Platform: industry-led stakeholder forum charged with defining research priorities in a broad range of technological areas.
EU Emissions Trading Scheme
The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is one of the three European Standardisation Organisations (ESOs). Based in Sophia Antipolis - a high tech research park in southern France - ETSI unites 789 members from 52 countries inside and outside Europe, and represents administrations, network operators, manufacturers, service providers, research bodies and users.
European Telecommunications Standards Institute
European Trade Union Confederation
European Trade Union Federation: Textiles, clothing and leather
European Trade Union Institute for Research, Education and Health and Safety
EU-ESA Framework Agreement
Signed in November 2003 and entered into force in May 2004, the Framework Agreement sets out the basis for joint projects, common management structures and closer working arrangements between the European Commission and the European Space Agency.
EU-Israel Business Dialogue
EU-Japan Business Round Table
European Union Military Committee
European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites
European Union Military Staff
Energy-using products: products which consume energy during use. For example, all household electric appliances are EUPs. The Ecodesign Directive has been known as the EUP Directive because it covered initially only energy-using products. On 16 July 2008, the Commission proposed to extend the Ecodesign Directive to energy-related products, which include not only energy-using products but also products which do not consume energy but have an impact on energy consumption during use, such as windows.
Euro 5, Euro 6
Euro 5 and Euro 6 are emission limits standards for cars and light commercial vehicles with respect to a number of pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides and particulate pollutants.
European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment
European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation: Brussels-based agency composed of 37 national air traffic control agencies and responsible for coordinating efficient ATM in Europe, including the “European Single Sky” project known as SESAR; see also “ATM”.
Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements
The EU concluded seven Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements between 1998 and 2005 with the Arab Republic of Egypt, the State of Israel, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the Republic of Lebanon, the Kingdom of Morocco, the Republic of Tunisia and the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria. These agreements provide a suitable framework for North-South political dialogue and determine the activities which are important for the achievement of the Barcelona Declaration's objectives. They also serve as a basis for the gradual liberalisation of trade in the Mediterranean area, and set out the conditions for economic, social and cultural cooperation between the EU and each partner country.
European Defence Agency (EDA)
The European Defence Agency (EDA) was established by the Council of Ministers on 12 July 2004 "to support the Member States and the Council in their effort to improve European defence capabilities in the field of crisis management and to sustain the ESDP as it stands now and develops in the future". All EU Member States, with the exception of Denmark, participate in the EDA. The EDA's main functions are to: develop defence capabilities; promote Defence Research and Technology; promote armaments co-operation; and create a competitive European Defence Equipment Market and strengthen the European DTIB. More information on the work of the agency can be found on the EDA official website.
European Defence Equipment Market (EDEM)
The EDEM refers to the market in Europe for armaments. It is a market that is currently considerably fragmented and it is the European Commission's objective to make it more efficient and competitive. This is behind the Commission's the 'Defence Package' of proposals presented to the Council and Parliament in December 2007. Further details on this package can be found in the section on this site on European Defence Industrial Policy.
European Destinations of Excellence (EDEN)
EDEN is the acronym for European Destinations of Excellence, a project promoting sustainable tourism development models across the European Union. The project is based on national competitions that take place every year and result in the selection of a tourist “destination of excellence” for each participating country. Find out more on EDEN.
European Innovation Scoreboard (EIS)
As part of the EU Innovation Policy, the EIS provides since 2001 an annual comparative assessment of innovation performance of the economies across the EU.
European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)
The European Union's policy for relations with third countries on its borders, including those bordering the Mediterranean Sea, and those to the East.
European private equity and venture capital association professional standards
A set of behavioural principles that define the relationship between limited partners , general partners and investee companies. European private equity and venture capital association (EVCA) professional standards encompass a Code of Conduct, Governing Principles, plus Corporate Governance, Valuation and Reporting Guidelines.
European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP)
The ESDP is part of the CFSP and its objective is to allow the EU to develop its civilian and military capacities for crisis management and conflict prevention at the international level, thus helping to maintain peace and international security, in accordance with the United Nations Charter. The ESDP, which does not involve the creation of a European army, is developing in a manner that is compatible and coordinated with NATO. The Maastricht Treaty (1992) was the first to include provisions on the Union's responsibilities in terms of security and the possibility of a future common defence policy. With the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam (1999), new tasks have been included in the Treaty on European Union (Title V). This important innovation relates to humanitarian and rescue operations, peacekeeping operations and the use of combat forces in crisis management, including peacemaking operations (known as "Petersberg tasks"). In addition to these civilian and military crisis management operations, the ESDP includes a "conflict prevention" component.
European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC)
The ESTEC is the European Space Agency's technical 'heart' and is located in the Netherlands.
European Space Technology Platform
The ESTP is a European technology platform which brings together different space stakeholders and covers all aspects of space technologies from access to space, exploration, satellites and services, and more.
Europe INNOVA is an initiative of Directorate General Enterprise and Industry which aspires to become the laboratory for the development and testing of new tools and instruments in support of innovation with the view to help innovative enterprises innovate faster and better. It brings together public and private innovation support providers such as innovation agencies, technology transfer offices, business incubators, financing intermediaries, cluster organisations and others.
European law enforcement agency based in The Hague.
European Border Surveillance System: widespread effort by EU and national institutions to strengthen management of the EU’s external border via information exchange and cooperation between member states' border control authorities and Frontex.
Euro VI
Euro VI is an emission limits standard for heavy duty vehicles (buses and trucks).
European Venture Capital and Private Equity Association
Exchange of best practices
The process by which, in many areas of SME policy, the European Commission works in partnership with the Member States by facilitating the identification and exchange of best practices. A "good practice" or "best practice" is generally accepted to illustrate an approach that deserves the attention and interest of other policy makers or practitioners to inspire further change.
Liquidation of investments by a private equity or venture capital investor. The most common exits are (1) trade sale to another company; (2) public offering (including an initial public offering - IPO ) on a stock market ; (3) sale to another investor; (4) repayment of the investment (when part of the investment agreement); or (5) the write-off of the investment.
ATEX Notified Bodies Group
The European Space Agency's ExoMars mission will send an orbiter and lander with rover vehicle to Mars.
Expansion capital
Financing provided for the growth of a firm, which may or may not break even or be profitable. Capital may be used to finance increased production capacity, market or product development, or to provide working capital .
Federal Aviation Authority, USA
Selling a company's accounts receivable, at a discount, to a financing company that assumes the credit risk of the account debtors and receives cash as the debtors settle their accounts.
Food and Agricultural Organisation
Forest Action Plan
Flight Crew Licensing
Food Contact Material
Food, drink and milk sectors
Facility for Euro-Mediterranean Investment and Partnership
European Clay Pipe Producers Association
Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry
Personnel engaged in “frontline” emergency services; ie, police, fire, paramedic, emergency search and rescue, etc.
Fiscal/financial measures (98/34 procedure)
Draft technical specifications which are linked to fiscal or financial measures affecting the consumption of products or services by encouraging compliance with such technical regulations. There is no standstill period for notified draft fiscal or financial measures.
Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade
Forest-based Industries
Industries using wood, paper or recovered paper and wood as a raw material. The term includes woodworking industries, pulp and paper industries, printing industries and specialised sectors such as cork.
Sixth Framework Programme
FP7 – Seventh Framework Research Programme
EU’s general research budget for 2007-2013.
The technical and commercial barriers that keep Europe’s economy splintered into separate, high-cost national markets.
EU’s Warsaw-based agency responsible for managing/coordinating the 27 member states’ collective external land and sea borders.
Free Trade Agreement
Forest Technology Platform
A fund that invests in other (venture capital or private equity) funds .
The process in which venture capital firms raise money to create an investment fund . These funds are raised from private, corporate or institutional investors, who make commitments to the fund which will be invested by the general partner .
Fund size
The total amount of capital committed by the limited and general partners of a fund.
The G10 High Level Group on Innovation and Provision of Medicines was the key political initiative in the field of pharmaceuticals under Commissioners Byrne (Health) and Liikanen (Industry). The Group of ten was intended to bring together the top decision-makers on medicines from the EU and discussed the major issues relevant to the right balance of health objectives and industry competitiveness in Europe, including provision of medicines to patients, Single Market, competition, regulation and innovation.
G10 Medicines
High Level Group on Innovation and Provision of Medicines
Unit within Directorate General Enterprise and Industry that oversees Security Research.
General Accepted Accounting Principles
Gas Appliances Directive
This is the flagship satellite navigation system being built by the European Union and the European Space Agency.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
International Conference on Harmonisation Group
Gas chromatography mass spectrometry
General partner
A partner in a venture capital management company who has unlimited personal liability for the debts and obligations of the limited partnership and the right to participate in its management.
Gene therapy
Uses purified preparations of a gene or a fraction of a gene to treat a disease. This can be done either by correcting the functioning of a cell in which a single gene does not work properly from birth or sometimes by killing a cell which is out of control. (Gene Therapy: The Great Debate, 2nd Edition, 1996 ). A gene therapy product is defined in Annex I to Directive 2001/83/EC as .a product obtained through a set of manufacturing processes aimed at the transfer, to be performed either in vivo or ex vivo, of a prophylactic, diagnostic or therapeutic gene (i.e. a piece of nucleic acid), to human/animal cells and its subsequent expression in vivo. Gene therapy may be redefined under forthcoming legislation. Related approaches such as RNA interference (RNAi) technology are emerging, and may in the future be applied therapeutically.
Geostationary satellite
A satellite in orbit over the equator whose orbital period matches the rotational period of the Earth and, therefore, appears to remain stationary over a fixed position on Earth.
Global Harmonised System
High Growth and Innovative SME Facility
Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
The Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is a United Nations system to identify hazardous chemicals and to inform users about these hazards through standard symbols and phrases on the packaging labels and through safety data sheets (SDS). On 16 December 2008 the European Parliament and the Council adopted a new Regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) which aligns existing EU legislation to the GHS. It was published in the Official Journal 31 December 2008.
Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES)
GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is a European initiative for the implementation of information services dealing with environment and security. GMES will be based on observation data received from Earth Observation satellites and ground based information. These data will be coordinated, analysed and prepared for end-users. It will develop a set of services for European citizens helping to improve their quality of life regarding environment and security. GMES plays a strategic role in supporting major EU policies by its services.
This the satellite navigation system developed by the former Soviet Union and now operated by Russia.
Good laboratory practice
General Monitoring Environment System
Genetically modified micro-organism
Genetically modified organism
Good Manufacturing Practices
Global Mineral Resource Assessment Project
Group of Notified Bodies
Gold plating
In the EU context, 'gold-plating' refers to transposition of EU legislation, which goes beyond what is required by that legislation, while staying within legality. Member States have large discretion when implementing EC directives. They may increase reporting obligations, add procedural requirements, or apply more rigorous penalty regimes. If not illegal, 'gold plating' is usually presented as a bad practice because it imposes costs that could have been avoided.
Good Manufacturing Practice
Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) are quality standards that have been set up by the European Union to ensure that medicinal products are consistently produced and controlled against the quality standards appropriate to their intended use. Compliance with these principles and guidelines is mandatory.
The term 'goods' has enormous scope - essentially it includes any product that has economic value. Thus pharmaceuticals, vehicles, foodstuffs, textiles, construction products and cosmetics are all goods.
Group of Personalities: set up in 2003 to identify key principles and guidelines for the creation of a European Security Research programme to support the aims of the EU’s security policy; succeeded by ESRAB.
This involves the management, leadership and/or administration of an issue.
Green Public Procurement
Global Positioning System is the satellite navigation system developed and deployed by the US.
Global Positioning System
General Product Safety Directive
Working Party on Noise
Working Party on Lighting and Light-Signalling
Group on REACH Implementation Problems
Growth stock market
Alternative market for new, fast growing companies. Usually more lightly regulated than the main stock markets .
Working Party on Pollution and Energy
Working Party on Brakes and Running Gear
Working Party on General Safety Provisions
Working Party on Passive Safety
European Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Supervisory Agency
General System of Preferences
A commitment by a third party to pay the debt of borrowers when the latter cannot pay it themselves. The guarantor is liable to cover any shortfall or default on the borrower's debt.
Harmonised sector
The harmonised sector relates to areas, product regulations etc. that are covered by Community legislation. Harmonisation can be partial or full.
Host entrepreneur
Health Technology Assessment
The importance of Health Technology Assessment (HTA), which seeks appropriate spending and use of health technologies has been a constant theme over the last 20 years. Based on the conclusions of the High Level Pharmaceutical Forum and on the experience of EUnetHTA project, the Commission is engaged in the preparation of a Joint Action on Health Technology Assessment under the Public Health Work Plan for 2009. Please visit the dedicated webpage for Health Technology Assessment of Health and Consumers Directorate-General.
Harmonised European standard
Health Risk Assessment Guidance for Metals
Herbal Medicinal Products
Herbal medicinal products are defined as any medicinal product, exclusively containing as active ingredients one or more herbal substances or one or more herbal preparations, or one or more such herbal substances in combination with one or more such herbal preparations.
Hide and Skin Storage and Beamhouse Operations
Upon delivery, hides and skins are sorted, trimmed, cured and stored pending operations in the beamhouse. In the beamhouse, soaking, unhairing, liming, fleshing and splitting are typically carried out.
High Level Group on Innovation and Provision of Medicines
The G10 High Level Group on Innovation and Provision of Medicines was the key political initiative in the field of pharmaceuticals under Commissioners Byrne (Health) and Liikanen (Industry). The Group of ten was intended to bring together the top decision-makers on medicines from the EU and discussed the major issues relevant to the right balance of health objectives and industry competitiveness in Europe, including provision of medicines to patients, Single Market, competition, regulation and innovation.
High level group on the competitiveness of the agro-food industry
A High Level Group on the competitiveness of the agro-food industry has been set up to address issues affecting the competitiveness of the EU's agro-food industry and to identify factors influencing its sustainability. It also has the task of formulating a series of sector-specific recommendations for EU policy makers.
High Level Pharmaceutical Forum
The Pharmaceutical Forum, concluded on 2 October 2008, was a three-year process, set up in order to find relevant solutions to public health considerations regarding pharmaceuticals, while ensuring the competitiveness of the industry and the sustainability of the national health-care systems. This high-level ministerial platform for discussion between Member States, EU institutions, industry, healthcare professionals, patients and insurance funds focused its work on three main topics: Information to patients on diseases and treatment options; pricing and reimbursement policy and relative effectiveness.
High level group
High Level Group of Independent Stakeholders on Administrative Burdens
High Level Group of Independent Stakeholders on Better Regulation
Heads of Medicines Agencies
Committee for Herbal Medicinal Products
Horizon 2020
Name given to the EU’s next multi-year general research budget for 2014-2020.
Horizontal standardisation of test methods
Standardisation process in which the use of common test methods is made possible for a large a number of product groups.
Hot Rolled Coil
One "Harmonised standard" is a standard used for implementing a given Directive. It translates in precise technical terms the Directive essential requirements. A European standard, adopted by CEN, CENELEC or ETSI, following a mandate issued by the European Commission after consultation of Member States enters into force as a "Harmonised standard" when it is referenced as such in the OJEU. They are developed through an open and transparent process, built on consensus between all interested parties. Compliance with harmonised standards provides presumption of conformity to the corresponding essential requirements of the EU new approach Directives. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements.
Harmonised Standards
Health Technology Assessment
Intelligence gathered by human means versus that of machines.
Harvested wood products
Impact Assessment
Impact Assessment Board
International Aluminium Institute
International Accounting Standards
International Accounting Standards Board
International Civil Aviation Organisation
The International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use
International Copper Study Group
Information and Communication Technologies
International Council of Toy Industries
Information Communication Technologies Policy support Programme
Interchange of Data between Administrations
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the world's global standardisation organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies collectively known as "electrotechnology". The IEC also manages conformity assessment systems that certify that equipment, systems or components conform to its International Standards.
International Electrotechnical Commission
Industrial Emissions Directive
Improvised Explosive Devices
Improvised explosive devices; otherwise known as home-made bombs.
Intelligent Energy Europe
International Electrotechnical Vocabulary
International Federation of Industrial Energy Consumers
International Financial Reporting Standards
Institute for Health and Consumer Protection
International Iron and Steel Institute
The International Lead and Zinc Study Group
Industrial Minerals Association
Innovative Medicines Initiative
Impact assessment
EU’s procedure for evaluating benefits and costs of a policy action or initiative; it must address all significant economic, social and environmental impacts.
Impact Assessment
Before the European Commission proposes new initiatives, in particular proposed legislation, is bound to assess the various possible alternatives, including the status quo. It must assess the potential economic, social and environmental consequences of each option. The impact assessment is a set of formalized steps which prepares evidence for political decision-makers on the advantages and disadvantages of each possible policy option.
Informal network of European regulators and authorities concerned with the implementation and enforcement of environmental law
These are private or public organisations that provide support to enterprises - in particular small and start-up companies.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)
ICTs include any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning. ICTs are rapidly changing global production, work and business methods and trade and consumption patterns in and between enterprises and consumers. ICT enables a radical change in structures of organisations and means of learning, researching, developing, producing, marketing, distributing and servicing digital and traditional goods and services. It also has a great potential to enhance the quality of life.
Information society service
Any service normally provided for remuneration, at a distance, by electronic means and at the individual request of a recipient of services (the full definition of this notion is laid down in Directive 98/34/EC as modified by Directive 98/48/EC).
Information Society Technology area
One of the thematic priorities of the Sixth Framework Programme addressing both the technical aspects and societal challenges of information technologies.
Information to Patients
To ensure adequate information to patients on diseases and treatment options, the European Commission has been looking at different ways of improving the quality and accessibility of information within the High Level Pharmaceutical Forum and with the adoption of legal proposals on information to patients.
Infringement proceedings
In its role as "guardian of the Treaty", the Commission might start legal proceedings against a Member State if this State is deemed to have failed to comply with its obligations under Community law.
Initial public offering (IPO)
The sale or distribution of a company's shares to the public for the first time. An IPO is one of the ways in which a private equity fund can exit an investment.
An innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organisational method in business practices, workplace organisation or external relation. The minimum requirement for an innovation is that the product, process, marketing method or organisational method must be new (or significantly improved) to the firm.
Innovation activities
All scientific, technological, organisational, financial and commercial steps which actually, or are intended to, lead to the implementation of innovations. Some innovation activities are themselves innovative, others are not novel activities but are necessary for the implementation of innovations. Innovation activities also include Research and Development that is not directly related to the development of a specific innovation.
Innovation Management
The concept of innovation management encompasses an integrated approach to managing all dimensions of innovation, from innovation in products, services and business processes to organisational and business models, through continuous monitoring, development and improvement processes.
Innovative Medicines Initiative
The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) is a crucial element of the European Commission's innovation policy. The objective of this instrument, a public-private partnership involving the industry and the Commission, is to enhance and accelerate the development process of medicines so as to make new treatment options available to patients earlier.
International Nickel Study Group
Institutional investor
An organisation which professionally invests substantial assets in international capital markets. Examples include banks, investment companies, insurance companies, pension funds, foundations, and endowment funds.
Integral Satcom Initiative
An industry-led forum and European technology platform which brings together together all aspects of satellite communications supporting all forms of space communications and exploitation.
Integrated Project (IP)
Security Research projects that bring together several technologies and/or sources of knowledge for a mission-specific combination of capabilities. These tend to have budgets in the area of EUR 5-10 million.
Intellectual Property (IP)
Intellectual property (IP) refers to intangible assets resulting from the creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce. Intellectual property can be protected by formal or informal methods. Formal protection consists in granting to the owners exclusive Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) under intellectual property law. Informal protection consists in methods like secrecy, confidentiality, defensive publishing, fast innovation cycle etc Intellectual property rights are divided into two categories: industrial property, which includes inventions, trademarks, industrial design, and geographical indications of source; and copyright, which includes literary and artistic works such as novels, films, musical works, paintings, photographs, and
Internal rate of return (IRR)
In a venture capital fund , the net return earned by investors from the fund's activity from inception to a stated date. The IRR is calculated as an annualised effective compounded rate of return, using monthly cash flows and annual valuations.
Investment fund
A firm that invests the pooled funds of retail investors for a fee. It aggregates the funds of many investors into specific investments, giving investors access to a wider range of investment options at lower cost. Investors may be able to sell their shares when they want (open-ended fund) or their assets may be locked up for a fixed period (closed-end fund). In Europe, investment funds can be divided into funds targeting retail customers under common European rules ( UCITS funds ) and non-harmonised funds without common rules.
Investment readiness
The entrepreneur's understanding of the concerns of banks, business angels and venture capital funds. In particular, this includes knowledge about communication with investors and also how to structure business plans to secure external finance.
Investor readiness platform
A programme to help enterprises to attract and retain financial investment.
Inward processing
Inward processing permits the import of goods for working and subsequent re-export. Outward processing permits EU goods to be exported for working and then subsequently re-imported with total or partial relief from duties. Inward processing regime
Information Obligation
Intermediary organisation
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IP certificates
Inward Processing certificates
Initial Public Offering
Integrated Product Policy
Integrated pollution prevention and control
Intellectual Property Rights
Institute for Prospective Technological Studies
Innovating Regions in Europe Network
EU-Russia Industrialists Round Table
ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world's largest developer and publisher of International Standards other than electrotechnical or telecommunication ones. ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 162 countries, based in Geneva. Therefore, ISO enables a consensus to be reached on solutions that meet both the requirements of business and the broader needs of society.
International Organization for Standardization
Indian Space Research Organisation
Internal Security Strategy: approved by EU in December 2009.
International Space Station
Information Technology
International Technology Agreement
International Traffic in Arms Regulations
ITU, based in Geneva, is the United Nations agency for information and communication technology issues. It associates governments and the private sector in helping the deployment of telecommunication networks and services. It has 191 Member States and more than 700 Sector Members and Associates. ITU also organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, bringing together all stakeholders and in particular the developing world. Activities range from broadband Internet to latest-generation wireless technologies, from aeronautical and maritime navigation to radio astronomy and satellite-based meteorology, from convergenc
International Telecommunication Union
International Zinc Association
Joint Action Plan
Group of Joint national aviation Authorities for Rulemaking on Unmanned aircraft Systems
Joint Action to Support Micro-finance Institutions in Europe
Joint Assistance to Support Projects in European RegionS
Joint European Resources for Micro to Medium Enterprises initiative
Joint European Support for Sustainable Investment in City Areas
Joint Action Plan (JAP)
A plan that outlines the wide-ranging strategic co-operation between the EU and India.
Joint Technology Initiatives (JTI)
Joint Technology Initiatives are a major new element of the EU's 7th Research Framework Programme. They provide a way of creating new partnerships between publicly and privately-funded organisations involved in research, focussing on areas where research and technological development can contribute to European competitiveness and quality of life.
EU’s Joint Research Centre; involved in a number of SR projects.
Joint Research Centre
Joint Technology Initiatives
European Innovation Platform for Knowledge Intensive Services
Knowledge-based economy
An economy that derives its primary value from knowledge and the management of knowledge - a key goal of the European Union's strategy for sustainable growth and full employment.
Knowledge Intensive Services
Knowledge intensive services can be defined as economic activities conducted by private sector organisations that combine technology, knowledge (such as Research and Development) and highly skilled employees to provide a service to the market
Knowledge transfer
Knowledge Transfer involves the processes for capturing, collecting and sharing explicit and tacit knowledge, including skills and competence. It includes both commercial and non-commercial activities such as research collaborations, consultancy, licensing, spin-off creation, researcher mobility, publication, etc. While the emphasis is on scientific and technological knowledge other forms such as technology-enabled business processes are also concerned.
Knowledge triangle
It is based on the interaction between three components: innovation, research and education. The knowledge triangle is meant to boost growth, competitiveness and sustainable development. At the heart of the Lisbon Strategy, the knowledge triangle is also central to the establishment of the European Institute of Technology.
Launchers (heavy-, medium-lift, Launchers, etc)
Rocket-based systems that deliver payloads (satellites, manned vehicles, etc.) into space. Heavy, medium and small indicate the relative weight of payload that a particular launcher can carry into space.
Life Cycle Assessment
L category vehicles
The vehicle class "L-category vehicles" covers a wide range of 2-, 3- and 4-wheel vehicles, for example 2- and 3-wheel mopeds, 2- and 3-wheel motorcycles, tricycles, all terrain vehicles/quads and other quadricycles such as mini-cars.
Life Cycle Costing
Lane Departure Warning System
Lead Market Initiative for Europe
The Lead Market Initiative is one of the most important innovation policies in the EU, involving Member States, industry, NGOs and the European Commission.
Light Emitting Diodes
Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs Committee of the European Parliament
Limited partner (LP)
An investor in a limited partnership is someone who (in contrast to the general partner ) is liable for partnership obligations only to the extent of his or her investment. Limited partners are usually restricted from taking an active part in the management of the partnership's business.
Limited partnership
A legal structure that is used by most venture capital funds . A partnership is usually formed for a fixed period of time between the investors in a venture capital fund (limited partners) and the management company (general partner) making the investments in the underlying portfolio companies. Details concerning management policy and profit-sharing are laid out in a partnership agreement.
Lisbon Strategy
The Lisbon Strategy is aimed at making the European Union (EU) the most competitive economy in the world, and achieving full employment by 2010. European industry needs to be competitive if the EU is to achieve its economic, social and environmental goals, and thus ensure an improving quality of life for its citizens. To be competitive, the EU must outperform in terms of research and innovation, information and communication technologies, entrepreneurship, competition, education and training.
Listed company
A company whose shares are listed on a stock exchange .
London Metal Exchange
Lead Market Initiative
Light Unmanned Rotorcraft Systems
Mobile Air Conditioners
Medium-Altitude, Long-Endurance UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicle)
Malicious code
Software that appears as legitimate, but designed to gain unauthorized access to a system or to trick user into launching other malicious codes; an increasingly serious threat to the security of CI systems.
Maritime engine types
Recreational marine engines are classified into three types depending on the combustion technology used ("two-stroke spark ignition", "four-stroke spark ignition" and "compression ignition"), and according to the way they are installed in or on the craft (outboard engines, inboard engines, stern drive engines with or without integral exhaust, personal watercraft engines). For each of these engine types, the EU legislation establishes limit values for exhaust emissions: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and particulates and noise emissions.
Maritime exhaust emissions
The exhaust gases from a recreational marine engines contains pollutants such ascarbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulates, which can affect both human health and the environment and are therefore subject to certain limit values.
Maritime surveillance
EU’s goal of integrating archival and real-time national border control, safety, security, fisheries control, customs, environmental and naval surveillance data across the 27 member states.
Maximum Residue Limits
Maximum Residue Limits refer to the maximum concentration of residue resulting from the use of a veterinary medicinal product which may be accepted by the Community to be legally permitted or recognized as acceptable in or on food.
MERCOSUR-Europe Business Forum
Methodology for the Ecodesign of Energy-Using Products. The MEEUP is the methodology developed by the Commission to assess whether a product falling into the scope of the Ecodesign Directive should be addressed by an implementing measure. If yes, the methodology also identifies which ecodesign requirements are appropriate for this product.
Metal Environment Risk Assessment Guidance
Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
Mezzanine finance
Also called hybrid finance. Financing with assets that contain characteristics of both debt and equity , covering a variety of instruments tailored to a specific legislative and operating environment. Frequently unsecured, they usually offer higher returns than secured loans and often give the lender a stake in the equity of the company.
Small loans, usually smaller than €25 000, granted either by institutions specialising in microcredit or by banks.
Measuring instruments directive
Mid Air Collision Avoidance System
Minister (or Ministry) of Defence
Maximum Residue Limits
Mutual Recognition Procedure
Member State of the EU
Maximum Tolerable Concentration
Maximum Take-off Mass
Multi-modal transport system
A transport system that makes optimal, sustainable use of a variety of transport types (rail, sea, road, etc.).
Million US Dollar
Mutual Recognition Agreements (MRAs)
MRAs have the objective of promoting trade in goods between the European Union and third countries by facilitating market access. They are bilateral agreements, and aim to benefit industry by providing easier access to conformity assessment procedures. MRAs lay down the conditions under which the EU and the third country concerned will mutually accept test reports, certificates and marks of conformity issued by the conformity assessment bodies (CABs) of the other party to the agreement, in conformity with the legislation of the other party.
Mutual recognition principle
In the area of free movement of goods mutual recognition means that products that are accepted in one Member State should generally also be accepted in all the other Member States, subject to certain justified public policy exemptions. The Mutual recognition principles should not be confused with Mutual recognition agreements (MRAs).
In order to achieve the Single market for goods, a Resolution of 7th May 1985 of the European Council formally endorsed the principle of reference to European standards within the relevant European regulatory work (Directives), thereby paving the way to a New Approach in the philosophy of regulations and standards in Europe. Since then, the New Approach and the European standardisation have contributed significantly to the development of the Single Market. The success of the European standardisation system, in removing technical barriers to trade, has played a vital role in ensuring the free movement of goods between Member States.
New Approach
NA-1 products
Non-annex 1 products
North Atlantic Council
Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community
Non Agricultural Market Access
NAMA (Non Agricultural Market Access)
NAMA refers to all products not covered by the agreement on Agriculture. In other words, in practice, it includes manufacturing products, fuels and mining products, fish and fish products, and forestry products. They are sometimes referred to as industrial products or manufactured goods. You will find more information on the World Trade Organization official website.
NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency
Nando (New Approach Notified and Designated Organisations) Information System Notification is an act whereby a Member State informs the Commission and the other Member States that a body, which fulfils the relevant requirements, has been designated to carry out conformity assessment for goods according to a given directive. Notification of Notified Bodies and their withdrawal are the responsibility of the notifying Member State. Lists of Notified Bodies can be searched on the NANDO web site. The lists include the identification number of each notified body as well as the tasks for which it has been notified, and are subject to regular update.
New Approach Notified and Designated Organisations information system
National Allocation Plan
National innovation system
The set of public and private actors involved in the exploitation and commercialisation of new knowledge originating from the science and technology base and the interactions in between them
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
Non-automatic weighing instruments
Notified Body
Nuclear, biological, and chemical.
Notified Bodies - Lifts
Notified Bodies - Machinery
Notified Certification Body
Chinese National Development and Reform Commission
New entrepreneur
National Emissions Ceilings
National Energy Efficient Action Plan
Non-Energy Extractive Industries
Non-energy Extractive Industries Panel
Network of European Financial Institutions for SMEs
New Legislative Framework (NLF)
Adopted in July 2008, the New Legislative Framework (NLF) is in fact an update of the New Approach by three texts: Regulation (EC) 764/2008 on the free circulation of products in the non harmonised area Regulation (EC) 765/2008 on the accreditation of conformity assessment bodies and on the organisation of market surveillance Decision 2008/768/EC on general principles that the Parliament and Council should follow in the future for legislation covering the free circulation of products (definitions, rights and obligations of the various players, and conformity assessment modules)
Notified Inspection Body
Neighbourhood Investment Facility
New Legal Framework
No observed adverse effect level
Network of Excellence: an instrument for strengthening excellence by tackling the fragmentation of European research, where the main deliverable is a durable structuring and shaping of the way that research is carried out on the topic of the network. See also, “Fragmentation”.
Non-harmonised funds
Any investment funds that do not come under the European UCITS rules , whether subject to national regulation or not. Most of these funds target institutional investors. Examples include open-ended real estate funds, commodity funds, private equity funds, and venture capital funds .
Non-harmonised sector
In non-harmonised sectors Community legislation does not (yet) exist. However, general rules of the EC-Treaty, such as the principle of free movement of goods, have to be respected in the non-harmonised area.
Non-sensitive research projects
Security Research projects with no classified or sensitive data are transferred to the REA for administration; projects with classified or sensitive information remain under aegis of unit G-3 (Security Research) of Directorate General Enterprise and Industry.
Non tariff barriers
Non trade barriers are measures other than high import duties (tariffs) employed to restrict imports. You will find more information on non tariff barriers on the World Trade Organization official website.
Non-technological innovation
Many innovations are of a non-technological nature, for example in areas such as marketing, organisation, management and design. They are not primarily driven by a technological invention or improvement, and hence referred to as non-technological innovations. The term is not unproblematic, however, as technology (for example information and communication technology) is used as an enabler to support most of today's innovations, even when technology is not the main focus or driver of the innovation.
The European Office of Crafts, Trades and SMEs for Standardisation
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)
NATO (or the Atlantic Alliance) is a military alliance and was founded by the North Atlantic Treaty, also known as the Treaty of Washington, signed on 4 April 1949, and has its headquarters in Brussels. It currently has 26 members, following successive enlargements: 1949 (12 founding members): Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, the United States; February 1952: Greece and Turkey; May 1955: the Federal Republic of Germany; May 1982: Spain; March 1999: the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland; March 2004: Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. More information can be found on NATO official website.
Notified Body
Notified Body is a semi-official or private technical orgnisation appointed by Member States, either for approval and monitoring of the manufacturers' quality assurance system or for direct product inspection. A Notified Body may be specialised for certain products/product categories or for certain modules.
No Performance Determined
Nonylphenol ethoxylates
Non-Road Mobile Machinery
National Security Authority
NATO Standardisation Agency
National Standardisation Body
National Standard Organisation
Notice to Applicants
Non Tariff Barriers
Notified Testing Laboratory
Nucleotide sequence
The order of occurrence of chemical residues, known as nucleotides or bases, in DNA or RNA.
Overhaul and maintenance: the cost and effort required to maintain complex systems such as aircraft, surveillance or critical infrastructure networks in safe working order.
On-Board Diagnostics
Organisation of Ecomonic Cooperation and Development
International Organisation of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers
International Organization of Legal Metrology
Official Journal
Official Journal of the European Union
European Anti-Fraud Office
Office of Management and Budget in the USA
Open Innovation
The emerging paradigm for innovation, involving business models that use partnering, licensing and venturing to combine internal and external sources of ideas and technologies
Open Science
The traditional paradigm of research between scientists worldwide based on the free collaboration and rapid public disclosure of results with no restrictions on use other than acknowledging the source.
Orphan medicinal products
Orphan medicinal products are intended for the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of life-threatening or very serious conditions that affect not more than 5 in 10,000 persons in the European Union.
Open-source intelligence such as newspapers, magazines the internet and other media.
Over the counter: security products and services readily available in the marketplace and thus do not need to be developed with Research and Development money.
Off the shelf: synonymous with OTC.
Processed Agricultural Products (also known as Non-Annex I products)
Parallel import
Parallel trade is in that sense 'parallel' that it involves products that are (largely) identical to products marketed through manufacturers' or original suppliers' distribution networks but takes place outside (often alongside) those networks. Parallel trade is lucrative in case of price differences between Member States; it is a regular phenomenon in many products, but especially in trade with pharmaceuticals and plant protection products.
Preparatory Action for Security Research: the EU’s 2004-2006 pilot projects that led to today’s larger 2007-2013 SR programme.
Partnership and Cooperation Agreement
Potential Candidate Country
Patent Cooperation Treaty
Protocol to the Europe agreements on Conformity Assessment and acceptance of industrial products The Europe Agreements are the basic accords governing bilateral relations between the European Communities and their Member States and each candidate country in central and eastern Europe. Under the terms of the Europe Agreements, candidate countries for EU membership should approximate their legislation to that of the Community. In the field of industrial standards and conformity assessment, the Europe Agreements aim to achieve the candidate countries' full conformity with Community technical regulations and European standardisation and conformity assessment procedures. They also envisage the conclusion of agreements on mutual recognition in these fields.
Protocols to the Europe Agreements on Conformity Assessment and Acceptance of Industrial Products
Pressure Equipment Directive
Paediatric Committee
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuell Cell
Permanent establishment
A fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried out. For private equity / venture capital , permanent establishment refers to the possibility that a limited partner , either owing or having a stake in a venture capital fund , is considered as a resident of that country and hence liable for national taxation.
Platinum Group of Metals
Pharmaceutical Committee
The Pharmaceutical Committee is an advisory Committee, which is responsible for examining all questions relating to proprietary medicinal products and, in particular, the preparation of proposals for Directives.
Pharmacovigilance is the process and science of monitoring the safety of medicines and taking action to reduce risks and increase benefits from medicines.
Point of sale
Post-Tanning Operations
Washing and neutralisation, retaining (to improve the feel and handle of leathers), dyeing, fatliquoring (leathers must be lubricated to achieve product-specific characteristics and to re-establish the fat content lost in the previous procedures) and drying.
Potential candidate country (PCC)
Countries whose European perspectives have been confirmed and which are part of the EC's pre-accession strategy, but who have not yet been given formal candidate status. The PCC's are Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Albania. Kosovo/UNSCR 1244 is also included in this pre-accession strategy.
Personal Protective Equipment
Product and process oriented research and development
Pre-commercial procurement (PCP)
Using public-sector demand to drive development of innovative solutions from Europe’s research and private sectors.
Chemicals or compounds needed to induce a sequential chemical reaction that causes an explosion, and the target of increasing research and regulation in Europe.
Provisional European standard
Pricing and Reimbursement
Decisions concerning the prices and reimbursement status of medicines fall within the competence of the EU Member States. However, these decisions have a tremendous impact on the functioning of the internal market and on the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry. The European Commission therefore works with all stakeholders in order to develop balanced and adequate pricing and reimbursement policies across Europe.
Privacy by design
Designing products, networks and databases to integrate safeguards on privacy.
Private equity
Investment of equity capital in firms not quoted on a stock market. Venture capital is strictly speaking a subset of private equity, which also includes replacement capital and buyouts .
Private placement
Raising of capital through the sale of securities to a small number of professional investors. Investors typically include banks, investment funds, insurance companies, and pension funds. This allows the transaction to be exempt from many or all of the requirements that would apply in the event of a public offering.
Processed Agricultural Products
Processed Agricultural Products (PAPs) are goods made out of agricultural products. Examples include: chocolates and confectionaries, sweet drinks, biscuits and bakeries products, and other preparations. PAPs are also referred to as Non-Annex I products as they are not included in the list of agricultural products of Annex I to the EC Treaty. This list sets out all the agricultural products which could be subject to a Common Market Organisation such as cereals, bananas, sugar and eggs.
Process management
Process management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, techniques and systems to define and improve processes, in order to meet customer requirements profitably.
Procurement above the thresholds
Only about 16% of the public procurement market in the EU is governed by EU rules (EU Directives), which oblige contracting authorities to publish in the Official journal of the EU public contracts with a value exceeding certain financial thresholds. These public contracts are usually referred to as public contracts above the thresholds.
Product Contact Points
Designated information points in each Member State, mainly for economic operators that provide free of charge information concerning national technical rules applicable in that Member State.
PRO INNO Europe ®
PRO INNO Europe ® is an initiative of Directorate General Enterprise and Industry which aims to become the focal point for innovation policy analysis, learning and development in Europe, with the view to learning from the best and contributing to the development of new and better innovation policies in Europe.
PROSAFE (the Product Safety Enforcement Forum of Europe) is a non-profit organisation established by market surveillance officers from various countries throughout Europe. The primary focus of PROSAFE is to promote informal discussions between the various market surveillance officers in order to share and learn from each others' experiences and to further develop best practices and enhance market surveillance activities as operated within the European Economic Area (EEA).
Product Safety Enforcement Forum of Europe
Prudent person rule
A behaviourally-orientated standard of investment, rather than one based on quantitative criteria. The prudent person rule allows institutional investors to include asset classes like private equity and venture capital in their asset allocation according to their own needs, while respecting the risk profile of their clients. In other words, the obligation on pension managers to invest as a prudent investor would do on his or her own behalf, in particular by carrying out sensible portfolio diversification.
Public-private partnership
A government service or private business venture funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies.
Public procurement
Public procurement refers to contracts covering supplies, services and works purchased by the public sector. Public procurement is subject to EU and international rules, although not all public procurement is subject to these obligations. Under these rules public sector procurement must follow transparent open procedures, ensuring fair conditions of competition for suppliers.
Published Harmonised (European) Standards
Published Harmonised (European) Standards list are a specific subset of European Standards (EN, produced by CEN and available from the national Standards Institutes) with particular consideration of the Essential Safety Requirements the reference number of which is published in the Official Journal of the European Commission. The use of a Published Harmonised Standard in the design and manufacture of a product will give the presumption of conformity (Article 5.1) to those ESRs listed in Annex ZA of the particular Harmonized Standard.
Research and development.
Research and Development
Research and technology.
Research and Technology
Radio equipment and telecommunications terminal equipment Compliance Association
Radiocommunications and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Industries (RTTE)
The sector of Radiocommunications and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Industries encompasses all products using the radio frequency spectrum (e.g. car door openers, mobile communications equipment like cellular telephones, CB radio, broadcast transmitters, etc.) and all equipment attached to public telecommunications networks (e.g. ADSL modems, telephones, telephone switches).
Reduced assessment product
REACH is the new Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. It entered into force on 1st June 2007. It streamlines and improves the former legislative framework on chemicals of the European Union (EU).
Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances (Regulation 1907/2006/EC)
Recasting refers to a legislative technique where a legislative proposal/act is a mix of substantial amendment and codification. This technique uses the opportunity provided by a substantial amendment to the basic legislative act to codify the original act and all its subsequent amendments. Unlike codification, recasting changes the substance of the law. Recasting is one form of simplification and a recasting proposal follows a normal legislative procedure according to its legal base.
Recognised Third Party Organisations
Recognised Third Party Organisations are appointed by Member States to carry out the approval of welding procedures and personnel and non-destructive testing personnel.
Recreational craft
Any type of boat intended for sports and leisure purposes of hull length from 2.5m to 24m, measured according to harmonized standards, regardless of the means of propulsion, is considered a "recreational craft". In addition, the Recreational craft directive also covers personal watercraft in its scope. Personal watercraft are defined as a vessel less than 4 m in length which uses an internal combustion engine having a water jet pump as its primary source of propulsion and designed to be operated by a person or persons sitting, standing or kneeling on, rather than within the confines of, a hull.
A referral is a procedure used to resolve disagreements and address concerns. In a referral, the EMEA is requested to conduct, on behalf of the European Community, a scientific assessment of a particular medicine or class of medicines. The medicine, or the class or medicines, is 'referred' to the CHMP, so that the Committee can make a recommendation for a harmonised position across the European Union.
A legal act by which the regulations, directives and decisions are formally repealed and their validity is terminated.
Replacement capital
The purchase of existing shares in a company from another private equity investor or shareholder.
Renewable energy sources
Research Executive Agency (REA)
Created by European Commission as funding and managerial body to oversee specific areas of research and innovation; manages parts of the FP7 programme, including Security Research projects.
Research Framework Programme (7th)
Covering the 7-year-period 2007-2013, the Seventh framework programme for research and technological development (FP7), is designed as a key contribution to the EU's strategy for growth and jobs. FP7 responds to the needs of industry and of European policies, placing innovation and knowledge at the centre of economic, social and environmental progress. FP7 is organized into four main specific programmes, corresponding to four major objectives of European research policy: cooperation, ideas, people and capacities. In addition, the FP7 includes specific programmes for the Joint Research Centre and under the Euratom Treaties.
Ability of organizations or societies to quickly re-establish normal conditions following a man-made or natural disaster; depends heavily on readiness and capabilities of first-responder authorities; see also “Disaster Response”.
Resource management
Resource management is the effective deployment for an organisation's resources when they are needed. Such resources may include financial resources, inventory, human skills, production resources, or information technology.
Radio frequency
Recommendation for Use sheets
REACH Implementation Projects
Regional Innovation Strategy
Risk capital (markets)
Markets providing equity financing to a company during its early growth stages ( start-up and development). It covers three types of financing: (1) informal investment by business angels ; (2) venture capital ; (3) stock markets specialising in SMEs and high growth companies.
Restriction of Hazardous Substances
Remotely Piloted Aircraft
Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems
Radio Spectrum Committee: is the standing committee of the Radio Spectrum Decision 676/2002/EC. This Decision harmonises progressively the 27 national frequency plans.
Radio Spectrum Committee
Risk Sharing Finance Facility
Radio and Telecommunication Terminal Equipment
RTTE Directive
The Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive, known as the RTTE Directive, is the main route to compliance for Radio and Telecoms equipment that is sold in Europe.
Rural digital divide
The gap between those citizens with effective access to digital and other information technologies and those without is often more acute outside urban areas and in remote regions.
Stabilisation and Association Agreement
SANCO is the name given to DG Health and Consumers whose job it is to review and update laws regarding the safety of food, consumers' rights and the protection of people's health. It also has the task of ensuring that traders, manufacturers and food producers across Europe observe these laws.
S and A
Sense and Avoid avionic system
Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
The Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) agreement which is based on WTO rules sets out how governments can apply food safety and animal and plant health measures. While it allows countries to fix their own standards, it stipulates that these must be based on science and only be applied to the extent necessary to protect human, animal and plant life or health.
Standards and Recommended Practices
Satellite Centre
SatCom technology
satellite communications technology
Small Business Act
Standing Committee
Standing Committee on Drinking Water (DWD Article 12)
Scientific Committee on Food
Commission Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks
Standard Cost Model
Sustainable consumption and production
Sustainable Consumption and Production and Sustainable Industrial Policy: the two main policies covered by the Action Plan. Sustainable Industrial Policy is under the responsibility of DG Enterprise and Industry and aims at setting the right business environment so that greater sustainability becomes an asset for industry's competitiveness and a source of innovation. As described in the Action Plan, SIP mainly includes: sustainable product policy, which supports the manufacturing and marketing of more environmentally friendly products, notably by fostering their uptake by consumers; support to eco-industries, to foster the competitiveness of environmental industries and favour their uptake by traditional industries; climate change policy, to help industry adapting the new CO2 constrain. Sustainable Consumption and Production includes complementary policies under the responsibility of DG Environment.
In the better regulation context screening is normally used in two different meanings: At one level, the Commission is screening the existing stock of EU legislation to verify its relevance and possible need for simplification or repeal of obsolete legislation with a view to strengthening its simplification programme. At another level, the Commission regularly screens proposals pending before the legislator (the European Parliament and the Council) to make sure that they are relevant and up to date.
Software Defined Radio
Secondary sale
The sale of private equity holdings by venture capital funds to other investors.
The packaging of designated pools of non-tradable assets with similar characteristics (such as loans) into marketable securities (such as bonds) and the selling thereof to investors. For example, a collection of similar commercial or mortgage loans could be packaged together and sold on to investors. Securitisation converts illiquid assets into liquid assets.
Security Advisory Group (SAG)
Advises the Security Research unit of Directorate General Enterprise and Industry on the annual security research work programme.
Security by design
Integrating safeguards into the design of technology, systems and networks to conform with privacy and security norms.
Security end-users
A professional or consumer benefiting of and/or affected by security research results.
Security Missions
The four policy areas to which the EU aligns its security policy and research objectives: security of the citizen, security of infrastructures and utilities, intelligent surveillance and border security and, finally, restoring security and safety in case of crisis.
Security Research (SR)
European Commission’s 2007-2013 Research and Development programme worth EUR 1.4 billion.
Security Research Conference (SRC)
Annual meetings of EU civil security stakeholders; first event took place in Vienna in 2006, followed by others in Berlin, Paris, Stockholm, Ostend (Belgium) and Warsaw.
Security scanners
Devices that create an image of a person's body to detect hidden or dangerous objects and substances; increasingly being deployed for airport security checks; see also “body scanners”.
Seed capital
Financing provided to study, assess and develop an initial concept. The seed phase precedes the start-up phase. The two phases together are called the early stage .
The removal of nucleic acid sequences from a cell of an organism which may or may not be followed by reinsertion of all or part of that nucleic acid (or a synthetic equivalent) with or without prior enzymic or mechanical steps, into cells of the same species or into cells of phylogenetically closely related species which can exchange genetic material by natural physiological processes where the resulting micro-organism is unlikely to cause disease to humans, animals or plants. Self-cloning may include the use of ecombinant vectors with an extended history of safe use in the particular micro-organisms. (Directive 98/81/EC, Annex II, Part A).
Service Innovation
A service is defined in the Oslo manual in the manner that "a key element of services is that the distinction between products and processes is often blurred, with production and consumption occurring simultaneously. Development of processes can be more informal for services than for goods, with an initial phase consisting of search, idea gathering and commercial evaluation, followed by implementation." The terms service industry(ies) or service sector(s) are generally used to refer to economic activities covered by Sections G to K and M to O of the OECD's classification system NACE Rev. 1, and the units that carry out those activities. The Oslo manual defines innovation in services as "Innovation activity in services tends to be a continuous process, consisting of a series of incremental changes in products and processes. This may occasionally complicate the identification of innovations in services in terms of single events, i.e. as the implementation of a significant change in products, processes or other methods." In DG Enterprise and Industry the term service innovation refers mainly to innovation in the service sector provided by service entrepreneurs or service companies. It may refer also to innovation in service activities in all sectors including manufacturing in specific cases where it will then be noted. Measuring service innovation usually refers to the measuring of innovation in the service sector. The NACE classification of the service sector is used for this purpose (see above).
Single European Sky
Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research Programme managed by Eurocontrol and partially funded by the Commission.
Standing Forestry Committee
Substance Information Exchange Forum
Gateway to European Public Procurement
Simplification proposals
These are Commission's legislative proposals which aim to simplify existing EU-legislation (the "acquis"). They generally take the form of repeal, codification, recasting or amendment. In certain instances, the Commission has been empowered to modify on its own the rulebook, via so-called "autonomous acts". In the absence of such provisions, the normal legislative procedure is to be followed: the Commission first exercise its right of initiative by designing a legislative proposal. The latter has then to be carried for final adoption through the appropriate Community decision making process by the legislative authority (the European Parliament and the Council where the co-decision procedure applies). In the case of directives, the corresponding rules have in turn to be transposed within a predetermined period into national legislation.
Single or internal market
The EU's single or internal market is a market where goods, services, capital and people can circulate freely. The free movement of goods principle requires that national barriers to the free movement of goods within the EU be removed. Articles 34 to 36 of the TFEU prohibit quantitative restrictions on imports, exports or goods in transit and all similar restrictive measures between member countries. All measures capable of hindering directly or indirectly such imports are considered to be quantitative restrictions.
Situational awareness
Perception of operating environment in terms of time, space and activity; critical for preparedness and “real-time” response in many civil security policy areas.
Sectoral Innovation Watch
SESAR Joint Undertaking
According to Article 2 of the Annex to Recommendation 2003/361/EC, the category of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is made up of enterprises which employ fewer than 250 persons and which have an annual turnover not exceeding €50 million, and/or an annual balance sheet total not exceeding €43 million (see: SME definition). SMEs are the backbone of the EU economy - they represent 99% of all enterprises in the EU. Some 23 million SMEs provide around 75 million jobs.
Small and Medium-sized Enterprises
SME Guarantee Facility
SME Test
Estimating the impacts of the legislative proposals on SMEs.
Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs Support Office
Societal research
Study of the social dimensions to Security Research and their implications for society/economy at large.
Societal Resilience
Defined as the capacity of a social system to react when faced with alterations, risks or disasters. See also “Crisis Management” and “Disaster Response”.
Software-defined radio (SDR)
Exploits computing processes to replace physical tuning, reception and other traditional radio hardware in order to produce more flexible and secure communications.
Security of Information
SOLVIT is a network created by the Commission and the Member States, with the aim of solving problems that arise for individual citizens and businesses as a result of the misapplication of Community law (
On-line EU problem-solving network
Somatic cell
Cells other than sperm or egg cells, which are not naturally involved in conceiving children.
Somatic cell therapy
Use in humans of autologous (emanating from the patient himself), allogenic (coming from another human being), or xenogenic (coming from animals) somatic living cells, the biological characteristics of which have been substantially altered as a result of their manipulation to obtain a therapeutic, diagnostic or preventive effect through metabolic, pharmacological and immunological means (Directive 2003/63/EC, Annex, Point 2).
Security of Supply
Sound Engineering Practice
Sound Engineering Practice applies to equipment that is not subject to conformity assessment but must be designed and manufactured in accordance with the sound engineering practice of a Member State in order to ensure safe use. That equipment must ensure that design and manufacture takes into account all relevant factors influencing safety during the intended lifetime. The equipment must be accompanied with adequate instructions for use and must bear the identification of the manufacturer. The responsibility for compliance with the PED lies solely with the manufacturer.
Soyuz launcher
A launcher system developed by the Soviet Union now being adapted for use as a medium-lift launcher for Europe.
Single Point of Contact
Agreements on sanitary and phytosanitary measures
Simple Pressure Vessels Directive
Strategic Research Agenda
Sub Saharan Africa
Stakeholder Strategic Research Agenda
Stabilisation and Association Agreements
The EU concludes Stabilisation and Association Agreements (SAA) with certain countries in exchange for political, economic, trade and human rights commitments. Western Balkan countries are the focus of the SAA and are offered financial assistance and tariff-free trade to EU markets. One of the latest countries to enter into agreement negotiations with the EU is the Ukraine, which would join existing members - Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro, Serbia, Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Person, group, organization or system involved in or affected by civil security.
Standard (TBT procedure)
A technical specification approved by a recognised standardisation body for repeated or continuous application with which compliance is not compulsory and which is one of the following : international standard : a standard adopted by an international standardisation organisation and made available to the public; European standard : a standard adopted by a European standardisation body and made available to the public; national standard : a standard adopted by a national standardisation body and made available to the public.
Standardisation is the process through which the EU aims to establish high quality criteria throughout its member countries. It is based on consensus among the various partners involved - industry, consumers and public authorities. Interoperability, i.e. the technical compatibility of complementary products, services and processes is the desired outcome. The process also involves setting up test methods and requirements for safety, health, organisational and environmental performance. Standardisation allows SMEs to stay up to date with technology and business practices. It is a symbol of quality, recognised by customers. It is also a means of capitalising on European leadership in new markets.
Standstill period (98/34 procedure)
There is an initial three-months period during which the notifying Member State cannot adopt its notified draft. This period enables other Member States and the Commission to examine the notified draft in detail and to send a reaction (comments, detailed opinion, blocking) to the notifying Member State, if deemed necessary. This standstill period may be extended if there is a detailed opinion or a blocking.
Start-up capital
Provided to companies for product development and initial marketing. Firms may be in the process of being set up or may exist but have yet to sell their product or service commercially.
Stock exchange (stock market)
A market in which securities are bought and sold. Its basic function is to recycle capital from savings into investments. It enables companies, governments and local authorities to raise finance by selling securities to investors.
Strawberry Regulation
"Nickname" for Regulation 2679/98, given that it was triggered by a Court case of the European Court of Justice (C-265/95) dealing with violent and non-violent acts of French farmers against imported agricultural products, such as strawberries.
The concept of sustainable development refers to a form of development that meets present-day needs without compromising the ability of future generations to satisfy their own requirements. The EU has endorsed the ambitious objectives of reducing by 20% Europe's greenhouse gas emissions, improving Europe's energy efficiency by 20% and increasing the share of renewable energy to 20% by 2020. This includes trying to draft policies to improve the EU's industrial, economic and commercial competitiveness, while giving due consideration to the planet's future prospects.
Staff Working Document
Integrated, task-oriented systems that pool resources and capabilities to create more complex functions and performance than the sum of their constituent systems; see also “Demonstration Project”.
Transatlantic Business Dialogue
Tannery Finishing Operations
The overall objective of finishing is to enhance the appearance of the leather and to provide the performance characteristics with respect to colour, gloss, handle, etc.
Tannery Operations
De-liming, bating, pickling and tanning. In the tanning process the collagen fibre is stabilised by the tanning agents so that the hide is no longer susceptible to putrefaction.
Tax neutrality
The notion that a decision to invest or use a particular source of funding should not be made on the basis of differential tax treatment.
Tax transparency
A fund is tax transparent when the fund itself is not subject to taxation and the investment in the investee company is treated as if it were a direct investment for the initial investor in the fund (the limited partner ), who is then taxed when the investment fund distributes its profit.
Technical Barriers to Trade
TBT Committee
The Committee set up on the basis of article 13 of the TBT Agreement. It is composed of representatives from each of the Members. The Committee meets as necessary, but no less than once a year, for the purpose of affording Members the opportunity of consulting on any matters relating to the operation of this Agreement or the furtherance of its objectives.
Technical Committee in the standardisation area
Telecommunication Conformity Assessment and Market Surveillance Committee
Traction Control System
Trade, Development and Co-operation Agreement between the EU and South Africa
Trade Defence Instruments
Tolerable Daily Intake
Transatlantic Economic Council
Technical regulation (98/34 procedure)
Technical specifications and other requirements or rules on services, the observance of which is compulsory in the case of marketing, provision of a service, establishment of a service operator or use in a Member State, as well as provisions of Member States prohibiting the manufacture, importation, marketing or use of a product or prohibiting the provision or use of a service, or establishment as a service provider.
Technical regulation (TBT procedure)
Document which lays down product characteristics or their related processes and production methods, including the applicable administrative provisions, with which compliance is mandatory. It may also include or deal exclusively with terminology, symbols, packaging, marking or labelling requirements as they apply to a product, process of production method.
Technology platform
European technology platforms are industry-led stakeholder forums that define research and development priorities and action plans in a number of strategically important areas.
Technology transfer
Also known as knowledge transfer or knowledge sharing. The process whereby an enterprise converts scientific findings from research laboratories and universities into products and services in the marketplace.
Tenders Electronic Daily (TED)
Online version of supplement to the EU’s “Official Journal” which focuses on all public tenders and procurement awards granted by the EU and the 27 member states.
Tenders Electronic Daily (TED)
TED is the on-line version of the Supplement S to the Official Journal of the European Union containing, i. a., calls for tenders, contract awards and pre-information notices
Technical Guidance Note
Think Small First principle
According to this principle legislation should be created in consideration of the fact that the vast majority of European businesses are SMEs and that their interests might need special attention when creating new rules.
Toy Industries of Europe
Trade and Investment Enhancement Agreement
Transatlantic Legislators' Dialogue
Trans National Companies
Tire Pressure Monitoring System
tonnes per year
Technical Report
Transparency Directive 89/105/EEC
Council Directive 89/105/EEC lays down harmonised provisions to ensure the transparency of national provisions regulating the pricing and reimbursement of medicinal products. It is commonly referred to as the "Transparency Directive".
Trans-Regional EU-ASEAN Trade Initiative
Technical Regulations Information System
Toy Safety Directive
Technical Working Group
Unmanned Aircraft Program Office
Unmanned Aircraft Systems.
Unmanned aerial vehicle: single pilot-less platform.
Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities
Ultra Low Co2 Steelmaking
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities (UCITS)
Investment funds for retail purposes that are harmonised at EU level to provide protection for investors.
The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) is one of five regional commissions of the United Nations. Its major aim is to promote pan-European economic integration while it is broader that Europe with 56 countries located in the European Union, in non-EU Western and Eastern Europe, South-East Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and North America. Over 70 international professional organizations and other non-governmental organizations take part in UNECE activities. To this end, it provides analysis, policy advice and assistance to governments; it gives focus to the United Nations global mandates in the economic field, in cooperation with other global players and key stakeholders, notably the business community.
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Unilever judgement
In this judgement (based on the CIA Security judgement), the European Court of Justice concluded that the adoption of technical regulations during the standstill period constitutes a breach of Directive 98/34/EC which renders these technical regulations inapplicable, so that they are unenforceable against individuals (Case C-443/98 of 26 September 2000).
International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants
Urgency (98/34 procedure)
There is no standstill period when, for urgent reasons occasioned by serious and unforeseeable circumstances relating to the protection of public health or safety, the protection of animals or the preservation of plants and for rules on services also for public policy, notably protection of minors, a Member State is obliged to prepare technical regulations in a very short space of time in order to enact and introduce them immediately without consultation being possible. The notifying Member States shall give reasons for the urgency of the measures to be taken. The Commission shall give as soon as possible its views on such a request to use the urgency procedure.
User Inspectorates
User Inspectorates are appointed by Member States to carry out the tasks of notified bodies within their own companies under Modules A1, C1, F and G only. (The CE marking should not be affixed to pressure equipment and assemblies assessed by user inspectorates).
All changes subsequent to their placing on the EU market of medicinal products, as for example changes in the production process, the packaging and the address of the manufacturer, are considered in legal terms as 'variations', and must be handled according to a complex legislative framework: the 'Variations Regulation'.
Venture capital
Venture capital (VC)
Investment in unquoted companies by venture capital firms who, acting as principals, manage individual, institutional or in-house money. In Europe, the main financing stages included in venture capital are early-stage (covering seed and start-up ) and expansion . Strictly defined, venture capital is a subset of private equity . Venture capital is thus professional equity co-invested with the entrepreneur to fund an early-stage (seed and start-up) or expansion venture. Offsetting the high risk the investor takes is the expectation of a higher-than-average return on the investment.
Venture capital fund
An investment fund that manages money from professional investors seeking private equity and equity -related securities (such as quasi-equity) in small and medium-sized firms (investee companies) with strong growth potential. The venture capital fund is usually an unincorporated arrangement such as a limited partnership . A management company that usually has several funds under its control may be a limited company, a limited partnership or a company quoted on a stock market .
International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products
Very Light Aircraft
Visual Line of Sight
Volatile organic compounds
Vertical Take-Off and Landing
Weakness in system or its security procedures, internal controls or implementation susceptible to attack or exploitation by a threat source.
World Customs Organisation: global entity based in Brussels representing national customs authorities; directly involved in efforts to secure maritime supply chains and their logistics.
Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment
European Cooperation in Legal Metrology
Women's Entrepreneurship
Waste Framework Directive
Working group of a Technical Committee
World Health Organisation
Working capital
The liquid assets a company has available to build its business, but also a measure of its efficiency and financial health. Working capital can be positive or negative, depending on how much short-term debt the company is carrying. A negative working capital means that a company currently is unable to meet its short-term liabilities with cash, accounts receivable, and inventory.
World Trade Organisation
The World Trade Organisation is an international organisation that sets global rules of trade between nations. It was set up in 1995 and brings together 153 governments and political entities such as the EU. The legal basis for the EU's common trade policy is Article 133 of the EC Treaty. A special committee meets on a weekly basis to coordinate EU trade policy. The EU and the WTO Tariff and non-tariff barriers
World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations
World Trade Organisation (Organisation Mondiale du Commerce)
eXtensible Business Reporting Language

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