This study has been carried out to assess the functioning and implementation of Directive 2009/119/EC imposing an obligation on Member States to maintain minimum stocks of crude oil and/or petroleum products.
Under Article 8 of the Energy Efficiency Directive, Member States must promote the availability to all final customers of high quality energy audits. This report, presents a library of typical cost of energy audits and energy audit recommendations, costs and savings. These represent the most significant energy efficiency opportunities.
Under Article 8 of the Energy Efficiency Directive, Member States must promote the availability to all final customers of high quality energy audits. This report describes how Member States put in place accreditation schemes for energy auditors. Best practices are also presented, as well as opportunities for harmonisation of qualification requirements across borders.
This study assesses several options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the lifecycle of biodiesel fuels based on fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The options include advanced agricultural techniques, optimum use wastes and co-products and inclusion of other bio-based components in the process.
This report highlights the main historical trends in the EU’s energy demand and supply, setting them in the context of wider global trends, summarises views on the key drivers of those trends, and discusses the macroeconomic importance of energy.
This report provides a review and synthesis of current knowledge regarding policyinduced energy innovation and technological change and its likely implications for the macro-economy and future low-carbon societies in the European Union.
This study presents the updated results of a comprehensive accounting of the impacts of ecodesign and energy labelling measures on energy consumption, socio-economic impacts (jobs), industrial competitiveness (revenues) and technology development, over the period 1990-2050.
This report calculates the material consumption for the production of the 2010 sales and the installed stock of all products covered by existing ecodesign and energy labelling measures. The material inputs are a compilation of data generated in 40 Ecodesign preparatory studies that were undertaken during the period 2006-2016.
Risk preparedness in the area of security of electricity supply is a raising policy issue across the EU. This study provides an overview of the current legal framework and practices across the EU-28 with regard to security of electricity supply. More specifically, it focuses on how Member States identify, prevent, prepare and respond to security of supply risks and emergency situations.