In 2005, the European Ccommission (EC)-China Energy Dialogue was launched through the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) in the margins of the EU-China Summit.
In 2009, the Clean Energy Centre (EC²) cooperation project was launched by the EC and the Chinese NEA. The project aims at setting up an autonomous body that shall promote the use of cleaner energy technologies and support energy conservation and efficiency, thus assisting China in its transition to a low-carbon economy. The Polytechnic University of Torino was selected to function as the implementing agency, working closely with a wide range of European and Chinese public actors as well as research institutions. One of the EC²'s main areas of focus is renewable energy and sustainable bio fuels.