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Nuclear Issues 

Response from Directorate general for Energy and Transport to all correspondance concerning the completion of Units 3 and 4 of Mochovche nuclear power plant in Slovakia


European Nuclear Energy Forum

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2nd meeting
22 & 23 May 2008, Prague

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Eurobarometer, February 2007
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Eurobarometer, June 2008
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Multimedia & Audio-visual
Radiation Protection Training
in Interventional Radiology.
Radiation Protection 119
Download the CD-Rom content (282.830 KB)


    Update of the MARINA Project on the radiological exposure of the European Community from radioactivity in North European marine waters

The MARINA II study provides information on radioactive discharges to the North East Atlantic, on radionuclide concentrations in various marine environmental media and an assessment of their impact on humans and marine biota.

Compared to the mid 60’s, by the end of the 1990s, the overall civil nuclear and other anthropogenic inputs of radioactivity into the North East Atlantic have decreased by several orders of magnitude for alpha- and beta-emitters and for tritium. The maximum levels were reached in the 1960s and early 1970s. Over the same time period this resulted in reductions in radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment and consequently in reductions in the individual doses to members of critical groups and in collective doses to the public.

Since the mid-1980s, the main contribution to discharges of beta-activity into the OSPAR region is from nuclear reprocessing plants (Sellafield and Cap de la Hague) while the discharges of alpha-activity have been dominated by the phosphate industry and by oil and gas production in the North Sea. As a result of the activities discharged and the higher biological effectiveness of alpha radiation, phosphate and oil production currently are the major contributors to collective dose to the population of the European Union from industrial activities. Other sources (e.g. production and application of radiopharmaceuticals, discharges from shipyards servicing nuclear submarines in the UK, historic dumping of wastes at sea and accidental releases other than Chernobyl) are comparably negligible.

Over the period 1988 to 1999 effective doses to critical groups in the Sellafield area show no downward trends partly due to the impact of remobilisation of plutonium isotopes from historic discharges, which are contained in the sediments of the Irish Sea, leading to relatively stable plutonium concentrations in sea water and thus in seafood. In addition, since 1994 the treatment of historic liquid wastes led to increased discharges of technetium-99, adding to the exposure. For the Cap de la Hague area there is a decreasing trend in effective doses since 1988. For the OSPAR region in general the doses to critical groups follow the same decreasing trend as the environmental radionuclide concentrations.

Doses to non-human biota due to industrial activities are low (order of magnitude of natural background level). Based on today’s knowledge detrimental effects to populations of marine biota are not expected.

The text of the Executive Summary (330 KB)
Annex A: Civil Nuclear Discharges into North European Waters  (890 KB)
Annex B: Environmental Data (4 MB)
Annex C: Analysis of Data on Seafood Catches and Trade (340 KB)
Annex D: Radiological Impact on EU Member States of Radioactivity in North European Waters  (1,4 MB)
Annex E: Critical Group Exposure  (150 KB)
Annex F: Assessment of the Impact of Radioactive Substances on Marine Biota of North European Waters  (310 KB)
The printed version of RP 132 consists of two Volumes. Volume I contains the Executive Summary and the Annexes A and B, Volume II contains the Annexes C to F. It can be ordered from the radiation protection unit.


last update: 05-08-2008