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The studies are subject to a disclaimer and copyright. The studies have been carried out for the European Commission and express the opinions of the organisations having undertaken them. The views have not been adopted or in any way approved by the European Commission and should not be relied upon as a statement of the European Commission's views. The European Commission does not guarantee the accuracy of the information given in the studies, nor does it accept responsibility for any use made thereof.

Copyright in these studies is held by the European Union. Persons wishing to use the contents of these studies (in whole or in part) for purposes other than their personal use are invited to submit a written request to the following address: European Commission - Energy DG Library (DM28, 0/36) - B-1049 Brussels or by electronic form


  • The Benefits of a Meshed Offshore Grid in Northern Seas Region pdf - 7 MB [7 MB]

    This study compares the costs and benefits of a 'meshed' offshore grid in the Northern Seas region with separate radial connections to shore for each wind farm. It finds:

    • even in the lowest offshore wind scenario, additional investments in the network will be earned back within a few years due to lower generation costs
    • a meshed grid leads to better interconnections and access to energy markets around the Northern Seas
    • a meshed grid leads to less curtailment of offshore wind generation on windy days and a lower need for alternative generation capacity on days without wind
    • additional savings from a meshed grid include reduced CO2 emissions, fewer and shorter cables on the seabed, and fewer and faster permitting procedures.

     The study was conducted for the European Commission by PWC, Ecofys, and Tractebel Engineering.




This guidebook has been an initiative of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Antiterrorist Unit and has been developed by a number of experts from the public and private sector of OSCE participating States as well as the European Commission and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

The Guide raises awareness of the significance of non-nuclear critical energy infrastructure and the extent to which it is threatened by cyber-related terrorist attacks and other types of potential threats. It identifies key policy issues and challenges and presents good practices as possible solutions, in the context of international cooperation an information exchange among public and private stakeholders in the energy sector.



Annex: Selection of good practices in Member States pdf - 125 KB [125 KB]


Annexes pdf - 5 MB [5 MB]

Annex pdf - 2 MB [2 MB] All available translations.



        TEN-E Priority Corridors for Energy Transmission - Study 2008



Project Summary pdf

Maps of gas and electricity projects and implementation zip


Annex 1 zip

Annex 2 zip