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Relations with Lithuania    Enlargement

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This page was archived on the 1st of May 2004.
The information concerning this ex candidate country has not been updated since that date.


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Enlargement
 

 

1. MAP

Territory: 65301 km²
Population: 3.496.000 (83% ethnic Lithuanians; 6.7% of Polish origin; 6.3% of Russian origin). Approximately 1 million Lithuanians live overseas (as a result of history)
Head of State: Mr. Arturas Palauskas (acting)
Prime Minister: Mr AlgirdasBrazauskas
Foreign Minister: Mr Antanas Valionis
Chief Negotiator: Mr Petras Auštrevicius

2. SNAPSHOT

Lithuania is located at the western end of the East European Plain, on the shores of the Baltic Sea. It borders Latvia to the north (576-km border), Belarus to the East and South (660 km), and to the Southwest Poland (103 km) and the Russian Federation (Kaliningrad district - 273-km). Lithuania extends 373 kilometres from East to West and 276 from North to South, and is 65301 km², almost twice the size of the Netherlands. This makes Lithuania the biggest of the three Baltic States.

The geographical centre of Europe (54°51' north and 25°19' east) lies in Lithuania, 20 kilometres north of Vilnius.

Lithuania consists predominantly of gently rolling plains (55% of the total land area) and extensive forests (30.3% of the country). Lithuania is more forested than Great Britain, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark, Latvia and Belarus. The average height above sea level is 99 meters, with the highest point being Juozapine Hill (293.6) in Southeast Lithuania. There are 758 rivers and streams longer than ten kilometres. The longest river is the Nemunas at 937 km in length (475 km through Lithuania). The country boasts more than 2800 lakes covering 1.5% of the country's area.

The most beautiful part of Lithuania is the famous Curonian spit, Lithuania's "tiny Sahara". Registered as a Unesco world heritage site in December 2000, the Curonian lagoon and spit were formed 5000 years ago by the churning waves of the restless Baltic Sea: the northern part of the lagoon belongs to Lithuania and the southern part to the Russian Federation (Kaliningrad district). The Curonian spit is a remarkable natural phenomenon. The 50 km-long portion of the peninsula is as narrow as 400 meters is some sections. Now a national park, the Curonian spit is an ecological treasure and serves as an important resting spot for approximately 15 million birds during their annual migrations. There are five natural reserves in Lithuania, 30 regional parks and about 750 protected landscape objects. These protected areas encompass 16.9% of the country's total forest area.

Lithuania consists of ten counties and four cultural regions, of which Žemaitija (the Lowland), Aukštaitija (the Highland), Sulvakija and Dzukija. Major cities include Vilnius (the capital has 578 000 inhabitants), Kaunas and Klaipeda; 68% of the population live in urban areas. Unesco declared Vilnius Old Town, dating from the 16th century, a World Heritage Site in 1994.

Lithuania has a modern highway system, several international airports and a major ice-free seaport at Klaipeda. The country is relatively poor in natural resources.

The Lithuanian language is among the oldest in Europe and belongs to the Baltic group of Indo-European languages. Lithuanian, among all the living Indo-European languages has been the most successful in preserving its ancient system of phonetics and most of its morphological features. The history of the written Lithuanian language starts in Lithuania Minor (East Prussia) in the middle of the 16th century. The very first book written in Lithuania was the Catechismus of Martinas Mažvydas, published in 1547. Also of great importance were the 1599 book Postile of Mikalojus Daukša and Konstantinas Sirvydas' trilateral (Polish-Latin-Lithuanian) dictionary in approximately 1620. The first Lithuanian grammar was published in 1653.

Lithuania has an outstanding sports record. The national basketball team is among the leading teams in the world: in 1997 the women's team won the European Championship in Budapest and the men's teams brought home several Olympic medals. Over 300 Olympic, Lithuanian participants have won 28 gold, 19 Silver and 54 bronze medals.

3. HISTORY

Discovery of Lithuania and the emergence of the Lithuanian State under Mindaugas

The name of Lithuania first appeared in written sources in 1009 AD, when it was discovered by a Western missionary, Bruno of Querfurt. In spite of this discovery, Lithuania remained out of historical records until the end of the 12th century. At that time, the Teutonic Orders started to settle in the Baltic region and in 1236, the Pope called a crusade against the pagan Lithuanians. Thus, the emergence in 1240 of the Lithuanian State under the rule of Mindaugas was a defensive response to the crusade. At the same time, The Catholic Church tried to deny pagan tribes the right to an independent political existence. Therefore, Mindaugas accepted baptism in 1251 and was crowned king on 6 July 1253 July 6 is now a national holiday in Lithuania). He was forced to hand over Samogitia, an important part of Lithuania to the Order. The Samogitians never accepted this and continued to resist the Order - even defeating it in 1260 at the Battle of Durbe. Mindaugas' kingdom lasted until 1263, the year in which he was killed.

Mindaugas' Christian State continued to exist, even though its subsequent rulers were not baptised, putting Lithuania in the unique situation of neither belonging to the Roman-based Western Europe nor the Byzantine Eastern Europe. After the king's death, Lithuanian rulers refused baptism, which provoked military reaction from the Teutonic Order in the 13th century.

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania

Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania (1316-1341), while trying to set up close contacts with other European leaders, focused national resources to defence in order to resist the Order aggression. Therefore, Lithuania in the 14th century is sometimes referred to as a military monarchy. During the rule of Grand Duke Algirdas (1345-1377), Lithuania extended its territory from the Baltic to the Black Sea. Vilnius was established as the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In the second half of the 14th century, the Teutonic Order's military attacks against Lithuania were intensified. As a result of this, in 1385, Lithuania and Poland concluded the Kreva agreement whereby Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania became also King of Poland. Following this agreement, Lithuania instituted baptism, thus putting an end to the Teutonic Order's attacks. A combined Lithuanian-Polish army, led by Vytautas the Great, defeated the Teutonic Order in 1410 at the battle of Grünwald (Žalgiris), also known as Tannenberg. Both the Lithuanian and Polish thrones were held by the Jagiellonian (Jogaila) dynasty until 1572.

The Lublin Union and the creation of the Polish-Lithuanian State (1569)

In the late 15th and early16th century, wars between Moscow and Lithuania developed into a struggle over Livonia (currently part of Latvia and Estonia). As Lithuania was not strong enough to stand on its own, it entered into an even closer union with Poland and the Republic of the Two Nations being founded in Lublin in 1569. From that time onwards, Polish kings automatically became grand dukes of Lithuania. The Lublin Union created the Seimas, a Polish-Lithuanian parliament of nobles, in which Lithuania held one third of the seats. The Lublin union and the arrival of Jesuits mark the beginning of the so-called "Baroque area" in Lithuania. A network of schools was created, crowned by the foundation of Vilnius University in 1579 by Grandduke / King Stephen Báthory, who originated from Transylvania.

The Russian annexation

In the 17th century, Lithuania and Poland experienced "The Flood", which mainly consisted of Russian and Swedish troops. The expansion of Russia led to the first partition of 1772 and a wave of reforms that culminated in the adoption of the Constitution of 3rd May 1791. For the first time, residents of towns gained the right of political representation in Parliament, relations between landowners and peasants were regulated and a hereditary monarchy was proclaimed. The 3 May constitution preceded the French Constitution by a few months and resulted from contacts between the ruler of Poland-Lithuania, Stanislaw-August Poniatowski and the French Constituent Assembly in 1791. The 3rd May Constitution raised opposition among some Lithuanians, who sought help from Russia: in 1795 the Lithuanian-Polish State disappeared from the map of Europe and Lithuania was annexed by Russia. Lithuania only recovered its sovereignty at the end of the First World War.

The abolition of serfdom in the Russian Empire in 1861, together with western technical progress gave rise to the national Lithuanian reawakening and waves of emigration. At that time, Vilnius became a leading centre for Jewish culture and was referred to as the Lithuanian Jerusalem. The first Lithuanian newspaper Aušra -the dawn- was published in 1883, and its founders are considered the fathers of the modern Lithuanian State. The revival of Lithuanian culture is embodied by mystical painter and musician M.K. Ciurlionis.

The modern Lithuanian State (1918)

On 16 February 1918, the State of Lithuania was restored (now February 16 is the main national holiday of Lithuania) but Vilnius, then in the hands of Poland, ceased to be the capital in favour of Kaunas. Parliamentary democracy did not survive long and an authoritarian regime was established in 1926 by Antanas Smetona.

After the outbreak of the Second World War, Lithuania was occupied three times: in 1940 by the USSR as a consequence of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact of 1939, in 1941 by Nazi Germany and by the USSR again in 1944 - an occupation which lasted until 1990. In 1941 and again during the years 1945-1953, mass deportations to Siberia of Lithuanians occurred (approximately 250000 people). During the war, some 220 000 Jews were exterminated by Nazi Germany.

A historical role in the uprising and the liberation of the Baltic Soviet republics

The 1985 Gorbachev's "Perestroika" had a crucial impact in Lithuania and its liberalisation process, the "Singing Revolution". In June 1988, the first organised opposition to the Communist Party, the Sajudis, was founded and participated in elections to the Congress of Peoples' Deputies, the highest body of the Soviet administration. A mass protest, gathering people from the three Baltic States, was held on the 50th anniversary of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact on 23 August 1989: about two million people linked hands in a human "Baltic chain" stretching 650 kilometres from Vilnius to Tallinn.

On 24 February 1990, Sajudis won 106 seats out of a total of 114 in the local Supreme Council elections: the Council restored Lithuania's independence on 11 March 1990. Moscow refused to accept this vote and attempted, on 13 January 1991 while the world's attention was focused on the Iraqi war, to overthrow Lithuania's legitimate Government. The crackdown, carried out by armed forces against unarmed citizens, resulted in 14 deaths at the now historical TV tower. Lithuania, which was the first Baltic State to restore independence, paved the way for a peaceful and bloodless restoration process in Latvia and Estonia.


Lithuania joined the United Nations on 17 September 1991, and Russian troops were finally withdrawn from Lithuanian territory on 31 August 1993.

4. CURRENT POLITICAL CONTEXT

Restoration of independence

Lithuania declared the restoration of its independence on 11 March 1991. According to the institutional system established by the 1992 Constitution, Lithuania is a parliamentary republic with some semi-presidential features. While the Government needs the confidence of the unicameral Parliament (Seimas), the directly elected President of the Republic has important constitutional powers, in particular as regards foreign and security policy issues, and has the right to veto legislation under certain conditions. By using his powers in an extensive way, the President may therefore exert a significant influence on political life.

Head of State and Government

Mr Rolandas Paksas (Liberal Democrats) was elected President of the Republic on 5 January 2003, in replacement of Valdas Adamkus, for a five-year term. Rolandas Paksas, a keen aerobatics pilot, has been Prime Minister twice (in 1999 representing the Conservatives and in 2001 representing the Liberal party) and mayor of Vilnius.

Transfer of power to Mr Paksas took place on 26 February. While a limited government reshuffle might happen after that date, the rather solid parliamentary majority (Social-Democrats and Social-Liberals) is likely to confirm its support to Mr Brazauskas' centre-left Government. Link to the list of Members of the Government: http://www.lrvk.lt/anglu/vyriaus.htm

Mr Paksas has confirmed that the national priorities in foreign affairs (the President's main area of responsibilities)- integration in NATO and EU and good relations with neighbours- will not change. He will be in Brussels on 19 March 2003 where he is expected to meet with President Prodi and Commissioner Verheugen.

Municipal elections were held on 22 December. The Social-Democrats turned out to be the main winners with 21% of the votes.

The Parliament

The Lithuanian Parliament - the Seimas- is the key legislative institution and the seat of national representation. It consists of 141 members, elected for a four-year term on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The main groups represented at the Seimas are the Social Democratic Coalition (31%), the New Union (Social Liberals) (19.6%), Lithuanian Liberal Union (17.25%) and the Homeland Union- Lithuanian conservatives (8.6%). Link to the composition of the Seimas http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter/w3_lrs.seimo_nariu_sarasas?p_kalb_id=2

The Seimas considers and enacts amendments to the Constitution, enacts laws, announces presidential elections, approves or rejects the candidature of the Prime Minister proposed by the President, approves and supervises the government. The first national elections following the restoration of independence were held in 1992, and were won by the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party. In 1996, the Conservatives won the majority and in 2002, a coalition government formed by the Liberals and Social Liberals won the majority. The next elections will be held in October 2004.

5. THE ECONOMY

Reform measures

Since 1997, and against a challenging international economic backdrop - Russian crisis of 1998, development has been generally positive. On average, real GDP has grown by 3.6% annually and exports by 7.4% annually. The development of private consumption has been relatively stable (4.6% annually). Low and stable inflation has been one of the main achievements of economic policy (from 8.8% in 1997 to -1.4% in the third quarter of 2002). The rate of unemployment rate in 2002 was up to 13.1% according to Eurostat (ILO definition).

The current account deficit has fallen significantly (from 12.1% of GDP in 1998 to 4.8% in 2001). As the same time as the current account balance has improved, the inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI) has been relatively stable, implying that the share of current deficit financed by FDI has increased. Public finance has improved significantly since the budget deficit peak in 1999.

Important steps have been taken in the area of structural reforms and the privatisation process has been successful. The level of state aid has declined significantly (from 1.36% of GDP in 1997 to 0.23% in 2000). The stable monetary framework of the currency board arrangement and sound fiscal policy have both contributed to the achievement of internal and external balance. The re-pegging of the Litas from the US dollar to the Euro took place smoothly on 2 February 2002 (1 €= 3.4524 LTL).

The 2002 Regular Report notes that, assuming the current reforms are continued, Lithuania will be able to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the Union. Structural reforms have been accelerated and significant progress has been made in restructuring the energy sector. However, management of public finances needs to be improved, in particular, by addressing, the accumulation of expenditure arrears at the municipal level. Pension reform and land restitution also need to be completed. Generally speaking, administrative capacity should be strengthened, notably in areas relevant for the business sector. Unemployment remains high and burdens the economy. Further information on Lithuania's economy is covered under the 2002 Regular Report - Economic criteria (/enlargement/key_documents/pdf/2002/lt_en.pdf)

Bilateral trade

According to the Lithuanian Statistics Department, between January and November 2002, 48.9% of Lithuanian exports (main partners: UK, Germany, Sweden) and 45.3% of imports (main partners: Germany, Italy, France) were made with the European Union. Looking at trade by sectors, machinery and vehicles represent the largest sector for EU exports to Lithuania. Textile and mineral products are the largest sectors for EU imports from Lithuania.

The Protocol to the Europe Agreement on Conformity Assessment and Acceptance of industrial products (PECA), was signed in May 2002 and ratified in September 2002. The PECAs aims to extend internal market rules on conformity assessment for manufactured goods to the candidate countries before accession.

Lithuania signed on 30 January 2003 a mutual recognition agreement with EEA countries. Further information on Lithuania's bilateral trade is covered under chapter 26 of the 2002 Regular Report : /enlargement/key_documents/pdf/2002/lt_en.pdf

6. LITHUANIA-EU RELATIONS

The main steps towards EU membership

Official relations and co-operation between Lithuania and the European Community started on 27 August 1991 when the European Community recognised the independence of Lithuania. On 11 May 1992, Lithuania and the European Community signed the Agreement on Trade and Commercial and Economic Co-operation, which came into force on 1 February 1993, and adopted the Declaration on a Political Dialogue between the EC and the Republic of Lithuania.

On 18 July 1994, a Free Trade Agreement between the EU and Lithuania was signed. At the end of the same year, i.e. on 16 December 1994, negotiations on the Europe Agreement started, ending in April the following year. The Europe Agreement, which forms the basis of trade relations between the EU and the candidate countries and aims to bring down barriers to trade, was signed on 12 June 1995, and came into force on 1 February 1998. The Europe Agreement replaced the Agreement on Free Trade and Trade-Related Matters, and changed the Agreement on Trade and Commercial and Economic Co-operation. Critically, it recognised Lithuania's aspiration to become a member of the European Union and created conditions for Lithuania's participation in the Pre-accession Strategy for Candidate Countries. It also provides for regulations, according to which movement of goods, services, capital and persons is being liberalised, as well as regulations on co-operation in law harmonisation, finance, environmental protection, culture and other areas. Link: http://www.euro.lt/upl_images/20011126172422.doc

Where Europe Agreements set the ground rules for trade relations between the EU and the Candidate Countries, Accession Partnerships concern measures to be taken by each Candidate Country in order to make progress towards accession. Accession Partnerships therefore set out in a single framework (i) the priority areas for further work identified in the Commission's Regular Report; (ii) the financial means available to help Candidate Countries implement these priorities; (iii) the conditions which will apply to this assistance.

Each candidate has drawn up and adopted a National Programme for the Adoption of the Acquis (NPAA) which specifies how they intend to fulfil the priorities of the Accession Partnership and to prepare for their integration into the EU. In this way, the NPAA complements the Accession Partnership: it contains the timetable for achieving Partnership's priorities and objectives and, where possible and relevant, also indicates the human and financial resources to be allocated.

Both the Accession Partnerships and the National Programmes for the Adoption of the Acquis are revised on a regular basis, to take account of progress made, and to allow for new priorities to be set.

Lithuania presented a revised version of the National Programme for the Adoption of the Acquis in June 2001. This document was called Lithuania's European Union Accession Programme. The revised version takes into account the recommendations made by the Commission in the 2000 Regular Report.


On 8 December 1995 the Government of the Republic of Lithuania submitted an official membership application.

In its July 1997 Opinion, the Commission noted that, on the basis of current levels of readiness, only the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia would be ready for EU membership within five years.
Lithuania was invited to start the negotiations in 1999 on the basis of the European Commission's advice in its 1999 Regular Report on the progress made by the Candidate Countries. In December 1999, the European Council approved this recommendation and decided on the start of the negotiations. On 15 February 2000, Lithuania started negotiations for EU membership. EU negotiations are co-ordinated by the European Committee under the Republic of Lithuania, headed by Petras Auštrevicius. The Ambassador of the Lithuanian Mission to the European Communities is H.E. Oskaras Jusys.

Financial assistance for the reform process

In the years 2000-2002: € 126 million for PHARE (plus a top-up amount of € 18.5 million for reinforcement of administrative capacity in 2002), € 90 million for SAPARD (Special Accession Programme for Agricultural and Rural Development) and around € 155 million for ISPA (Instrument for Structural policies for pre-accession). The indicative allocation for Sapard in Lithuania for 2002 is € 31.8 million and the ISPA allocation for 2002 is € 61million and € 48 million for 2003.

During the period 1992-1999, the PHARE program allocated € 328 to Lithuania, €50 million in 2000 and € 48.5 in 2001. The 2002 Phare programme for Lithuania consisted of an allocation of € 43.7 million for the National Programme complemented by €18.5 million under the Phare 2002 supplementary institution building facility.

Lithuania is expected to receive in total around €200 million in pre-accession assistance during 2003, including assistance for nuclear decommissioning.

Further information is available on the following sites:
- DG Agriculture: http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/external
/enlarge/countries/lithuania/index_en.htm
and http://europa.eu/comm
/agriculture/external/enlarge/countries/lithuania/overview/lit_en.pdf

- Lithuania:
http://www.zum.lt/europa/eng/Progress/Lithuanian_Agriculture_Progress
.htm

- EC Delegation in Lithuania: http://www.eudel.lt/en/eu_assistance/sapard.htm

What next after the end of negotiations ?

At the Copenhagen European Council on 13 December 2002, Lithuania successfully concluded accession negotiations with a view to signing the Accession Treaty in Athens on 16 April 2003 and becoming Member State from 1 May 2004.

The final package is positive for Lithuania since it is one of the countries, with the highest rate per capita of EU funds (€ 769 for 2004-2006, out of which € 208 are devoted to agriculture). In terms of EU allocations, Lithuania will be, a net beneficiary: its per capita contribution to the EU budget will amount to € 147, while receipts will total € 535. Lithuania also received additional support (included in the above calculations) of € 47 million comprising payments to ease the national budget situation (€ 34.8 million in 2004 and € 12.6 million in 2005-2006).

Lithuania and the EU managed to reach fair compromise on two key sectors: agriculture quotas, and decommissioning of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (NPP).

  • As regards agriculture, an agreement was reached on progressive introduction of direct payments of 25% in 2004, 30% in 2005 and 35% in 2006. Lithuania has been given the possibility to top-up the amounts to 55/60/65% by using co-financing from other EC funds (up to 40%) and national funds. Increased levels for reference quantities were offered on a number of product groups such as milk, sugar, fibres and potato starch. In setting the milk quota the EU took into account the specific situation of agriculture in the Baltic States (comprehensive restructuring and Russian crisis). The total milk quota amounts to 1.704.839 tonnes. The reference yield was increased from 2.3 to 2.7 tons per hectare.
  • As regards Ignalina NPP, the results of the negotiations are enshrined in an Ignalina Protocol for the Accession Treaty. The Protocol stipulates that Lithuania committed, at EU request, to close Unit 1 of INPP before 2005 and Unit 2 by 2009. The EU committed to continue, also after 2006, to support Lithuania's decommissioning efforts on the basis of Community solidarity. For 2004-2006 the EU committed an amount of €285 million. In this context the Union acknowledged that this effort is of unprecedented nature and that it represents for Lithuania an exceptional financial burden not commensurate with the size and economic strength of the country.
  • As regards Kaliningrad, although the European Council has agreed on a separate Protocol and Declaration, modalities of Kaliningrad transit are still under discussion.

Once a Member, Lithuania will have 12 EP seats for the 2004-2009 European Parliamentary term (13 during the observership period), 3 votes in the Council for the period from 1 May to 31 October 2004 and 7 as for 1 November 2004.

The major task ahead for Lithuania is to continue the strengthening of administrative capacity, while ensuring the necessary stability of the public administration. Adequate administrative capacity is the key for successful membership, in particular in preparation for the structural funds. Lithuania also needs to maintain the prudent macroeconomic policy it has been pursuing since 2000. Lithuania still needs to complete the transposition of the acquis during 2003. In certain key areas, such as environment, a substantial amount of transposition is still outstanding.

Conclusions of negotiations, list of TPs


Monitoring process

Since 1998, the Commission has issued yearly reports - e.g. regular reports- on progress achieved by Lithuania on its way towards accession. The 2002 Regular Report released on 9 October 2002 provides a comprehensive overview on Lithuania's progress: /enlargement/key_documents/pdf/2002/lt_en.pdf

In the 2002 Strategy Paper, the Commission confirmed that up until accession, it would continue to monitor the implementation of commitments made by Lithuania during the accession negotiations. To this end, a regular monitoring exercise will take place, involving one detailed monitoring report, which will consist of a compilation of tables (one for each of the acquis chapters). This report will be available by the end of 2003.


Public opinion and referendum on accession


The latest Eurobarometer (November 2002) shows 48% of Lithuanian population in favour of EU accession (32% against, 12% undecided). In a referendum, 53% of those voting would vote "yes", whilst 16% would vote "no". According to Lithuanian sources, 67% of voters would vote favourably. For a general overview of Lithuania's support to EU accession from 1999 to 2003, see http://www.euro.lt/showitems.php?TopMenuID=42&
;MenuItemID= 2019&LangID=2

The referendum on EU accession will be held on 11 May 2003. The actual turnout will be a key factor for a positive outcome in the referendum, as Lithuanian legislation prescribes that voter turn-out reaches and that a simple majority of vote are cast in favour. In addition, the risk of populist euro-scepticism should not be underestimated, in particular in the rural areas. Importantly, the Catholic Church has recently expressed itself in favour of the EU accession.

Lithuania has earmarked €3.3 million for the organisation of the referendum and the European Committee under the Government has set up an action plan for the pre-referendum period. Lithuania has created two new bodies in charge of preparing the referendum: a Working Group for the Information Campaign under the Government (charged with operative decisions and review of the implementation of the information campaign) and a Special Coordinating Council for the Information Campaign, set up by the Seimas (this political body will oversee the implementation of the information campaign and regularly monitor public opinion on integration into the EU).

The Commission Delegation is actively supporting these initiatives in the framework of the Communication and Information campaign.

Scheme on monitoring the information campaign before the referendum on Lithuania's membership of the EU

7. LITHUANIA IN FIGURES

Main Economic trends 1998-2002 (source Eurostat)

 

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Basic data

in thousand

Population on 1. January of each year

Total area

3.704

3.700

3.698

3.493

3.482

:

:

in kmē

65 300

65 300

65 300

65 300

65 300

65 300

:

National accounts

In thousand Mio. ECU / Euros

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at current prices

Gross Domestic Product per capita at current prices

Gross Domestic Product at constant prices Employment growth

GDP per capita at current prices (EU-15 = 100)

Labour productivity (EU-15 = 100)

9.6

10.0

12.2

13.4

*14.8

*15.6

:

ECU / Euros

2700

2 840

3 490

3 850

*4250

*4520

:

% change on previous year

5.1

-3.9

3.8

5.9

*4.9

*3.5

*4.5

-0.8

-0.5

-3.7

-4.0

:

:

:

in Purchasing Power Standards

36.52

34.54

35.96

38.59

38.00

:

:

33.16

31.74

34.58

38.90

35.65

:

:

Structure of production

% of Gross Value Added

- Agriculture

10.3

8.4

7.7

7.0

:

:

:

- Industry (excluding construction)

23.9

22.9

25.8

27.8

:

:

:

- Construction

8.6

8.0

6.1

6.1

:

:

:

- Services

57.3

60.8

60.4

59.0

:

:

:

 

Structure of expenditure

% of Gross Domestic Product

- Final consumption expenditure

87.5

87.7

85.9

83.9

*84.7

*83.8

*82.8

- household and NPISH

64.6

67.4

65.7

65.0

*65.0

*64.3

*63.7

- general government

24.4

22.2

21.4

20.1

*19.7

*19.5

*19.1

- Gross fixed capital formation

24.3

22.1

18.5

19.3

*20.4

*20.9

*21.9

- Stock variation

0.1

0.6

2.0

2.6

*2.6

*2.4

*2.2

- Exports of goods and services

47.2

39.7

45.3

50.4

*50.2

*57.2

*54.7

- Imports of goods and services

59.1

50.1

51.7

55.9

*46.5

*48.1

*49.6



Overview of key documents related to enlargement

PDF format

EN

FR DE  
Regular Report -  November 5, 2003 214kb 468kb 250kb All
countries
Regular Report -  October 9, 2002 704kb 734kb 767kb All
countries
Regular Report -  November 13, 2001 342kb 376kb 394kb All
countries
Regular Report - November 8, 2000 488kb 530kb 710kb All
countries
Progress Report - October 13, 1999 234kb 263kb 256kb All
countries
Progress Report - November 1998 142kb 153kb 163kb  All
countries
Accession Partnership - November 13, 2001 
English pdf file 41kb

All countries

French pdf file
German pdf file
Accession Partnership - October 13, 1999 (revised February 2000) 
English pdf file 55kb

All countries

French pdf file 60kb
German pdf file 62kb
Opinion on Lithuania's Application for Membership of the European Union - July 1997

Danish

pdf file 468kb
German pdf file 717kb
Greek NA 
English pdf file 654kb
Spanish pdf file 459kb
Finnish pdf file 464kb
French pdf file 756kb
Italian pdf file 508kb
Dutch pdf file 503kb
Swedish pdf file 453kb

Press releases / News section

Interesting links

last update : 11 February 2004
 
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