Energy

Cogeneration of heat and power

Cogeneration of heat and power

Cogeneration is the simultaneous production of electricity and useful heat. In a regular power plant, the heat produced in the generation of electricity is lost, often through the chimneys. But in a cogeneration plant, it is recovered for use in homes, businesses, and industry. A trigeneration plant also produces cooling (air conditioning), as well as heat and electricity.

Cogeneration plants can achieve energy efficiency levels of around 90%. Increased cogeneration could lower greenhouse gas emissions by up to 250 million tonnes by 2020. Small cogeneration facilities can also be an effective way to supply energy to remote areas without the need for expensive grid infrastructure.

Promoting cogeneration in Europe

The Energy Efficiency Directive requires each EU country to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the national potential of cogeneration and district heating and cooling (a main user of cogeneration) by December 2015.

Member State

Article 14.1

Annex

Austria

de

-
Belgium

nl & fr en

-

Bulgaria

-

-

Croatia

hr

-

Cyprus

en

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5

Czech Republic

cz

-

Denmark

da | en

-

Estonia

ee | en  

-

Finland

fi | en

-

France

fr  | en

1 2 | 3

Germany

de | en

-

Greece

el | en

 

Hungary

hu | en

1 | 2 , 1en | 2en

Ireland

en

-

Italy

it | en

-

Latvia
lv | en

-

Lithuania

lt | en

 

Luxembourg

-

-

Malta

en

-

Netherlands

nl 1 , nl 2 | en 1 , en 2

annex

Poland

pl | en

-

Portugal

-

-

Romania

ro | en

-

Slovakia

sk | en

-

Slovenia

-

-

Spain

es | en

-

Sweden

sv | en

-

United Kingdom

en

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EU countries must also ensure a cost-benefit analysis is conducted on the potential for using cogeneration when they plan to build or substantially refurbish:

  • a heat or electrical installation with a total thermal input exceeding 20MW
  • an industrial installation generating waste heat with a total thermal input exceeding 20MW
  • a district heating and cooling network exceeding a total thermal input of 20MW. In this case, the intention is to see if it is cost-effective to utilise waste heat from nearby industry.

Exemptions

In certain cases, the facilities exceeding 20MW thermal input described above may be exempt from a cogeneration cost-benefit analysis. Specifically:

  • facilities that are expected to operate for less than 1500 hours per year over a five year period. For instance, back-up electricity installations and peak load power plants that are only turned on during very high levels of demand
  • nuclear power installations
  • installations located close to a geological site for carbon capture and storage

EU governments are required to notify the European Commission of these exemptions. Their notifications are found below.

 

Member State

   

Article 14.6

   

Annex

 
Austria

de

en

-

Belgium

nl

en

-

Bulgaria

-

-

-

Croatia

-

-

-

Cyprus

-

en

-

Czech Republic

-

en

-

Denmark

da

en

-

Estonia

-

-

-

Finland

fi

en

-

France

fr

-

-

Germany

de

en

-

Greece

el

en

-

Hungary

-

-

-

Ireland

en

-

Annex

Italy

it

en

-

Latvia
 

-

-

Lithuania

-

en

-

Luxembourg

-

-

-

Malta

-

en

-

Netherlands

nl

en

-

Poland

pl

en

-

Portugal

-

-

-

Romania

-

-

-

Slovakia

-

en

-

Slovenia

sl

en

-

Spain

es

en

-

Sweden

sv

en

-

United Kingdom

en

-

Annex

 

National cogeneration reports

Under the now repealed Cogeneration Directive, EU countries were required to publish national reports on cogeneration every four years.

Interpretation of Cogeneration Directive [SWD(2012)13]

First Round of National Reports:
Member States' reports in their original language | Translated in English

Second Round of National Reports:
English versions
Original versions

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