These are the final results of a study of fuel consumption (WP1) and technologies (WP2) used in the heating/cooling sector in EU28+3 (Tender ENER/C2/2014-641). Analysis of scenarios up to 2020 and 2030 (WP3) and a related economic analysis (WP4) were also carried out together with the identification of obstacles, best practices and policy recommendations (WP5). The data set for WP1, WP2 and WP3 is also provided.
This study includes, inter alia, data collection and assessment of the progress in deployment of renewable energy sources at national and EU level, and an analysis of non-economic barriers and incentives for the deployment of renewables.
This report sets out the impacts of improvements in energy efficiency in buildings that could come about through the revision of the Energy Performance Buildings Directive (EPBD). It covers potential costs as well as benefits but shows that, for the EU as a whole and for most of its Member States, the benefits largely outweigh the costs. These benefits cover all three of the economic, social and environmental spheres.
The purpose of the study was to assess the notifications received from Member States about investment projects in energy infrastructure for accuracy and completeness by comparing them with independent sources. It covers the 2015 notifications exercise, but input from the three previous exercises was used as background. The analysis also contributed data on Member States that did not report to the Commission, in order to show an EU-wide, sector-specific overview of investments. It also considers research-based estimates of upcoming investments in energy infrastructure, quantified both in capacity and in monetary terms. The latter is not requested by Regulation 256. In sum, the study is a thorough update on both current and planned energy infrastructure at EU, Member State and sector levels. Its conclusion focuses on the added value of the information supplied by the Member States under this reporting scheme.
Despite existing public support programmes, many PCIs in energy infrastructure are still delayed because of obstacles in financing. Many projects are not reaching the bankability stage. Both investment volumes and project complexity often exceed the capacities of the involved transmission system operators (TSOs). For this study, four electricity and gas TSOs were selected to receive support in mastering their PCI-related financing challenges.
The purpose of this research was to analyse the properties of bio kerosene blends with various samples of conventional kerosene, with a focus on blends with high percentages of bio kerosene.
The study analyses the planning, reporting and monitoring obligations in the EU energy acquis in order to contribute to the Commission's related Fitness Check. The study collects and analyses evidence, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on the existing obligations and their costs and benefits, and uses the five Better Regulation criteria of effectiveness, efficiency, relevance, coherence and EU added value to assess the obligations. Furthermore, the study assesses policy options for streamlining and integrating these planning, reporting and monitoring obligations into integrated national energy and climate plans, integrated progress reports and integrated monitoring, as envisaged in the Energy Union Strategy, in order to contribute to the Commission's related Impact Assessment.
The study describes and assesses different options for cross-border participation in capacity mechanisms, in particular with regards to the quantification of costs and benefits of each of the options. This study provided input to the Impact Assessment supporting the legislative proposal for a new market design which is part of the Commission's "Clean Energy for All Europeans" package.
The study "Mainstreaming RES" (ENER/C1/2014-668) assesses various options for (i) EU-wide measures and policies aimed at mainstreaming renewable energy in the EU across all energy sectors including heating and cooling and transport (it also considers administrative barriers and access to and costs of finance), and (ii) ensuring that the EU achieves its renewable target of at least 27% in 2030. This study provided input to the Impact Assessment supporting the legislative proposal for a recast of the Renewable Energy Directive, which is part of the Commission's "Clean Energy for All Europeans" package.
The study "Supporting investments into renewable electricity after 2020" (ENER/C1/2015-394) asks what the likely paths of EU electricity market developments through to 2050 will be, and how RES-e shares are likely to evolve under those scenarios. Assuming an energy-only market (EOM) as the only source of revenue, what are the likely market revenues for each type of RES-e (in the case of no financial support from public funds)? The study also considers how sensitive these estimates are to key variables, including carbon prices and the amount and design of capacity remuneration mechanisms (CRMs). It provided input to the Impact Assessment supporting the legislative proposal for a recast of the Renewable Energy Directive which is part of the Commission's "Clean Energy for All Europeans" package.