Navigation path


1958 Agreement

The Agreement concerning the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions for Vehicles, adopted in 1958. It is administered by the World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29), which is a subsidiary body of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The Agreement has resulted in some 126 regulations on issues relating to safety, environmental protection, energy efficiency and anti-theft performances of motor vehicles. The EU became a Contracting Party to the Revised 1958 Agreement in March 1998.

1998 Agreement

The purpose of the 1998 Global Agreement is to further enhance the process of international harmonisation by the development of global technical regulations (GTR) which may also cover countries which are not contracting parties to the 1958 Agreement. The Global Agreement entered into force in August 2000. This agreement applies in parallel to the 1958 Agreement, and like the latter it operates under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).


Anti-lock Braking System


Alternative current


Agreement on Conformity Assessment and Acceptance of Industrial Products

Acceleration Severity Index

The index is used as a measure for ascertaining the severity of impacts of vehicles against road equipment devices. It takes into account the decelerations of vehicles in the longitudinal, transverse, and vertical directions compared to maximum tolerable values.


European Automobile Manufacturers Association


Advisory Committee on Community Policy regarding Forestry and Forest-based Industries


Actions which may affect the compliance of the works with the essential requirements are brought about by agents acting on the works or parts of the works. Such agents include mechanical, chemical, biological, thermal and electro-magnetic agents.

Active fire protection measures

Systems and equipment installed to reduce danger to persons and property by either detecting fire, extinguishing fire, removing smoke and hot gases, or any combination of these functions.


Each New approach directive has an "ADCO", i.e. the informal group of the national administrations in charge of the market surveillance for this directive. The ADCO group supports and complements the work of the formal committee or the working party of the directive.

ADCO group provides administrative cooperation and consistent application of surveillance. At European level, joint market surveillance campaigns are carried out and information exchanged on irregularities found.

ADCO (for R&TTE)

Administrative Cooperation for the R&TTE


Aerosols Dispensers Directive

Adjoining works

Construction works with common or connecting building elements (Opposite: separated works).

Administrative burden

The cost of administrative activities that businesses conduct solely in order to comply with legal obligations.

Administrative costs

Costs incurred by businesses in meeting legal obligations to provide information on their action or production.


Accounting Directives i.e.4th Directive (78/660/EEC) and 7th Directive (83/349/EEC)

Advanced Therapy medicinal products

Advanced therapy medicinal products are new medical products based on genes (gene therapy), cells (cell therapy) and tissues (tissue engineering). These advanced therapies herald revolutionary treatments of a number of diseases or injuries, such as skin in burn victims, Alzheimer, cancer or muscular dystrophy.

Advisory Committee on Community Policy regarding Forestry and Forest-based Industries

Chaired by the Commission and established in 1983 by a Decision from the Commission, it acts as an advisory Committee on matters concerning the industrial aspects of Community policies affecting forest-based industries and forestry as well as on matters concerning the market and other economic considerations affecting forest products in the Community. It includes representatives from the forestry sector and from the woodworking, pulp and paper, printing and publishing industries.


Advanced Emergency Braking System


European Mutual Guarantee Association

Agreement on Conformity Assessment and Acceptance of Industrial Products (ACAA)

A type of mutual recognition agreement, based on the promise that a third country adopts part of the EU acquis and adopts its quality infrastructure in order to implement it, in return for access to the Single Market for the products covered.


Aerospace Industries Association, USA


Active Implantable Medical Device Directive 90/385


Sudden attention or action for protection of persons or property (ISO 8201, 1987).


Air Mobility Comand


European consumer voice in standardisation


Attestation of conformity

Appropriate technical documentation

Simplified procedure in determining the product type as explained in Article 36 of the CPR.


General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China


AeroSpace and Defence Industries Association of Europe


Association of South-East Asian Nations

Asset allocation

A fund manager's allocation of his investment portfolio into various asset classes (e.g. stocks , bonds, private equity ).

Asset class

A category of investment, which is defined by the main characteristics of risk, liquidity and return.

Associated Countries

Third-country partners affiliated with the EU’s Security Research programme: Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Faroe Island, FYROM, Herzegovina, Iceland, Israel, Liechtenstein, Moldova, Montenegro, Norway, Turkey, Switzerland.


Air Traffic Control


Equipment for use in potentially explosive atmospheres


Air Traffic Insertion


Air traffic management:  increasingly handled at European level by Eurocontrol and an essential critical infrastructure service.


Automated Transfer Vehicle

Aurora programme

The European Space Agency's Aurora programme formulates and implements Europe's long-term plans for robotic and human exploration of the Solar System.

Autologous graft

Tissues removed and transplanted back to the same individual

(Directive 2004/23/EC, preamble, paragraph 8 pdf български (bg) czech (cs) dansk (da) Deutsch (de) eesti (et) ελληνικά (el) español (es) Français (fr) Gaeilge (ga) hrvatski (hr) italiano (it) latviešu (lv) lietuvių (lt) magyar (hu) Malti (mt) Nederlands (nl) polski (pl) português (pt) română (ro) slovenčina (sk) slovenščina (sl) suomi (fi) svenska (sv) [242 KB] )

Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV)

The ATV is an unmanned re-supply spacecraft developed by ESA and designed to service the International Space Station.

Making available on the market

Any supply of a cosmetic product for distribution, consumption or use on the Union market in the course of a commercial activity, whether in return for payment or free of charge.


Business to Business

Barrier to trade

Any national measure which is capable of hindering, directly or indirectly, actually or potentially, the free trade of goods in the European Union

Basel II

International rules on capital requirements for banks and investment firms. These rules are implemented in Europe through the Capital Adequacy Directive . They aim to make the international financial system safer by having the riskiness of banks' loan portfolios reflected in the capital charges they need to set aside against unexpected losses.

Basic Requirements of Construction Works (BWR)

Basic requirements for construction works set out in Annex I of the Construction Products Regulation that constitute the basis for the preparation of standardisation mandates and harmonised technical specifications.


Best Available Techniques


Biosafety Clearing House


A management tool for comparing performance against an organisation that is widely regarded as outstanding in one or more areas, in order to improve performance.

Better regulation / Cutting Red Tape

Cutting red tape is the process of reducing unnecessary bureaucracy. The EU is committed to developing a better regulatory environment for businesses - one that is simple, understandable, effective and enforceable. Cutting red tape should help business people and entrepreneurs improve competitiveness, as well as contribute to sustainable development.


The use of a user’s physical characteristics to determine access.


Pathogens malevolently intended to kill or incite terror.


The International Bureau for the Standardisation of Man-made Fibres

Blocking (98/34 procedure)

Reaction sent by the Commission on a draft notified if the Commission has started harmonization works or intends to do so in the area covered by the notified draft. This reaction extends the standstill period which shall reach 12 months and can, in some cases, even reach 18 months.


Beyond Visual Line of Sight

Body scanners

Security devices that create an image of a person's body as part of the search for hidden or dangerous objects and substances; increasingly used airport security checks; see also “Security scanners”.

Boxed Value

The Boxed Value, used at the ENV stage together with the National Application Documents, offered a National choice for a value. It has to disappear in the EN Eurocodes.


Better Regulation

Break-away safety

Passive safety of road equipment that ensures that the equipment readily disengages, fractures, or bends away from impacting vehicles.


Best available techniques reference document


Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

Business angel

A knowledgeable private individual, usually with business experience, who directly invests part of his or her personal assets in new and growing unquoted businesses. Besides capital, business angels provide business management experience for the entrepreneur.


The Confederation of European Business

Business incubation

The provision of services related to the formation and acceleration of the business operations of newly created companies, such as business plan development, facilities management, marketing, legal advise, recuitment, access to finance, mentoring, and internationalisation.

Business model

Conceptualisation of the value proposition that distinguishes a firm from its competitors


A transaction in which a firm (or part of it) is acquired from the current shareholders (the vendors).


Command and Control


Conformity assessment: methods used to determine that a process, product, or service meets relevant technical standards and fulfills relevant requirements.


Conformity Assessment Body


Clean Air For Europe

Candidate country (CC)

Countries which have been confirmed by the European Council as a candidate to accede to the European Union, once the accession negotiations have been successfully completed. CC's are Turkey, Croatia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. With the latter country, negotiations have not yet been started.


Conformity assessment procedure: methods used, directly or indirectly, to determine that relevant requirements in technical regulations or standards are fulfilled.


Common Agricultural Policy

Capital Adequacy Directive (CAD)

European implementation of the international rules on capital requirements for banks and investment firms. Globally the rules are often referred to as "Basel II". They aim to make the international financial system safer by having the riskiness of banks' loan portfolios reflected in the capital charges they need to set aside against unexpected losses.

Capital market

A market where debt and equity securities are traded. Both the primary market for new issues and the secondary market for existing securities are part of the capital market.


Competitive Automotive Regulatory System for the 21st century

CAS Number

Unique numerical identifiers for chemical elements, compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys


Competitiveness in Biotechnology Advisory Group with Industry and Academia


Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, explosive.


Candidate Country


Common Commencement Date


Carbon Capture and Storage


European Confederation of the Footwear Industry


European Council for Motor Trades and Repairs


European Conformance mark complying with the European Acceptance Scheme


Central and Eastern European Countries

Cell fusion

The formation of a hybrid cell produced by fusing two different cells (European Commission. Biosociety Research Online, Bio-glossary).

CE Marking

CE Marking declares the completion of conformity assessment and that the equipment or assembly complies with the provisions of the Directive and meets the essential safety requirements.


The European Cement Association


The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) is one of the three European Standardization Organisations (ESOs). A business facilitator in Europe, removing trade barriers for European industry and consumers. Its mission is to foster the European economy in global trading, supporting regulation where it has technical aspects, the welfare of European citizens and the environment. Through its services it provides a platform for the development of European Standards and other technical specifications.

More than 60 000 technical experts and 30 member countries are involved in the CEN.


European Committee for Standardization (Comité Européen de Normalisation)


CEN Technical Report


CEN Technical Specification


CENELEC, the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization, is one of the three European Standardization Organisations (ESOs).

CENELEC provides the electrotechnical standards requested by the market and harmonized standards in support of European legislation (15 000 technical experts from 30 European countries).


European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (Comité Européen de Normalisation Electronique)


Common Economic Space between the EU and Russia


Call for proposals: a request for interested parties to present a project research proposal, including budget estimate, to meet a stated research brief.


Common Foreign and Security Policy


Named 'Lunar Craft' in Sanskrit, this unmanned mission to the moon from the Indian Space Research Organisation was launched on 22 October 2008.


Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use


Chiefs of Defence (Staff)


Critical infrastructure: any public or privately owned system, service and physical network for which the disruption or destruction would have significant impacts on the functioning of society.

CIA Security judgement

In this judgement, the European Court of Justice concluded that national courts must decline to apply a national technical regulation which has not been notified in accordance with Directive 98/34/EC (Case C-194/94 of 30 April 1996).


Working Group on Clinical Investigation and Evaluation - The CIE develops and promotes homogenous interpretation and implementation of the MD Directives with regard to clinical evaluation and investigation (formerly CETF [Clinical Evaluation Task Force*).


Confederation of Indian Industry


Critical infrastructure protection: measures to safeguard against, respond to and mitigate impacts of attacks or disruption of critical infrastructure.


Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme


The International Rayon and Synthetic Fibres Committee


CISPR, the Comité International Spécial des Perturbations Radioélectriques, translates from the French as the Special international committee on radio interference. It was founded in 1934 to set standards for controlling electromagnetic interference in electrical and electronic devices, and is a part of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are investigations in humans intended to discover or verify the effects of one or more investigational medicinal products.


Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Chemicals.


This is a group of interconnected companies and associated institutions (faculties, research centers, SMEs) in a particular field. The benefits of these networks include access to specialised human resources, suppliers and knowledge.


Clusters can be defined as a group of firms, related economic actors, and institutions that are located near each other and have reached a sufficient scale to develop specialised expertise, services, resources, suppliers and skills.


Crisis management: measures to mitigate impact of adverse incidents on society, whether natural or malevolent; includes training and preparedness of staff and prior planning; see “Resilience” or “Disaster Response”.


Common Market Organisation

CN Code

Combined Nomenclature


Certificate of Conformity

Codex alimentarius

The Codex Alimentarius is a body of standards decided on by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in international food trade. The Commission was created in 1963 by the Food and Agriculture Organisation and the World Health Organisation. It aims to strengthen the consistency of food standards throughout the international community.

Understanding the Codex Alimentarius


In a wide sense, used in some Member States, codification means gathering all legislation on a particular topic into a single "book" (e.g. penal code). In a narrow sense, and as used in the EU context, codification consists of the adoption of a new legislative act which incorporates and repeals the previous ones (i.e. the basic act and all amending acts). This makes the law clearer and more easily accessible without changing its substance.


Compliance and Enforcement Group - COEN's task is to focus on the scope and better coordination of the enforcement activities and improve the communication and co-operation between Member States (formerly MSOG).


Substances which are exclusively or mainly intended to colour the cosmetic product, the body as a whole or certain parts thereof, by absorption or reflection of visible light; in addition, precursors of oxidative hair colorants shall be deemed colorants.

Columbus laboratory

This unit will be ESA's largest single contribution to the International Space Station. The 4.5 meter diameter cylinder will add extensive research and science facilities to ISS capabilities.


Reaction sent by the Commission, or by any Member State, on a draft notified under the procedure laid down by Directive 98/34/EC. This reaction does not extend the initial standstill period.

Committee (98/34 procedure)

Standing Committee consisting of representatives appointed by the Member States who may call on the assistance of experts or advisers; its chairman is a representative of the Commission.

Common Agricultural Policy

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one of the most important EU policies, accounting for some 45% of its budget. The main aims of the policy include ensuring reasonable prices for Europe's consumers, fair incomes for farmers, production of high quality products and the use of environmentally friendly production methods, through the Common Market Organisation.

CAP can intervene by providing financial support when farmers are hit by natural disasters or outbreaks of animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth.

The most recent review of the CAP, launched in 2007, will assess whether or not certain adjustments are needed to make the policy better able to cope with new challenges and opportunities.

Common Economic Space (CES)

The current framework for EU-Russia relations is a Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA), which was enhanced by the creation of roadmaps for 4 Common Spaces in 2005. The Common Economic Space covers trade and economic relations.

Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)

The CFSP was established in 1993 through the Treaty of Maastricht and further enhanced through the Amsterdam Treaty signed in 1999. The CFSP has five main objectives, to:

  • safeguard the common values, fundamental interests, independence and integrity of the Union in conformity with the principle of the United Nations Charter;
  • strengthen the security of the EU in all ways;
  • preserve peace and strengthen international security, in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter, as well as the principle of the Helsinki Final Act and the objectives of the Paris Charter, including those on external borders;
  • promote international co-operation; and
  • develop and consolidate democracy and the rule of law, and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

The European Council defines the principles and general guidelines for the CFSP. Further information on the CFSP can be found on the European Commission website dedicated to External Relations.

Common Market Organisation

The Common Market Organisation is designed to monitor the European agricultural markets and to provide farmers and consumers with a steady income and secure food supplies respectively. It covers about 90% of the EU output.

A single Common Market Organisation (CMO) now governs as many as 21 agricultural sectors which were until 2007 organised into 21 sector specific organisations. This initiative is an important step in the process of simplifying and streamlining the Common Agricultural Policy. Not only does it improve the quality of the legal texts, but it also replaces more than 650 legal articles with around 200.

Without changing the substance of the existing instruments and mechanisms, these harmonised rules cover the classic areas of market policy - intervention, private storage, import tariff quotas, export refunds, safeguard measures, promotion of agricultural products, state aid rules, communications and reporting of data.

Communication on the future of the pharmaceutical sector

The Communication on the future of the pharmaceutical sector adopted on 10 December 2008 by the European Commission outlines the major health, economic and scientific challenges of Europe and the pharmaceutical industry, sets out a vision for the future of the sector and proposes deliverables for the years with 25 different measures on various topics.


Committe for orphan Medicinal Products


A competitive economy is an economy with a consistently high rate of productivity growth. Competitiveness depends on the performance of the economy's SME-fuelled industry. To be competitive, the EU must outperform its competitors in terms of research and innovation, information and communication technologies, entrepreneurship, competition, education and training. The Lisbon Strategy set out to make Europe the most competitive and dynamic economy in the world: competitiveness is therefore one of the top political priorities of the European Union.

Competitiveness and Innovation framework Programme (CIP)

The CIP brings together several existing EU activities that support competitiveness and innovation for the period 2007-13. The combination of programmes provides synergies like a common toolbox and the synchronisation of calls for proposals. The sub-programmes comprise the "Entrepreneurship and Innovation Programme", the "ICT Policy Support Programme" and the "Intelligent Energy Programme".


At the express request of the notifying Member State , which shall support any such request by reasons, the information supplied under the procedure laid down by Directive 98/34/EC is treated as confidential. The documents transmitted will then not be made available on the TRIS website.

Conformity Assessment

Conformity Assessment must be undertaken by the manufacturer or notified body, depending on the category of the equipment, in order to demonstrate that the essential safety requirements are met.

Conformity Assessment Module

The New Approach has introduced a modular approach to conformity assessment, thereby subdividing it into a number of independent activities. Modules differ according to the type of assessment (e.g. documentary checks, type approval, design approval, quality assurance) and the organisation carrying out the assessment (i.e. the manufacturer or a third party).

Conformity assessment procedure (TBT procedure)

Any procedure used, directly or indirectly, to determine that relevant requirements in technical regulations or standards are fulfilled.


Community Research and Development Information Service


Committee of the Permanent Representatives

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

CSR refers to the concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with stakeholders on a voluntary basis. SMEs which have integrated the concept of CSR behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families, as well as of the local community and society at large.


European Commission database with information on cosmetic ingredients

Cosmetic product

Any substance or mixture intended to be placed in contact with the external parts of the human body (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips and external genital organs) or with the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity with a view exclusively or mainly to cleaning them, perfuming them, changing their appearance, protecting them, keeping them in good condition or correcting body odours.


Any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with the various external parts of the human body (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips and external genital organs) or with the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity with a view exclusively or mainly to cleaning them, perfuming them, changing their appearance and/or correcting body odours and/or protecting them or keeping them in good condition.


Capability Project: development of a single innovative security technology or capability, with typical budget in range of EUR 1 million to 5 million.


Construction Products Directive (89/106/EEC)


Construction Products in contact with Drinking Water


Comité Permanent des Industries du Verre Européennes


Community Plant Variety Office


Cognitive radio: two-way radio where “smart” software and components  automatically adjust and optimize communications variables (electromagnetic frequency, wavelength, etc.) in line with user needs and network conditions: See also “software-defined radio”.


Community Reference Laboratory


Clarification Sheet


Coordination and Support Action.


Chemical Safety Assessment


Cement Sustainability Initiative


Certification Specification for Light Unmanned Rotorcraft Systems


Corporate Social Responsibility




Common technical specifications.


Common Technical Specifications


Common Understanding of Assessment Procedures


Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use


Detect and Avoid avionic system


Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency

Data Mining

Techniques used to analyze existing information, usually with intent of generating new business opportunities, but also has security implications.


Direct current

Debt instrument

Loans and other funding instruments that provide the investor with mostly fixed minimum returns and are at least partly secured.

Declaration of conformity

The declaration of conformity is a document that must always accompany the recreational craft, the components and the propulsion engines, and must always be attached to the owner's manual. It contains data on the manufacturer, the product and the administrative and legal procedures and information that have been taken into consideration when developing and manufacturing the product. The legal requirements regarding the content of the Declaration of Conformity can be found in Annex XV of the Recreational Craft Directive.

Defence Technological and Industrial Base (DTIB)

The DTIB is a term used to describe the technological and industrial strength of a defence market. The European Defence Agency (EDA) has developed a strategy, approved by EU Ministers of Defence - with the exception of Denmark which does not participate in the EDA - on 14 May 2007, to ensure that the European DTIB dependably supplies Europe's armed forces with their needs even in times of conflict, and which provides for appropriate national sovereignty and EU autonomy. This strategy is available on the European Defence Agency (EDA) website.

Design categories

Recreational crafts are divided into four design categories ("Ocean", "Offshore", "Inshore", "Sheltered waters"). The Design Categories are based on the parameters "significant wave height" and "wind force", to define the physical conditions that might arise in any category for design evaluation. This classification constitutes a reference for the application of the essential requirements regarding design and construction as well as for the conformity assessment procedure to be applied.

Detailed opinion

Reaction sent by the Commission, or by a Member State , on a draft notified under the procedure laid down by Directive 98/34/EC if this envisaged measure may affect the functioning of the internal market. This reaction extends the standstill period by three additional months for notifications relating to products and one additional month for notifications on information society services.


Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade of Canada


Dangerous Goods Safety Adviser

Disaster Recovery

Ability of organizations and societies to re-establish normal conditions following a man-made or natural disaster; see also “Resilience”.


Any natural or legal person in the supply chain, other than the manufacturer or the importer, who makes a cosmetic product available on the Union market.


Date of Applicability (of a standard as a harmonised European standard according to article 4(2)(a) of Directive 89/106/EEC)


Declaration of Conformity

Doha Round

The Doha Round (also named the Doha Development Agenda) of world trade negotiations was launched in Doha (Qatar) in November 2001. The agenda of the Doha Round is specifically targeted at addressing the needs of developing countries. The focus of negotiations has been on reforming agricultural subsidies, improving access to global markets and ensuring that new liberalisation in the global economy respects the need for sustainable economic growth in developing countries.

You will find more information on the Doha round on the World Trade Organization official website.


Date of Withdrawal


Demonstration Project: large-scale Security Research projects that integrate, validate and demonstrate wide-area capabilities based on high levels of technical interoperability; often combine results of Integration and Capability projects (see relevant entries), and have budgets in excess of EUR 10-30 million; see also “System-of-systems”.


Dangerous Preparations Directive

Draft standard (98/34 procedure)

Document containing the text of the technical specifications concerning a given subject, which is being considered for adoption in accordance with the national standards procedure, as that document stands after the preparatory work and as circulated for public comments or scrutiny.

Drone aircraft

A pilotless aircraft operated by remote control


Defence Test and Evaluation Base


Defence Technological and Industrial Base

Dual-use technology

Product or service whose application and capabilities have utility for both military and civilian functions. Examples: UAV or soft-defined radio.


Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC)


European Aluminium Association


Executive Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation


Electric Arc Furnace

Early-stage capital

Financing for companies before they initiate commercial manufacturing and sales or generate any profit. Includes seed and start-up financing.


European Aviation Safety Agency


Early-stage investors for high growth businesses


European Business Angels Network


European e-Business Support Network for SMEs


European Business and Technology Centre in Delhi


European Commission


European Central Bank


European Climate Change Programme

EC-ESA Joint Secretariat

Under the EC-ESA Framework Agreement, the Joint Secretariat works on the definition of the structure and the preparation of the European Space Programme.


European Chemicals Agency


The European Communications Office (ECO) was formally established on 1 July 2009 following the merger of the European Radiocommunications Office (ERO) and the European Telecommunications Office (ETO) in January 2001 and the subsequent amendment to the ERO Convention to reflect this merger.

The European Communications Office (ECO) is the permanent office of CEPT located in Copenhagen, Denmark. ECO mainly supports the Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) of the CEPT, mostly in handling radio spectrum matters.


European Communications Office


Ecodesign means taking into account the environmental impacts of a product at the early stage of design. Ecodesign is based on a life-cycle approach: the environmental impact of the product is analysed throughout its life-cycle, from cradle to grave. The EU has developed a coherent and integrated framework for the ecodesign of products placed on the EU market: the Ecodesign Directive, which allows analysing all the environmental impacts of the product at once, thus avoiding uncoordinated action (for example: a toxic substance is eliminated, which increases energy consumption).

Ecodesign Working Plan

According to the Ecodesign Directive, the Commission has to set out a Working Plan, which includes an indicative list of products to be considered as a priority for implementing measures during the next 3 years. The current Working Plan covers the period 2009-2011.


As defined by the OECD and Eurostat, eco-industries are activities which produce goods and services to measure, prevent, limit, minimize or correct environmental damage to water, air and soil, as well as problems related to waste, noise and eco-systems. This includes technologies, products and services that reduce environmental risk and minimize pollution and resources such as waste and waste water management, renewable energy sources, environmental consulting, air pollution and control, eco-construction.


Eco-innovation refers to products and processes that contribute to sustainable development.

Economic partnership agreements

An economic partnership agreement (or EPA) sets out rights and obligations for both parties entering the agreement. Mutual compliance with these obligations is essential to the whole undertaking. The focus of the EPA are African, Caribbean and Pacific countries. On the one hand, the EU is opening up its markets to products from these countries and, on the other, these countries are making preparations to strengthen their supply capacity and reduce transaction costs.


European Environmental Citizens Organisation for Standardisation


European Charter for Small Enterprises


European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods


European Defence Agency


European Defence Equipment Market


European Destinations of ExcelleNce


Department for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare


Event Data Recorder


European Defence Technological and Industrial Base


Enterprise Europe Network


European Framework Cooperation: cooperation mechanisms  to strengthen complementary R&D activities across the Commission, EDA and ESA.


European Flavour & Fragrance Association


European Federation for Cosmetic Ingredients


European Free Trade Association


Environmentally Friendly Vehicle


Expert Group on Dangerous Substances


European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service


European Handbook for Defence Procurement


eHealth tools or solutions include products, systems and services that go beyond simple Internet-based applications, for instance tools for health authorities and professionals, and personalised health systems for patients and citizens. eHealth can help to deliver better care for less money within citizen-centered health delivery systems and has been identified as one of the six relevant Lead Market Initiative for Europe.


European Investment Bank


Euro Info Centres


Europe-India Chamber of Commerce


Energy Intensive Industries


European Inventory of Existing Commercial Substances


Entrepreneurship and Innovation Programme


European Institute of Innovation and Technology


Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative

Electrostatic discharge (ESD)

Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden and momentary electric current that flows between two objects at different electrical potentials caused by direct contact or induced by an electrostatic field. The term is usually used in the electronics and other industries to describe momentary unwanted currents that may cause damage to electronic equipment.


European programme for Life and Physical Sciences


Emission Limit Values


End-of-Life Vehicles


Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is the branch of electrical sciences which studies the unintentional generation, propagation and reception of electromagnetic energy with reference to the unwanted effects (Electromagnetic interference, or EMI) that such energy may induce. The goal of EMC is the correct operation, in the same electromagnetic environment, of different equipment which use electromagnetic phenomena, and the avoidance of any interference effects.


Electromagnetic compatibility


The Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive 2004/108/EC lays down requirements in order to preventing electrical and electronic equipment from generating or being affected by electromagnetic disturbances.


European Medicines Agency


European Microfinance Network


European Standard

End user

A consumer or a professional using the cosmetic product.


European Neighbourhood Policy


European Organisation for Technical Approvals


Environmental Product Declaration


Enterprise Policy Group


European Personal Selection Office


Environmental Quality Standards for metals

Equipment intended for use in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres (ATEX)

The ATEX Directive, named after the French term "ATmosphere EXplosible", provides the technical requirements for equipment intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres. It has been mandatory since 1 July 2003.


The (ordinary) share capital of a company. Typical features of equity capital include an entitlement to profits, a proportionate share of the proceeds upon liquidation and subordination to creditors.

Equity gap

Exists when there is a persistent capital market imbalance preventing supply from meeting demand at any price (or at a price acceptable to both sides). An often cited example is the lack of venture capital for a young, innovative firm. See also risk capital .


Essential Requirements


Environmental Risk Assessment


European Radiocommunications Office (permanent office of CEPT)


European Space Agency: Paris-based inter-governmental agency that oversees development of space research and technologies and their applications on behalf of its member nations.


European Space Agency


European Space Agency


Electrostatic discharge


European Security and Defence College


European Security and Defence Policy


Estimated Service Life


Electronic Stability Program


European Security Research Advisory Board: an assembly of end-user and industry experts whose 2006 report helped shapd the objectives of the EU’s subsequent 2007-2013 Security Research programme.


The European Security Research and Innovation Forum: the group of industry experts, members of the European Parliament , national officials and representatives from international organisations and research institutes whose December 2009 report focused on the link between security research and needs of the wider stakeholder community; See “GoP”.


European Security Research Programme: component of Seventh Framework Programme for research focused on security topics; funded at EUR 1.4 billion for 2007-2013.


European Security Research Programme


European Security Strategy: EU’s externally oriented security strategy, promulgated in December 2003, updated in December 2008.

Essential safety requirements (ESRs)

Essential safety requirements (ESRs) lay down the necessary safety elements for protecting public interest. Essential safety requirements for design, manufacture, testing, marking, labelling, instructions and materials, usually written in general terms, are mandatory and must be met before products may be placed on the market in the European Community.


European Space Research and Technology Centre


European Space Technology Platform


European Technical Approval: a favourable technical assessment of a an individual product or technology based upon its fitness for an intended use, which is issued when it is judged a European standard is not possible.


Environmental Technologies Action Plan


European Training Foundation

Ethical review

Process by which SR projects are vetted for ethical standards of research, and respect for protection and privacy of personal data.


European Technology Platform: industry-led stakeholder forum charged with defining research priorities in a broad range of technological areas.


EU Emissions Trading Scheme


The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is one of the three European Standardisation Organisations (ESOs). Based in Sophia Antipolis - a high tech research park in southern France - ETSI unites 789 members from 52 countries inside and outside Europe, and represents administrations, network operators, manufacturers, service providers, research bodies and users.


European Telecommunications Standards Institute


European Trade Union Confederation


European Trade Union Federation: Textiles, clothing and leather


European Trade Union Institute for Research, Education and Health and Safety


The European Medical Technology Industry Association


European Databank on Medical Devices

EU-ESA Framework Agreement

Signed in November 2003 and entered into force in May 2004, the Framework Agreement sets out the basis for joint projects, common management structures and closer working arrangements between the European Commission and the European Space Agency.


EU-Israel Business Dialogue


EU-Japan Business Round Table


European Union Military Committee


European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites


European Union Military Staff


Energy-using products: products which consume energy during use. For example, all household electric appliances are EUPs. The Ecodesign Directive has been known as the EUP Directive because it covered initially only energy-using products. On 16 July 2008, the Commission proposed to extend the Ecodesign Directive to energy-related products, which include not only energy-using products but also products which do not consume energy but have an impact on energy consumption during use, such as windows.

Euro 5, Euro 6

Euro 5 and Euro 6 are emission limits standards for cars and light commercial vehicles with respect to a number of pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides and particulate pollutants.


European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment


European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation: Brussels-based agency composed of 37 national air traffic control agencies and responsible for coordinating efficient ATM in Europe, including the “European Single Sky” project known as SESAR; see also “ATM”.

Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements

The EU concluded seven Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements between 1998 and 2005 with the Arab Republic of Egypt, the State of Israel, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the Republic of Lebanon, the Kingdom of Morocco, the Republic of Tunisia and the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria. These agreements provide a suitable framework for North-South political dialogue and determine the activities which are important for the achievement of the Barcelona Declaration's objectives. They also serve as a basis for the gradual liberalisation of trade in the Mediterranean area, and set out the conditions for economic, social and cultural cooperation between the EU and each partner country.

European Defence Agency (EDA)

The European Defence Agency (EDA) was established by the Council of Ministers on 12 July 2004 "to support the Member States and the Council in their effort to improve European defence capabilities in the field of crisis management and to sustain the ESDP as it stands now and develops in the future". All EU Member States, with the exception of Denmark, participate in the EDA.

The EDA's main functions are to:

  • develop defence capabilities;
  • promote Defence Research and Technology;
  • promote armaments co-operation; and
  • create a competitive European Defence Equipment Market and strengthen the European DTIB.

More information on the work of the agency can be found on the EDA official website.

European Defence Equipment Market (EDEM)

The EDEM refers to the market in Europe for armaments. It is a market that is currently considerably fragmented and it is the European Commission's objective to make it more efficient and competitive. This is behind the Commission's the 'Defence Package' of proposals presented to the Council and Parliament in December 2007.

Further details on this package can be found in the section on this site on European Defence Industrial Policy.

European Destinations of Excellence (EDEN)

EDEN is the acronym for European Destinations of Excellence, a project promoting sustainable tourism development models across the European Union. The project is based on national competitions that take place every year and result in the selection of a tourist “destination of excellence” for each participating country.

Find out more on EDEN.

European Innovation Scoreboard (EIS)

As part of the EU Innovation Policy, the EIS provides since 2001 an annual comparative assessment of innovation performance of the economies across the EU.

European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)

The European Union's policy for relations with third countries on its borders, including those bordering the Mediterranean Sea, and those to the East.

European private equity and venture capital association professional standards

A set of behavioural principles that define the relationship between limited partners , general partners and investee companies. European private equity and venture capital association (EVCA) professional standards encompass a Code of Conduct, Governing Principles, plus Corporate Governance, Valuation and Reporting Guidelines.

European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP)

The ESDP is part of the CFSP and its objective is to allow the EU to develop its civilian and military capacities for crisis management and conflict prevention at the international level, thus helping to maintain peace and international security, in accordance with the United Nations Charter. The ESDP, which does not involve the creation of a European army, is developing in a manner that is compatible and coordinated with NATO.

The Maastricht Treaty (1992) was the first to include provisions on the Union's responsibilities in terms of security and the possibility of a future common defence policy. With the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam (1999), new tasks have been included in the Treaty on European Union (Title V). This important innovation relates to humanitarian and rescue operations, peacekeeping operations and the use of combat forces in crisis management, including peacemaking operations (known as "Petersberg tasks"). In addition to these civilian and military crisis management operations, the ESDP includes a "conflict prevention" component.

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC)

The ESTEC is the European Space Agency's technical 'heart' and is located in the Netherlands.

European Space Technology Platform

The ESTP is a European technology platform which brings together different space stakeholders and covers all aspects of space technologies from access to space, exploration, satellites and services, and more.


Europe INNOVA is an initiative of Directorate General Enterprise and Industry which aspires to become the laboratory for the development and testing of new tools and instruments in support of innovation with the view to help innovative enterprises innovate faster and better.

It brings together public and private innovation support providers such as innovation agencies, technology transfer offices, business incubators, financing intermediaries, cluster organisations and others.


European law enforcement agency based in The Hague.


European Border Surveillance System: widespread effort by EU and national institutions to strengthen management of the EU’s external border via information exchange and cooperation between member states' border control authorities and Frontex.

Euro VI

Euro VI is an emission limits standard for heavy duty vehicles (buses and trucks).


European Venture Capital and Private Equity Association

Exchange of best practices

The process by which, in many areas of SME policy, the European Commission works in partnership with the Member States by facilitating the identification and exchange of best practices. A "good practice" or "best practice" is generally accepted to illustrate an approach that deserves the attention and interest of other policy makers or practitioners to inspire further change.


Liquidation of investments by a private equity or venture capital investor. The most common exits are (1) trade sale to another company; (2) public offering (including an initial public offering - IPO ) on a stock market ; (3) sale to another investor; (4) repayment of the investment (when part of the investment agreement); or (5) the write-off of the investment.


ATEX Notified Bodies Group


The European Space Agency's ExoMars mission will send an orbiter and lander with rover vehicle to Mars.

Expansion capital

Financing provided for the growth of a firm, which may or may not break even or be profitable. Capital may be used to finance increased production capacity, market or product development, or to provide working capital .

Eye product

A cosmetic product which is intended to be applied in the vicinity of the eyes.

Undesirable effect

An adverse reaction for human health attributable to the normal or reasonably foreseeable use of a cosmetic product.


Federal Aviation Authority, USA

Face product

A cosmetic product which is intended to be applied on the skin of the face.


Selling a company's accounts receivable, at a discount, to a financing company that assumes the credit risk of the account debtors and receives cash as the debtors settle their accounts.


Food and Agricultural Organisation


Forest Action Plan


Flight Crew Licensing


Food Contact Material


United States Food and Drug Administration


Food, drink and milk sectors


Facility for Euro-Mediterranean Investment and Partnership


European Clay Pipe Producers Association


Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry

Finished cosmetic product

Cosmetic product in its final formulation, as placed on the market and made available to the final consumer.


Personnel engaged in “frontline” emergency services; ie, police, fire, paramedic, emergency search and rescue, etc.

Fiscal/financial measures (98/34 procedure)

Draft technical specifications which are linked to fiscal or financial measures affecting the consumption of products or services by encouraging compliance with such technical regulations. There is no standstill period for notified draft fiscal or financial measures.


Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade

Forest-based Industries

Industries using wood, paper or recovered paper and wood as a raw material. The term includes woodworking industries, pulp and paper industries, printing industries and specialised sectors such as cork.


Sixth Framework Programme

FP7 – Seventh Framework Research Programme

EU’s general research budget for 2007-2013.


The technical and commercial barriers that keep Europe’s economy splintered into separate, high-cost national markets.

Frame formulation

A formulation which lists the category or function of ingredients and their maximum concentration in the cosmetic product or gives relevant quantitative and qualitative information whenever a cosmetic product is not covered or only partially covered by such a formulation. The Commission shall provide indications for the establishment of the frame formulation and adapt them regularly to technical and scientific progress.


EU’s Warsaw-based agency responsible for managing/coordinating the 27 member states’ collective external land and sea borders.


Field Safety Corrective Action


Field Safety Notice


Free Trade Agreement


Forest Technology Platform


A fund that invests in other (venture capital or private equity) funds .


The process in which venture capital firms raise money to create an investment fund . These funds are raised from private, corporate or institutional investors, who make commitments to the fund which will be invested by the general partner .

Fund size

The total amount of capital committed by the limited and general partners of a fund.


The G10 High Level Group on Innovation and Provision of Medicines was the key political initiative in the field of pharmaceuticals under Commissioners Byrne (Health) and Liikanen (Industry). The Group of ten was intended to bring together the top decision-makers on medicines from the EU and discussed the major issues relevant to the right balance of health objectives and industry competitiveness in Europe, including provision of medicines to patients, Single Market, competition, regulation and innovation.

G10 Medicines

High Level Group on Innovation and Provision of Medicines


Unit within Directorate General Enterprise and Industry that oversees Security Research.


General Accepted Accounting Principles


Gas Appliances Directive


This is the flagship satellite navigation system being built by the European Union and the European Space Agency.


General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade


International Conference on Harmonisation Group


Gas chromatography mass spectrometry

General partner

A partner in a venture capital management company who has unlimited personal liability for the debts and obligations of the limited partnership and the right to participate in its management.

Gene therapy

Uses purified preparations of a gene or a fraction of a gene to treat a disease. This can be done either by correcting the functioning of a cell in which a single gene does not work properly from birth or sometimes by killing a cell which is out of control. (Gene Therapy: The Great Debate, 2nd Edition, 1996 ).

A gene therapy product is defined in Annex I to Directive 2001/83/EC as .a product obtained through a set of manufacturing processes aimed at the transfer, to be performed either in vivo or ex vivo, of a prophylactic, diagnostic or therapeutic gene (i.e. a piece of nucleic acid), to human/animal cells and its subsequent expression in vivo.

Gene therapy may be redefined under forthcoming legislation. Related approaches such as RNA interference (RNAi) technology are emerging, and may in the future be applied therapeutically.

Geostationary satellite

A satellite in orbit over the equator whose orbital period matches the rotational period of the Earth and, therefore, appears to remain stationary over a fixed position on Earth.


Global Harmonised System


Global Harmonisation Task Force


High Growth and Innovative SME Facility

Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)

The Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is a United Nations system to identify hazardous chemicals and to inform users about these hazards through standard symbols and phrases on the packaging labels and through safety data sheets (SDS). On 16 December 2008 the European Parliament and the Council adopted a new Regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) which aligns existing EU legislation to the GHS. It was published in the Official Journal 31 December 2008.

Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES)

GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is a European initiative for the implementation of information services dealing with environment and security. GMES will be based on observation data received from Earth Observation satellites and ground based information. These data will be coordinated, analysed and prepared for end-users. It will develop a set of services for European citizens helping to improve their quality of life regarding environment and security. GMES plays a strategic role in supporting major EU policies by its services.


This the satellite navigation system developed by the former Soviet Union and now operated by Russia.


Good laboratory practice


Global Medical Device Nomenclature


General Monitoring Environment System


Genetically modified micro-organism


Genetically modified organism


Good Manufacturing Practices


Global Mineral Resource Assessment Project


Group of Notified Bodies

Gold plating

In the EU context, 'gold-plating' refers to transposition of EU legislation, which goes beyond what is required by that legislation, while staying within legality. Member States have large discretion when implementing EC directives. They may increase reporting obligations, add procedural requirements, or apply more rigorous penalty regimes. If not illegal, 'gold plating' is usually presented as a bad practice because it imposes costs that could have been avoided.

Good Manufacturing Practice

Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) are quality standards that have been set up by the European Union to ensure that medicinal products are consistently produced and controlled against the quality standards appropriate to their intended use. Compliance with these principles and guidelines is mandatory.


The term 'goods' has enormous scope - essentially it includes any product that has economic value. Thus pharmaceuticals, vehicles, foodstuffs, textiles, construction products and cosmetics are all goods.


Group of Personalities: set up in 2003 to identify key principles and guidelines for the creation of a European Security Research programme to support the aims of the EU’s security policy; succeeded by ESRAB.


This involves the management, leadership and/or administration of an issue.


Green Public Procurement


Global Positioning System is the satellite navigation system developed and deployed by the US.


Global Positioning System


General Product Safety Directive


Working Party on Noise


Working Party on Lighting and Light-Signalling


Group on REACH Implementation Problems

Growth stock market

Alternative market for new, fast growing companies. Usually more lightly regulated than the main stock markets .


Working Party on Pollution and Energy


Working Party on Brakes and Running Gear


Working Party on General Safety Provisions


Working Party on Passive Safety


European Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Supervisory Agency


General System of Preferences


A commitment by a third party to pay the debt of borrowers when the latter cannot pay it themselves. The guarantor is liable to cover any shortfall or default on the borrower's debt.

Hair product

A cosmetic product which is intended to be applied on the hair of head or face, except eyelashes.

Harmonised sector

The harmonised sector relates to areas, product regulations etc. that are covered by Community legislation. Harmonisation can be partial or full.

Harmonised standard

A standard adopted by one of the European standardisation bodies listed in Annex I to Directive 98/34/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 1998 laying down a procedure for the provision of information in the field of technical standards and regulations and of rules on information society services on the basis of a request made by the Commission in accordance with Article 6 of that Directive.


Host entrepreneur

Health Technology Assessment

The importance of Health Technology Assessment (HTA), which seeks appropriate spending and use of health technologies has been a constant theme over the last 20 years. Based on the conclusions of the High Level Pharmaceutical Forum and on the experience of EUnetHTA project, the Commission is engaged in the preparation of a Joint Action on Health Technology Assessment under the Public Health Work Plan for 2009. Please visit the dedicated webpage for Health Technology Assessment of Health and Consumers Directorate-General.


Harmonised European standard


Health Risk Assessment Guidance for Metals

Herbal Medicinal Products

Herbal medicinal products are defined as any medicinal product, exclusively containing as active ingredients one or more herbal substances or one or more herbal preparations, or one or more such herbal substances in combination with one or more such herbal preparations.

Hide and Skin Storage and Beamhouse Operations

Upon delivery, hides and skins are sorted, trimmed, cured and stored pending operations in the beamhouse. In the beamhouse, soaking, unhairing, liming, fleshing and splitting are typically carried out.

High Level Group on Innovation and Provision of Medicines

The G10 High Level Group on Innovation and Provision of Medicines was the key political initiative in the field of pharmaceuticals under Commissioners Byrne (Health) and Liikanen (Industry). The Group of ten was intended to bring together the top decision-makers on medicines from the EU and discussed the major issues relevant to the right balance of health objectives and industry competitiveness in Europe, including provision of medicines to patients, Single Market, competition, regulation and innovation.

High level group on the competitiveness of the agro-food industry

A High Level Group on the competitiveness of the agro-food industry has been set up to address issues affecting the competitiveness of the EU's agro-food industry and to identify factors influencing its sustainability. It also has the task of formulating a series of sector-specific recommendations for EU policy makers.

High Level Pharmaceutical Forum

The Pharmaceutical Forum, concluded on 2 October 2008, was a three-year process, set up in order to find relevant solutions to public health considerations regarding pharmaceuticals, while ensuring the competitiveness of the industry and the sustainability of the national health-care systems. This high-level ministerial platform for discussion between Member States, EU institutions, industry, healthcare professionals, patients and insurance funds focused its work on three main topics: Information to patients on diseases and treatment options; pricing and reimbursement policy and relative effectiveness.


High level group


High Level Group of Independent Stakeholders on Administrative Burdens


High Level Group of Independent Stakeholders on Better Regulation


Heads of Medicines Agencies


Committee for Herbal Medicinal Products

Horizon 2020

Name given to the EU’s next multi-year general research budget for 2014-2020.

Horizontal standardisation of test methods

Standardisation process in which the use of common test methods is made possible for a large a number of product groups.


Hot Rolled Coil


One "Harmonised standard" is a standard used for implementing a given Directive. It translates in precise technical terms the Directive essential requirements.

A European standard, adopted by CEN, CENELEC or ETSI, following a mandate issued by the European Commission after consultation of Member States enters into force as a "Harmonised standard" when it is referenced as such in the OJEU. They are developed through an open and transparent process, built on consensus between all interested parties.

Compliance with harmonised standards provides presumption of conformity to the corresponding essential requirements of the EU new approach Directives. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements.


Harmonised Standards


Health Technology Assessment


Intelligence gathered by human means versus that of machines.


Harvested wood products


Impact Assessment


Impact Assessment Board


International Aluminium Institute


International Accounting Standards


International Accounting Standards Board


International Civil Aviation Organisation


International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods


The International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use


International Copper Study Group


Information and Communication Technologies


International Council of Toy Industries


Information Communication Technologies Policy support Programme


Interchange of Data between Administrations


The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the world's global standardisation organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies collectively known as "electrotechnology".

The IEC also manages conformity assessment systems that certify that equipment, systems or components conform to its International Standards.


International Electrotechnical Commission


Industrial Emissions Directive


Improvised Explosive Devices


Improvised explosive devices; otherwise known as home-made bombs.


Intelligent Energy Europe


International Electrotechnical Vocabulary


International Federation of Industrial Energy Consumers


International Fragrance Association


International Financial Reporting Standards


Instructions For Use


Institute for Health and Consumer Protection


International Iron and Steel Institute


The International Lead and Zinc Study Group


Industrial Minerals Association


Innovative Medicines Initiative

Impact assessment

EU’s procedure for evaluating benefits and costs of a policy action or initiative; it must address all significant economic, social and environmental impacts.

Impact Assessment

Before the European Commission proposes new initiatives, in particular proposed legislation, is bound to assess the various possible alternatives, including the status quo. It must assess the potential economic, social and environmental consequences of each option. The impact assessment is a set of formalized steps which prepares evidence for political decision-makers on the advantages and disadvantages of each possible policy option.


Informal network of European regulators and authorities concerned with the implementation and enforcement of environmental law


Any natural or legal person established within the Union who places a cosmetic product from a third country on the Union market.


International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient


These are private or public organisations that provide support to enterprises - in particular small and start-up companies.

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)

ICTs include any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning.

ICTs are rapidly changing global production, work and business methods and trade and consumption patterns in and between enterprises and consumers. ICT enables a radical change in structures of organisations and means of learning, researching, developing, producing, marketing, distributing and servicing digital and traditional goods and services. It also has a great potential to enhance the quality of life.

Information society service

Any service normally provided for remuneration, at a distance, by electronic means and at the individual request of a recipient of services (the full definition of this notion is laid down in Directive 98/34/EC as modified by Directive 98/48/EC).

Information Society Technology area

One of the thematic priorities of the Sixth Framework Programme addressing both the technical aspects and societal challenges of information technologies.

Information to Patients

To ensure adequate information to patients on diseases and treatment options, the European Commission has been looking at different ways of improving the quality and accessibility of information within the High Level Pharmaceutical Forum and with the adoption of legal proposals on information to patients.

Infringement proceedings

In its role as "guardian of the Treaty", the Commission might start legal proceedings against a Member State if this State is deemed to have failed to comply with its obligations under Community law.

Initial public offering (IPO)

The sale or distribution of a company's shares to the public for the first time. An IPO is one of the ways in which a private equity fund can exit an investment.


An innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organisational method in business practices, workplace organisation or external relation. The minimum requirement for an innovation is that the product, process, marketing method or organisational method must be new (or significantly improved) to the firm.

Innovation activities

All scientific, technological, organisational, financial and commercial steps which actually, or are intended to, lead to the implementation of innovations. Some innovation activities are themselves innovative, others are not novel activities but are necessary for the implementation of innovations. Innovation activities also include R&D that is not directly related to the development of a specific innovation.

Innovation Management

The concept of innovation management encompasses an integrated approach to managing all dimensions of innovation, from innovation in products, services and business processes to organisational and business models, through continuous monitoring, development and improvement processes.

Innovative Medicines Initiative

The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) is a crucial element of the European Commission's innovation policy. The objective of this instrument, a public-private partnership involving the industry and the Commission, is to enhance and accelerate the development process of medicines so as to make new treatment options available to patients earlier.


International Nickel Study Group

Institutional investor

An organisation which professionally invests substantial assets in international capital markets. Examples include banks, investment companies, insurance companies, pension funds, foundations, and endowment funds.

Integral Satcom Initiative

An industry-led forum and European technology platform which brings together together all aspects of satellite communications supporting all forms of space communications and exploitation.

Integrated Project (IP)

Security Research projects that bring together several technologies and/or sources of knowledge for a mission-specific combination of capabilities. These tend to have budgets in the area of EUR 5-10 million.

Intellectual Property (IP)

Intellectual property (IP) refers to intangible assets resulting from the creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce.

Intellectual property can be protected by formal or informal methods. Formal protection consists in granting to the owners exclusive Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) under intellectual property law. Informal protection consists in methods like secrecy, confidentiality, defensive publishing, fast innovation cycle etc

Intellectual property rights are divided into two categories: industrial property, which includes inventions, trademarks, industrial design, and geographical indications of source; and copyright, which includes literary and artistic works such as novels, films, musical works, paintings, photographs, and

Internal rate of return (IRR)

In a venture capital fund , the net return earned by investors from the fund's activity from inception to a stated date. The IRR is calculated as an annualised effective compounded rate of return, using monthly cash flows and annual valuations.

Investment fund

A firm that invests the pooled funds of retail investors for a fee. It aggregates the funds of many investors into specific investments, giving investors access to a wider range of investment options at lower cost. Investors may be able to sell their shares when they want (open-ended fund) or their assets may be locked up for a fixed period (closed-end fund). In Europe, investment funds can be divided into funds targeting retail customers under common European rules ( UCITS funds ) and non-harmonised funds without common rules.

Investment readiness

The entrepreneur's understanding of the concerns of banks, business angels and venture capital funds. In particular, this includes knowledge about communication with investors and also how to structure business plans to secure external finance.

Investor readiness platform

A programme to help enterprises to attract and retain financial investment.

Inward processing

Inward processing permits the import of goods for working and subsequent re-export. Outward processing permits EU goods to be exported for working and then subsequently re-imported with total or partial relief from duties.

Inward processing regime


Information Obligation


Intermediary organisation


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IP certificates

Inward Processing certificates


Initial Public Offering


Integrated Product Policy


Integrated pollution prevention and control


Intellectual Property Rights


Institute for Prospective Technological Studies


Innovating Regions in Europe Network


EU-Russia Industrialists Round Table


ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world's largest developer and publisher of International Standards other than electrotechnical or telecommunication ones.

ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 162 countries, based in Geneva.

Therefore, ISO enables a consensus to be reached on solutions that meet both the requirements of business and the broader needs of society.


International Organization for Standardization


Indian Space Research Organisation


Internal Security Strategy: approved by EU in December 2009.


International Space Station


Information Technology


International Technology Agreement


International Traffic in Arms Regulations


ITU, based in Geneva, is the United Nations agency for information and communication technology issues. It associates governments and the private sector in helping the deployment of telecommunication networks and services. It has 191 Member States and more than 700 Sector Members and Associates. ITU also organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, bringing together all stakeholders and in particular the developing world.

Activities range from broadband Internet to latest-generation wireless technologies, from aeronautical and maritime navigation to radio astronomy and satellite-based meteorology, from convergenc


International Telecommunication Union


In vitro diagnostic medical device


In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Device Directive 98/79/EC


International Zinc Association


Joint Action Plan


Group of Joint national aviation Authorities for Rulemaking on Unmanned aircraft Systems


Joint Action to Support Micro-finance Institutions in Europe


Joint Assistance to Support Projects in European RegionS


Joint European Resources for Micro to Medium Enterprises initiative


Joint European Support for Sustainable Investment in City Areas

Joint Action Plan (JAP)

A plan that outlines the wide-ranging strategic co-operation between the EU and India.

Joint Technology Initiatives (JTI)

Joint Technology Initiatives are a major new element of the EU's 7th Research Framework Programme. They provide a way of creating new partnerships between publicly and privately-funded organisations involved in research, focussing on areas where research and technological development can contribute to European competitiveness and quality of life.


EU’s Joint Research Centre; involved in a number of SR projects.


Joint Research Centre


Joint Technology Initiatives


European Innovation Platform for Knowledge Intensive Services

Knowledge-based economy

An economy that derives its primary value from knowledge and the management of knowledge - a key goal of the European Union's strategy for sustainable growth and full employment.

Knowledge Intensive Services

Knowledge intensive services can be defined as economic activities conducted by private sector organisations that combine technology, knowledge (such as R&D) and highly skilled employees to provide a service to the market

Knowledge transfer

Knowledge Transfer involves the processes for capturing, collecting and sharing explicit and tacit knowledge, including skills and competence. It includes both commercial and non-commercial activities such as research collaborations, consultancy, licensing, spin-off creation, researcher mobility, publication, etc. While the emphasis is on scientific and technological knowledge other forms such as technology-enabled business processes are also concerned.

Knowledge triangle

It is based on the interaction between three components: innovation, research and education. The knowledge triangle is meant to boost growth, competitiveness and sustainable development. At the heart of the Lisbon Strategy, the knowledge triangle is also central to the establishment of the European Institute of Technology.

Launchers (heavy-, medium-lift, Launchers, etc)

Rocket-based systems that deliver payloads (satellites, manned vehicles, etc.) into space. Heavy, medium and small indicate the relative weight of payload that a particular launcher can carry into space.


Life Cycle Assessment

L category vehicles

The vehicle class "L-category vehicles" covers a wide range of 2-, 3- and 4-wheel vehicles, for example 2- & 3-wheel mopeds, 2- and 3-wheel motorcycles, tricycles, all terrain vehicles/quads and other quadricycles such as mini-cars.


Life Cycle Costing


Lane Departure Warning System

Lead Market Initiative for Europe

The Lead Market Initiative is one of the most important innovation policies in the EU, involving Member States, industry, NGOs and the European Commission.

Leave-on product

A cosmetic product which is intended to stay in prolonged contact with the skin, the hair or the mucous membranes.


Light Emitting Diodes


Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs Committee of the European Parliament

Limited partner (LP)

An investor in a limited partnership is someone who (in contrast to the general partner ) is liable for partnership obligations only to the extent of his or her investment. Limited partners are usually restricted from taking an active part in the management of the partnership's business.

Limited partnership

A legal structure that is used by most venture capital funds . A partnership is usually formed for a fixed period of time between the investors in a venture capital fund (limited partners) and the management company (general partner) making the investments in the underlying portfolio companies. Details concerning management policy and profit-sharing are laid out in a partnership agreement.

Lip product

A cosmetic product which is intended to be applied on the lips.

Lisbon Strategy

The Lisbon Strategy is aimed at making the European Union (EU) the most competitive economy in the world, and achieving full employment by 2010. European industry needs to be competitive if the EU is to achieve its economic, social and environmental goals, and thus ensure an improving quality of life for its citizens. To be competitive, the EU must outperform in terms of research and innovation, information and communication technologies, entrepreneurship, competition, education and training.

Listed company

A company whose shares are listed on a stock exchange .


London Metal Exchange


Lead Market Initiative


Light Unmanned Rotorcraft Systems


Mobile Air Conditioners

Making available on the market

Any supply of a cosmetic product for distribution, consumption or use on the Union market in the course of a commercial activity, whether in return for payment or free of charge.


Medium-Altitude, Long-Endurance UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicle)

Malicious code

Software that appears as legitimate, but designed to gain unauthorized access to a system or to trick user into launching other malicious codes; an increasingly serious threat to the security of CI systems.


Any natural or legal person who manufactures a cosmetic product or has such a product designed or manufactured, and markets that cosmetic product under his name or trademark.

Maritime engine types

Recreational marine engines are classified into three types depending on the combustion technology used ("two-stroke spark ignition", "four-stroke spark ignition" and "compression ignition"), and according to the way they are installed in or on the craft (outboard engines, inboard engines, stern drive engines with or without integral exhaust, personal watercraft engines). For each of these engine types, the EU legislation establishes limit values for exhaust emissions: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and particulates and noise emissions.

Maritime exhaust emissions

The exhaust gases from a recreational marine engines contains pollutants such ascarbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulates, which can affect both human health and the environment and are therefore subject to certain limit values.

Maritime surveillance

EU’s goal of integrating archival and real-time national border control, safety, security, fisheries control, customs, environmental and naval surveillance data across the 27 member states.

Maximum Residue Limits

Maximum Residue Limits refer to the maximum concentration of residue resulting from the use of a veterinary medicinal product which may be accepted by the Community to be legally permitted or recognized as acceptable in or on food.


Medical Device


Medical Devices Directive, 93/42/EEC


Medical Devices Expert Group - The MDEG is a group of Member States, industries and other stakeholders' representatives for the implementation of the MD directives.


MERCOSUR-Europe Business Forum


Commission Guideline relating to medical devices directives - the MEDDEV aim at promoting a common approach by Member States, manufacturers and Notified Bodies and are carefully drafted through a process of consultation with various interested parties


Methodology for the Ecodesign of Energy-Using Products. The MEEUP is the methodology developed by the Commission to assess whether a product falling into the scope of the Ecodesign Directive should be addressed by an implementing measure. If yes, the methodology also identifies which ecodesign requirements are appropriate for this product.


Metal Environment Risk Assessment Guidance


Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry

Mezzanine finance

Also called hybrid finance. Financing with assets that contain characteristics of both debt and equity , covering a variety of instruments tailored to a specific legislative and operating environment. Frequently unsecured, they usually offer higher returns than secured loans and often give the lender a stake in the equity of the company.


Small loans, usually smaller than €25 000, granted either by institutions specialising in microcredit or by banks.


Measuring instruments directive


Mid Air Collision Avoidance System


A mixture or solution composed of two or more substances.


Minister (or Ministry) of Defence


Mutual Recognition Agreements


Maximum Residue Limits


Mutual Recognition Procedure


Member State of the EU


Maximum Tolerable Concentration


Maximum Take-off Mass

Multi-modal transport system

A transport system that makes optimal, sustainable use of a variety of transport types (rail, sea, road, etc.).


Million US Dollar

Mutual Recognition Agreements (MRAs)

MRAs have the objective of promoting trade in goods between the European Union and third countries by facilitating market access. They are bilateral agreements, and aim to benefit industry by providing easier access to conformity assessment procedures.

MRAs lay down the conditions under which the EU and the third country concerned will mutually accept test reports, certificates and marks of conformity issued by the conformity assessment bodies (CABs) of the other party to the agreement, in conformity with the legislation of the other party.

Mutual recognition principle

In the area of free movement of goods mutual recognition means that products that are accepted in one Member State should generally also be accepted in all the other Member States, subject to certain justified public policy exemptions. The Mutual recognition principles should not be confused with Mutual recognition agreements (MRAs).

Product applied on mucous membranes

A cosmetic product which is intended to be applied on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, on the rim of the eyes, or of the external genital organs.


In order to achieve the Single market for goods, a Resolution of 7th May 1985 of the European Council formally endorsed the principle of reference to European standards within the relevant European regulatory work (Directives), thereby paving the way to a New Approach in the philosophy of regulations and standards in Europe.

Since then, the New Approach and the European standardisation have contributed significantly to the development of the Single Market. The success of the European standardisation system, in removing technical barriers to trade, has played a vital role in ensuring the free movement of goods between Member States.


New Approach

NA-1 products

Non-annex 1 products


North Atlantic Council


Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community

Nail product

A cosmetic product which is intended to be applied on nails.


Non Agricultural Market Access

NAMA (Non Agricultural Market Access)

NAMA refers to all products not covered by the agreement on Agriculture. In other words, in practice, it includes manufacturing products, fuels and mining products, fish and fish products, and forestry products. They are sometimes referred to as industrial products or manufactured goods.

You will find more information on the World Trade Organization official website.


NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency


Nando (New Approach Notified and Designated Organisations) Information System

Notification is an act whereby a Member State informs the Commission and the other Member States that a body, which fulfils the relevant requirements, has been designated to carry out conformity assessment for goods according to a given directive. Notification of Notified Bodies and their withdrawal are the responsibility of the notifying Member State.

Lists of Notified Bodies can be searched on the NANDO web site. The lists include the identification number of each notified body as well as the tasks for which it has been notified, and are subject to regular update.


New Approach Notified and Designated Organisations information system


An insoluble or biopersistant and intentionally manufactured material with one or more external dimensions, or an internal structure, on the scale from 1 to 100 nm.


National Allocation Plan

National innovation system

The set of public and private actors involved in the exploitation and commercialisation of new knowledge originating from the science and technology base and the interactions in between them


North Atlantic Treaty Organisation


Non-automatic weighing instruments


Notified Body


Nuclear, biological, and chemical.


Notified Bodies - Lifts


Notified Bodies - Machinery


European Coordination of Notified Bodies


Notified Bodies Operations Groups - the NBOG improves processes in relation to the designation and monitoring of Notified Bodies by national authorities.


National Competent Authority Report on serious adverse incident


Notified Certification Body


Chinese National Development and Reform Commission


New entrepreneur


National Emissions Ceilings


National Energy Efficient Action Plan


Non-Energy Extractive Industries


Non-energy Extractive Industries Panel


Network of European Financial Institutions for SMEs


New & Emerging Technologies Working Group

New Legislative Framework (NLF)

Adopted in July 2008, the New Legislative Framework (NLF) is in fact an update of the New Approach by three texts:

  • Regulation (EC) 764/2008 on the free circulation of products in the non harmonised area
  • Regulation (EC) 765/2008 on the accreditation of conformity assessment bodies and on the organisation of market surveillance
  • Decision 2008/768/EC on general principles that the Parliament & Council should follow in the future for legislation covering the free circulation of products (definitions, rights and obligations of the various players, and conformity assessment modules)

Notified Inspection Body


Neighbourhood Investment Facility


New Legal Framework


No observed adverse effect level


Network of Excellence: an instrument for strengthening excellence by tackling the fragmentation of European research, where the main deliverable is a durable structuring and shaping of the way that research is carried out on the topic of the network. See also, “Fragmentation”.

Non-harmonised funds

Any investment funds that do not come under the European UCITS rules , whether subject to national regulation or not. Most of these funds target institutional investors. Examples include open-ended real estate funds, commodity funds, private equity funds, and venture capital funds .

Non-harmonised sector

In non-harmonised sectors Community legislation does not (yet) exist. However, general rules of the EC-Treaty, such as the principle of free movement of goods, have to be respected in the non-harmonised area.

Non-sensitive research projects

Security Research projects with no classified or sensitive data are transferred to the REA for administration; projects with classified or sensitive information remain under aegis of unit G-3 (Security Research) of Directorate General Enterprise and Industry.

Non tariff barriers

Non trade barriers are measures other than high import duties (tariffs) employed to restrict imports.

You will find more information on non tariff barriers on the World Trade Organization official website.

Non-technological innovation

Many innovations are of a non-technological nature, for example in areas such as marketing, organisation, management and design. They are not primarily driven by a technological invention or improvement, and hence referred to as non-technological innovations. The term is not unproblematic, however, as technology (for example information and communication technology) is used as an enabler to support most of today's innovations, even when technology is not the main focus or driver of the innovation.


The European Office of Crafts, Trades and SMEs for Standardisation

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)

NATO (or the Atlantic Alliance) is a military alliance and was founded by the North Atlantic Treaty, also known as the Treaty of Washington, signed on 4 April 1949, and has its headquarters in Brussels. It currently has 26 members, following successive enlargements:

  • 1949 (12 founding members): Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, the United States;
  • February 1952: Greece and Turkey;
  • May 1955: the Federal Republic of Germany;
  • May 1982: Spain;
  • March 1999: the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland;
  • March 2004: Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia.

The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. More information can be found on NATO official website.

Notified Body

Notified Body is a semi-official or private technical orgnisation appointed by Member States, either for approval and monitoring of the manufacturers' quality assurance system or for direct product inspection. A Notified Body may be specialised for certain products/product categories or for certain modules.


No Performance Determined


Nonylphenol ethoxylates


Non-Road Mobile Machinery


National Security Authority


NATO Standardisation Agency


National Standardisation Body


National Standard Organisation


Notice to Applicants


Non Tariff Barriers


Notified Testing Laboratory

Nucleotide sequence

The order of occurrence of chemical residues, known as nucleotides or bases, in DNA or RNA.


Overhaul and maintenance:  the cost and effort required to maintain complex systems such as aircraft, surveillance or critical infrastructure networks in safe working order.


On-Board Diagnostics


Organisation of Ecomonic Cooperation and Development


International Organisation of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers


International Organization of Legal Metrology


Official Journal


Official Journal of the European Union


European Anti-Fraud Office


Office of Management and Budget in the USA

Open Innovation

The emerging paradigm for innovation, involving business models that use partnering, licensing and venturing to combine internal and external sources of ideas and technologies

Open Science

The traditional paradigm of research between scientists worldwide based on the free collaboration and rapid public disclosure of results with no restrictions on use other than acknowledging the source.

Oral product

A cosmetic product which is intended to be applied on teeth or the mucous membranes of the oral cavity.

Orphan medicinal products

Orphan medicinal products are intended for the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of life-threatening or very serious conditions that affect not more than 5 in 10,000 persons in the European Union.


Open-source intelligence such as newspapers, magazines the internet and other media.


Over the counter: security products and services readily available in the marketplace and thus do not need to be developed with R&D money.


Off the shelf:  synonymous with OTC.


Processed Agricultural Products

(also known as Non-Annex I products)

Parallel import

Parallel trade is in that sense 'parallel' that it involves products that are (largely) identical to products marketed through manufacturers' or original suppliers' distribution networks but takes place outside (often alongside) those networks. Parallel trade is lucrative in case of price differences between Member States; it is a regular phenomenon in many products, but especially in trade with pharmaceuticals and plant protection products.


Preparatory Action for Security Research: the EU’s 2004-2006 pilot projects that led to today’s larger 2007-2013 SR programme.


Partnership and Cooperation Agreement


Potential Candidate Country


Patent Cooperation Treaty


Protocol to the Europe agreements on Conformity Assessment and acceptance of industrial products

The Europe Agreements are the basic accords governing bilateral relations between the European Communities and their Member States and each candidate country in central and eastern Europe. Under the terms of the Europe Agreements, candidate countries for EU membership should approximate their legislation to that of the Community. In the field of industrial standards and conformity assessment, the Europe Agreements aim to achieve the candidate countries' full conformity with Community technical regulations and European standardisation and conformity assessment procedures. They also envisage the conclusion of agreements on mutual recognition in these fields.


Protocols to the Europe Agreements on Conformity Assessment and Acceptance of Industrial Products


Pressure Equipment Directive


Paediatric Committee


Proton Exchange Membrane Fuell Cell


Platform of European Market Surveillance Authorities for Cosmetics

Permanent establishment

A fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried out. For private equity / venture capital , permanent establishment refers to the possibility that a limited partner , either owing or having a stake in a venture capital fund , is considered as a resident of that country and hence liable for national taxation.


Platinum Group of Metals

Pharmaceutical Committee

The Pharmaceutical Committee is an advisory Committee, which is responsible for examining all questions relating to proprietary medicinal products and, in particular, the preparation of proposals for Directives.


Pharmacovigilance is the process and science of monitoring the safety of medicines and taking action to reduce risks and increase benefits from medicines.

Placing on the market

The first making available of a cosmetic product on the Union market.


Point of sale

Post-Tanning Operations

Washing and neutralisation, retaining (to improve the feel and handle of leathers), dyeing, fatliquoring (leathers must be lubricated to achieve product-specific characteristics and to re-establish the fat content lost in the previous procedures) and drying.

Potential candidate country (PCC)

Countries whose European perspectives have been confirmed and which are part of the EC's pre-accession strategy, but who have not yet been given formal candidate status. The PCC's are Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Albania. Kosovo/UNSCR 1244 is also included in this pre-accession strategy.


Personal Protective Equipment


Product and process oriented research and development

Pre-commercial procurement (PCP)

Using public-sector demand to drive development of innovative solutions from Europe’s research and private sectors.


Chemicals or compounds needed to induce a sequential chemical reaction that causes an explosion, and the target of increasing research and regulation in Europe.


Provisional European standard


Substances which are exclusively or mainly intended to inhibit the development of micro-organisms in the cosmetic product.

Pricing and Reimbursement

Decisions concerning the prices and reimbursement status of medicines fall within the competence of the EU Member States. However, these decisions have a tremendous impact on the functioning of the internal market and on the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry. The European Commission therefore works with all stakeholders in order to develop balanced and adequate pricing and reimbursement policies across Europe.

Privacy by design

Designing products, networks and databases to integrate safeguards on privacy.

Private equity

Investment of equity capital in firms not quoted on a stock market. Venture capital is strictly speaking a subset of private equity, which also includes replacement capital and buyouts .

Private placement

Raising of capital through the sale of securities to a small number of professional investors. Investors typically include banks, investment funds, insurance companies, and pension funds. This allows the transaction to be exempt from many or all of the requirements that would apply in the event of a public offering.

Processed Agricultural Products

Processed Agricultural Products (PAPs) are goods made out of agricultural products. Examples include: chocolates and confectionaries, sweet drinks, biscuits and bakeries products, and other preparations.

PAPs are also referred to as Non-Annex I products as they are not included in the list of agricultural products of Annex I to the EC Treaty. This list sets out all the agricultural products which could be subject to a Common Market Organisation such as cereals, bananas, sugar and eggs.

Process management

Process management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, techniques and systems to define and improve processes, in order to meet customer requirements profitably.

Procurement above the thresholds

Only about 16% of the public procurement market in the EU is governed by EU rules (EU Directives), which oblige contracting authorities to publish in the Official journal of the EU public contracts with a value exceeding certain financial thresholds. These public contracts are usually referred to as public contracts above the thresholds.

Product Contact Points

Designated information points in each Member State, mainly for economic operators that provide free of charge information concerning national technical rules applicable in that Member State.

Professional use

The application and use of cosmetic products by persons in the exercise of their professional activity.

PRO INNO Europe ®

PRO INNO Europe ® is an initiative of Directorate General Enterprise and Industry which aims to become the focal point for innovation policy analysis, learning and development in Europe, with the view to learning from the best and contributing to the development of new and better innovation policies in Europe.


PROSAFE (the Product Safety Enforcement Forum of Europe) is a non-profit organisation established by market surveillance officers from various countries throughout Europe.

The primary focus of PROSAFE is to promote informal discussions between the various market surveillance officers in order to share and learn from each others' experiences and to further develop best practices and enhance market surveillance activities as operated within the European Economic Area (EEA).


Product Safety Enforcement Forum of Europe


First model or design that has not been produced in batches, and from which the finished cosmetic product is copied or finally developed.

Prudent person rule

A behaviourally-orientated standard of investment, rather than one based on quantitative criteria. The prudent person rule allows institutional investors to include asset classes like private equity and venture capital in their asset allocation according to their own needs, while respecting the risk profile of their clients. In other words, the obligation on pension managers to invest as a prudent investor would do on his or her own behalf, in particular by carrying out sensible portfolio diversification.

Public-private partnership

A government service or private business venture funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies.

Public procurement

Public procurement refers to contracts covering supplies, services and works purchased by the public sector. Public procurement is subject to EU and international rules, although not all public procurement is subject to these obligations. Under these rules public sector procurement must follow transparent open procedures, ensuring fair conditions of competition for suppliers.

Published Harmonised (European) Standards

Published Harmonised (European) Standards list are a specific subset of European Standards (EN, produced by CEN and available from the national Standards Institutes) with particular consideration of the Essential Safety Requirements the reference number of which is published in the Official Journal of the European Commission. The use of a Published Harmonised Standard in the design and manufacture of a product will give the presumption of conformity (Article 5.1) to those ESRs listed in Annex ZA of the particular Harmonized Standard.


Research and development.


Research and Development


Research and technology.


Research and Technology


Radio equipment and telecommunications terminal equipment Compliance Association

Radiocommunications and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Industries (RTTE)

The sector of Radiocommunications and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Industries encompasses all products using the radio frequency spectrum (e.g. car door openers, mobile communications equipment like cellular telephones, CB radio, broadcast transmitters, etc.) and all equipment attached to public telecommunications networks (e.g. ADSL modems, telephones, telephone switches).


Reduced assessment product


REACH is the new Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. It entered into force on 1st June 2007. It streamlines and improves the former legislative framework on chemicals of the European Union (EU).


Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances (Regulation 1907/2006/EC)


Any measure aimed at achieving the return of a cosmetic product that has already been made available to the end user.


Recasting refers to a legislative technique where a legislative proposal/act is a mix of substantial amendment and codification. This technique uses the opportunity provided by a substantial amendment to the basic legislative act to codify the original act and all its subsequent amendments. Unlike codification, recasting changes the substance of the law. Recasting is one form of simplification and a recasting proposal follows a normal legislative procedure according to its legal base.

Recognised Third Party Organisations

Recognised Third Party Organisations are appointed by Member States to carry out the approval of welding procedures and personnel and non-destructive testing personnel.

Recreational craft

Any type of boat intended for sports and leisure purposes of hull length from 2.5m to 24m, measured according to harmonized standards, regardless of the means of propulsion, is considered a "recreational craft". In addition, the Recreational craft directive also covers personal watercraft in its scope. Personal watercraft are defined as a vessel less than 4 m in length which uses an internal combustion engine having a water jet pump as its primary source of propulsion and designed to be operated by a person or persons sitting, standing or kneeling on, rather than within the confines of, a hull.


A referral is a procedure used to resolve disagreements and address concerns. In a referral, the EMEA is requested to conduct, on behalf of the European Community, a scientific assessment of a particular medicine or class of medicines. The medicine, or the class or medicines, is 'referred' to the CHMP, so that the Committee can make a recommendation for a harmonised position across the European Union.


A legal act by which the regulations, directives and decisions are formally repealed and their validity is terminated.

Replacement capital

The purchase of existing shares in a company from another private equity investor or shareholder.


Renewable energy sources

Research Executive Agency (REA)

Created by European Commission as funding and managerial body to oversee specific areas of research and innovation; manages parts of the FP7 programme, including Security Research projects.

Research Framework Programme (7th)

Covering the 7-year-period 2007-2013, the Seventh framework programme for research and technological development (FP7), is designed as a key contribution to the EU's strategy for growth and jobs. FP7 responds to the needs of industry and of European policies, placing innovation and knowledge at the centre of economic, social and environmental progress. FP7 is organized into four main specific programmes, corresponding to four major objectives of European research policy: cooperation, ideas, people and capacities. In addition, the FP7 includes specific programmes for the Joint Research Centre and under the Euratom Treaties.


Ability of organizations or societies to quickly re-establish normal conditions following a man-made or natural disaster; depends heavily on readiness and capabilities of first-responder authorities; see also “Disaster Response”.

Resource management

Resource management is the effective deployment for an organisation's resources when they are needed. Such resources may include financial resources, inventory, human skills, production resources, or information technology.


Radio frequency


Recommendation for Use sheets

Rinse-off product

A cosmetic product which is intended to be removed after application on the skin, the hair or the mucous membranes.


REACH Implementation Projects


Regional Innovation Strategy

Risk capital (markets)

Markets providing equity financing to a company during its early growth stages ( start-up and development). It covers three types of financing: (1) informal investment by business angels ; (2) venture capital ; (3) stock markets specialising in SMEs and high growth companies.


Restriction of Hazardous Substances


Remotely Piloted Aircraft


Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems


Radio Spectrum Committee: is the standing committee of the Radio Spectrum Decision 676/2002/EC. This Decision harmonises progressively the 27 national frequency plans.


Radio Spectrum Committee


Risk Sharing Finance Facility


Radio and Telecommunication Terminal Equipment

RTTE Directive

The Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive, known as the RTTE Directive, is the main route to compliance for Radio and Telecoms equipment that is sold in Europe.

Rural digital divide

The gap between those citizens with effective access to digital and other information technologies and those without is often more acute outside urban areas and in remote regions.


Sense & Avoid avionic system


Stabilisation and Association Agreement


SANCO is the name given to DG Health and Consumers whose job it is to review and update laws regarding the safety of food, consumers' rights and the protection of people's health. It also has the task of ensuring that traders, manufacturers and food producers across Europe observe these laws.

Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures

The Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) agreement which is based on WTO rules sets out how governments can apply food safety and animal and plant health measures. While it allows countries to fix their own standards, it stipulates that these must be based on science and only be applied to the extent necessary to protect human, animal and plant life or health.


Standards and Recommended Practices


Satellite Centre

SatCom technology

satellite communications technology


Small Business Act


Standing Committee


Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-food products intended for Consumers (before October 2004)


Scientific Committee on Consumers Products (October 2004-March 2009)


Scientific Committee on Consumers Safety (from March 2009)


Standing Committee on Drinking Water (DWD Article 12)


Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks


Scientific Committee on Food


Commission Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks


Standard Cost Model


Sustainable consumption and production


Sustainable Consumption and Production and Sustainable Industrial Policy: the two main policies covered by the Action Plan. Sustainable Industrial Policy is under the responsibility of DG Enterprise and Industry and aims at setting the right business environment so that greater sustainability becomes an asset for industry's competitiveness and a source of innovation. As described in the Action Plan, SIP mainly includes:

  • sustainable product policy, which supports the manufacturing and marketing of more environmentally friendly products, notably by fostering their uptake by consumers;
  • support to eco-industries, to foster the competitiveness of environmental industries and favour their uptake by traditional industries;
  • climate change policy, to help industry adapting the new CO2 constrain.

Sustainable Consumption and Production includes complementary policies under the responsibility of DG Environment.


In the better regulation context screening is normally used in two different meanings:

  • At one level, the Commission is screening the existing stock of EU legislation to verify its relevance and possible need for simplification or repeal of obsolete legislation with a view to strengthening its simplification programme.
  • At another level, the Commission regularly screens proposals pending before the legislator (the European Parliament and the Council) to make sure that they are relevant and up to date.

Software Defined Radio

Secondary sale

The sale of private equity holdings by venture capital funds to other investors.


The packaging of designated pools of non-tradable assets with similar characteristics (such as loans) into marketable securities (such as bonds) and the selling thereof to investors. For example, a collection of similar commercial or mortgage loans could be packaged together and sold on to investors. Securitisation converts illiquid assets into liquid assets.

Security Advisory Group (SAG)

Advises the Security Research unit of Directorate General Enterprise and Industry on the annual security research work programme.

Security by design

Integrating safeguards into the design of technology, systems and networks to conform with privacy and security norms.

Security end-users

A professional or consumer benefiting of and/or affected by security research results.

Security Missions

The four policy areas to which the EU aligns its security policy and research objectives: security of the citizen, security of infrastructures and utilities, intelligent surveillance and border security and, finally, restoring security and safety in case of crisis.

Security Research (SR)

European Commission’s 2007-2013 R&D programme worth EUR 1.4 billion.

Security Research Conference (SRC)

Annual meetings of EU civil security stakeholders; first event took place in Vienna in 2006, followed by others in Berlin, Paris, Stockholm, Ostend (Belgium) and Warsaw.

Security scanners

Devices that create an image of a person's body to detect hidden or dangerous objects and substances; increasingly being deployed for airport security checks; see also “body scanners”.

Seed capital

Financing provided to study, assess and develop an initial concept. The seed phase precedes the start-up phase. The two phases together are called the early stage .


The removal of nucleic acid sequences from a cell of an organism which may or may not be followed by reinsertion of all or part of that nucleic acid (or a synthetic equivalent) with or without prior enzymic or mechanical steps, into cells of the same species or into cells of phylogenetically closely related species which can exchange genetic material by natural physiological processes where the resulting micro-organism is unlikely to cause disease to humans, animals or plants. Self-cloning may include the use of ecombinant vectors with an extended history of safe use in the particular micro-organisms. (Directive 98/81/EC, Annex II, Part A български (bg) czech (cs) dansk (da) Deutsch (de) eesti (et) ελληνικά (el) español (es) Français (fr) Gaeilge (ga) hrvatski (hr) italiano (it) latviešu (lv) lietuvių (lt) magyar (hu) Malti (mt) Nederlands (nl) polski (pl) português (pt) română (ro) slovenčina (sk) slovenščina (sl) suomi (fi) svenska (sv) ).

Serious undesirable effect

An undesirable effect which results in temporary or permanent functional incapacity, disability, hospitalisation, congenital anomalies or an immediate vital risk or death.

Service Innovation

A service is defined in the Oslo manual in the manner that "a key element of services is that the distinction between products and processes is often blurred, with production and consumption occurring simultaneously. Development of processes can be more informal for services than for goods, with an initial phase consisting of search, idea gathering and commercial evaluation, followed by implementation."

The terms service industry(ies) or service sector(s) are generally used to refer to economic activities covered by Sections G to K and M to O of the OECD's classification system NACE Rev. 1, and the units that carry out those activities.

The Oslo manual defines innovation in services as "Innovation activity in services tends to be a continuous process, consisting of a series of incremental changes in products and processes. This may occasionally complicate the identification of innovations in services in terms of single events, i.e. as the implementation of a significant change in products, processes or other methods."

In DG Enterprise and Industry the term service innovation refers mainly to innovation in the service sector provided by service entrepreneurs or service companies. It may refer also to innovation in service activities in all sectors including manufacturing in specific cases where it will then be noted. Measuring service innovation usually refers to the measuring of innovation in the service sector. The NACE classification of the service sector is used for this purpose (see above).


Single European Sky


Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research Programme managed by Eurocontrol and partially funded by the Commission.


Standing Forestry Committee


Substance Information Exchange Forum


Gateway to European Public Procurement

Simplification proposals

These are Commission's legislative proposals which aim to simplify existing EU-legislation (the "acquis"). They generally take the form of repeal, codification, recasting or amendment.

In certain instances, the Commission has been empowered to modify on its own the rulebook, via so-called "autonomous acts".

In the absence of such provisions, the normal legislative procedure is to be followed: the Commission first exercise its right of initiative by designing a legislative proposal. The latter has then to be carried for final adoption through the appropriate Community decision making process by the legislative authority (the European Parliament and the Council where the co-decision procedure applies). In the case of directives, the corresponding rules have in turn to be transposed within a predetermined period into national legislation.

Single or internal market

The EU's single or internal market is a market where goods, services, capital and people can circulate freely. The free movement of goods principle requires that national barriers to the free movement of goods within the EU be removed. Articles 34 to 36 of the TFEU prohibit quantitative restrictions on imports, exports or goods in transit and all similar restrictive measures between member countries. All measures capable of hindering directly or indirectly such imports are considered to be quantitative restrictions.

Situational awareness

Perception of operating environment in terms of time, space and activity; critical for preparedness and “real-time” response in many civil security policy areas.


Sectoral Innovation Watch


SESAR Joint Undertaking

Skin product

A cosmetic product which is intended to be applied on the skin.


According to Article 2 of the Annex to Recommendation 2003/361/EC, the category of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is made up of enterprises which employ fewer than 250 persons and which have an annual turnover not exceeding €50 million, and/or an annual balance sheet total not exceeding €43 million (see: SME definition). SMEs are the backbone of the EU economy - they represent 99% of all enterprises in the EU. Some 23 million SMEs provide around 75 million jobs.


Small and Medium-sized Enterprises


SME Guarantee Facility

SME Test

Estimating the impacts of the legislative proposals on SMEs.


Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs Support Office

Societal research

Study of the social dimensions to Security Research and their implications for society/economy at large.

Societal Resilience

Defined as the capacity of a social system to react when faced with alterations, risks or disasters. See also “Crisis Management” and “Disaster Response”.

Software-defined radio (SDR)

Exploits computing processes to replace physical tuning, reception and other traditional radio hardware in order to produce more flexible and secure communications.


Security of Information


SOLVIT is a network created by the Commission and the Member States, with the aim of solving problems that arise for individual citizens and businesses as a result of the misapplication of Community law (


On-line EU problem-solving network

Somatic cell

Cells other than sperm or egg cells, which are not naturally involved in conceiving children.

Somatic cell therapy

Use in humans of autologous (emanating from the patient himself), allogenic (coming from another human being), or xenogenic (coming from animals) somatic living cells, the biological characteristics of which have been substantially altered as a result of their manipulation to obtain a therapeutic, diagnostic or preventive effect through metabolic, pharmacological and immunological means (Directive 2003/63/EC, Annex, Point 2 български (bg) czech (cs) dansk (da) Deutsch (de) eesti (et) ελληνικά (el) español (es) Français (fr) Gaeilge (ga) hrvatski (hr) italiano (it) latviešu (lv) lietuvių (lt) magyar (hu) Malti (mt) Nederlands (nl) polski (pl) português (pt) română (ro) slovenčina (sk) slovenščina (sl) suomi (fi) svenska (sv) ).


Security of Supply

Sound Engineering Practice

Sound Engineering Practice applies to equipment that is not subject to conformity assessment but must be designed and manufactured in accordance with the sound engineering practice of a Member State in order to ensure safe use. That equipment must ensure that design and manufacture takes into account all relevant factors influencing safety during the intended lifetime. The equipment must be accompanied with adequate instructions for use and must bear the identification of the manufacturer. The responsibility for compliance with the PED lies solely with the manufacturer.

Soyuz launcher

A launcher system developed by the Soviet Union now being adapted for use as a medium-lift launcher for Europe.


Single Point of Contact


Agreements on sanitary and phytosanitary measures


Simple Pressure Vessels Directive


Strategic Research Agenda


Sub Saharan Africa


Stakeholder Strategic Research Agenda

Stabilisation and Association Agreements

The EU concludes Stabilisation and Association Agreements (SAA) with certain countries in exchange for political, economic, trade and human rights commitments. Western Balkan countries are the focus of the SAA and are offered financial assistance and tariff-free trade to EU markets.

One of the latest countries to enter into agreement negotiations with the EU is the Ukraine, which would join existing members - Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro, Serbia, Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina.


Person, group, organization or system involved in or affected by civil security.

Standard (TBT procedure)

A technical specification approved by a recognised standardisation body for repeated or continuous application with which compliance is not compulsory and which is one of the following :

  • international standard : a standard adopted by an international standardisation organisation and made available to the public;
  • European standard : a standard adopted by a European standardisation body and made available to the public;
  • national standard : a standard adopted by a national standardisation body and made available to the public.

Standardisation is the process through which the EU aims to establish high quality criteria throughout its member countries. It is based on consensus among the various partners involved - industry, consumers and public authorities. Interoperability, i.e. the technical compatibility of complementary products, services and processes is the desired outcome. The process also involves setting up test methods and requirements for safety, health, organisational and environmental performance.

Standardisation allows SMEs to stay up to date with technology and business practices. It is a symbol of quality, recognised by customers. It is also a means of capitalising on European leadership in new markets.

Standstill period (98/34 procedure)

There is an initial three-months period during which the notifying Member State cannot adopt its notified draft. This period enables other Member States and the Commission to examine the notified draft in detail and to send a reaction (comments, detailed opinion, blocking) to the notifying Member State, if deemed necessary. This standstill period may be extended if there is a detailed opinion or a blocking.

Start-up capital

Provided to companies for product development and initial marketing. Firms may be in the process of being set up or may exist but have yet to sell their product or service commercially.

Stock exchange (stock market)

A market in which securities are bought and sold. Its basic function is to recycle capital from savings into investments. It enables companies, governments and local authorities to raise finance by selling securities to investors.

Strawberry Regulation

"Nickname" for Regulation 2679/98, given that it was triggered by a Court case of the European Court of Justice (C-265/95) dealing with violent and non-violent acts of French farmers against imported agricultural products, such as strawberries.


A chemical element and its compounds in the natural state or obtained by any manufacturing process, including any additive necessary to preserve its stability and any impurity deriving from the process used but excluding any solvent which may be separated without affecting the stability of the substance or changing its composition.


The concept of sustainable development refers to a form of development that meets present-day needs without compromising the ability of future generations to satisfy their own requirements. The EU has endorsed the ambitious objectives of reducing by 20% Europe's greenhouse gas emissions, improving Europe's energy efficiency by 20% and increasing the share of renewable energy to 20% by 2020. This includes trying to draft policies to improve the EU's industrial, economic and commercial competitiveness, while giving due consideration to the planet's future prospects.


Staff Working Document


Integrated, task-oriented systems that pool resources and capabilities to create more complex functions and performance than the sum of their constituent systems; see also “Demonstration Project”.


Transatlantic Business Dialogue

Tannery Finishing Operations

The overall objective of finishing is to enhance the appearance of the leather and to provide the performance characteristics with respect to colour, gloss, handle, etc.

Tannery Operations

De-liming, bating, pickling and tanning. In the tanning process the collagen fibre is stabilised by the tanning agents so that the hide is no longer susceptible to putrefaction.

Tax neutrality

The notion that a decision to invest or use a particular source of funding should not be made on the basis of differential tax treatment.

Tax transparency

A fund is tax transparent when the fund itself is not subject to taxation and the investment in the investee company is treated as if it were a direct investment for the initial investor in the fund (the limited partner ), who is then taxed when the investment fund distributes its profit.


Technical Barriers to Trade

TBT Committee

The Committee set up on the basis of article 13 of the TBT Agreement. It is composed of representatives from each of the Members. The Committee meets as necessary, but no less than once a year, for the purpose of affording Members the opportunity of consulting on any matters relating to the operation of this Agreement or the furtherance of its objectives.


Technical Committee in the standardisation area


Telecommunication Conformity Assessment and Market Surveillance Committee


Traction Control System


Trade, Development and Co-operation Agreement between the EU and South Africa


Trade Defence Instruments


Tolerable Daily Intake


Transatlantic Economic Council

Technical regulation (98/34 procedure)

Technical specifications and other requirements or rules on services, the observance of which is compulsory in the case of marketing, provision of a service, establishment of a service operator or use in a Member State, as well as provisions of Member States prohibiting the manufacture, importation, marketing or use of a product or prohibiting the provision or use of a service, or establishment as a service provider.

Technical regulation (TBT procedure)

Document which lays down product characteristics or their related processes and production methods, including the applicable administrative provisions, with which compliance is mandatory. It may also include or deal exclusively with terminology, symbols, packaging, marking or labelling requirements as they apply to a product, process of production method.

Technology platform

European technology platforms are industry-led stakeholder forums that define research and development priorities and action plans in a number of strategically important areas.

Technology transfer

Also known as knowledge transfer or knowledge sharing. The process whereby an enterprise converts scientific findings from research laboratories and universities into products and services in the marketplace.

Tenders Electronic Daily (TED)

Online version of supplement to the EU’s “Official Journal” which focuses on all public tenders and procurement awards granted by the EU and the 27 member states.

Tenders Electronic Daily (TED)

TED is the on-line version of the Supplement S to the Official Journal of the European Union containing, i. a., calls for tenders, contract awards and pre-information notices


Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)


Technical Guidance Note

Think Small First principle

According to this principle legislation should be created in consideration of the fact that the vast majority of European businesses are SMEs and that their interests might need special attention when creating new rules.


Toy Industries of Europe


Trade and Investment Enhancement Agreement


Transatlantic Legislators' Dialogue


Trans National Companies


Term of Reference


Tire Pressure Monitoring System


tonnes per year


Technical Report

Transparency Directive 89/105/EEC

Council Directive 89/105/EEC lays down harmonised provisions to ensure the transparency of national provisions regulating the pricing and reimbursement of medicinal products. It is commonly referred to as the "Transparency Directive".


Trans-Regional EU-ASEAN Trade Initiative


Technical Regulations Information System


Toy Safety Directive


Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy


Technical Working Group

Professional use

The application and use of cosmetic products by persons in the exercise of their professional activity.

Serious undesirable effect

An undesirable effect which results in temporary or permanent functional incapacity, disability, hospitalisation, congenital anomalies or an immediate vital risk or death.


Unmanned Aircraft Program Office


Unmanned Aircraft Systems.


Unmanned aerial vehicle: single pilot-less platform.


Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities


Unique Device Identification


European Association of Craft, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises


Ultra Low Co2 Steelmaking


United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities (UCITS)

Investment funds for retail purposes that are harmonised at EU level to provide protection for investors.

Undesirable effect

An adverse reaction for human health attributable to the normal or reasonably foreseeable use of a cosmetic product.


The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) is one of five regional commissions of the United Nations.

Its major aim is to promote pan-European economic integration while it is broader that Europe with 56 countries located in the European Union, in non-EU Western and Eastern Europe, South-East Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and North America. Over 70 international professional organizations and other non-governmental organizations take part in UNECE activities.

To this end, it provides analysis, policy advice and assistance to governments; it gives focus to the United Nations global mandates in the economic field, in cooperation with other global players and key stakeholders, notably the business community.


United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Unilever judgement

In this judgement (based on the CIA Security judgement), the European Court of Justice concluded that the adoption of technical regulations during the standstill period constitutes a breach of Directive 98/34/EC which renders these technical regulations inapplicable, so that they are unenforceable against individuals (Case C-443/98 of 26 September 2000).


European Organisation of Cosmetic Ingredients Industries and services


International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants

Urgency (98/34 procedure)

There is no standstill period when, for urgent reasons occasioned by serious and unforeseeable circumstances relating to the protection of public health or safety, the protection of animals or the preservation of plants and for rules on services also for public policy, notably protection of minors, a Member State is obliged to prepare technical regulations in a very short space of time in order to enact and introduce them immediately without consultation being possible. The notifying Member States shall give reasons for the urgency of the measures to be taken. The Commission shall give as soon as possible its views on such a request to use the urgency procedure.

User Inspectorates

User Inspectorates are appointed by Member States to carry out the tasks of notified bodies within their own companies under Modules A1, C1, F and G only. (The CE marking should not be affixed to pressure equipment and assemblies assessed by user inspectorates).


Substances which are exclusively or mainly intended to protect the skin against certain UV radiation by absorbing, reflecting or scattering UV radiation.


All changes subsequent to their placing on the EU market of medicinal products, as for example changes in the production process, the packaging and the address of the manufacturer, are considered in legal terms as 'variations', and must be handled according to a complex legislative framework: the 'Variations Regulation'.


Venture capital

Venture capital (VC)

Investment in unquoted companies by venture capital firms who, acting as principals, manage individual, institutional or in-house money. In Europe, the main financing stages included in venture capital are early-stage (covering seed and start-up ) and expansion . Strictly defined, venture capital is a subset of private equity . Venture capital is thus professional equity co-invested with the entrepreneur to fund an early-stage (seed and start-up) or expansion venture. Offsetting the high risk the investor takes is the expectation of a higher-than-average return on the investment.

Venture capital fund

An investment fund that manages money from professional investors seeking private equity and equity -related securities (such as quasi-equity) in small and medium-sized firms (investee companies) with strong growth potential. The venture capital fund is usually an unincorporated arrangement such as a limited partnership . A management company that usually has several funds under its control may be a limited company, a limited partnership or a company quoted on a stock market .


International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products


Very Light Aircraft


Visual Line of Sight


Volatile organic compounds


Vertical Take-Off and Landing


Weakness in system or its security procedures, internal controls or implementation susceptible to attack or exploitation by a threat source.


World Customs Organisation: global entity based in Brussels representing national customs authorities; directly involved in efforts to secure maritime supply chains and their logistics.


Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment


European Cooperation in Legal Metrology


Women's Entrepreneurship


Waste Framework Directive


Working group of a Technical Committee


World Health Organisation


Any measure aimed at preventing the making available on the market of a cosmetic product in the supply chain.

Working capital

The liquid assets a company has available to build its business, but also a measure of its efficiency and financial health. Working capital can be positive or negative, depending on how much short-term debt the company is carrying. A negative working capital means that a company currently is unable to meet its short-term liabilities with cash, accounts receivable, and inventory.

World Trade Organisation

The World Trade Organisation is an international organisation that sets global rules of trade between nations. It was set up in 1995 and brings together 153 governments and political entities such as the EU. The legal basis for the EU's common trade policy is Article 133 of the EC Treaty. A special committee meets on a weekly basis to coordinate EU trade policy.

The EU & the WTO

Tariff & non-tariff barriers


World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations


World Trade Organisation

(Organisation Mondiale du Commerce)


eXtensible Business Reporting Language

Share: FacebookGoogle+LinkedInsend this page to a friend

Set page to normal font sizeIncrease font size by 200 percentprint this page