Energy

Studies

Studies

The studies are subject to a disclaimer and copyright. The studies have been carried out for the European Commission and express the opinions of the organisations having undertaken them. The views have not been adopted or in any way approved by the European Commission and should not be relied upon as a statement of the European Commission's views. The European Commission does not guarantee the accuracy of the information given in the studies, nor does it accept responsibility for any use made thereof.

Copyright in these studies is held by the European Union. Persons wishing to use the contents of these studies (in whole or in part) for purposes other than their personal use are invited to submit a written request by electronic form.

Specific guidance for sub-metering of thermal energy in multi-unit buildings (implementation of Articles 9-11 of Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency (updated version))

Energy Efficiency
01/2017

Following the first publication in June 2016, the detailed guidance on good practice in cost-effective cost allocation and billing of individual consumption of heating, cooling and domestic hot water in multi-apartment and multi-purpose buildings has been revised to take account of further stakeholder comments and suggestions received at a number of workshops held in the second half of 2016.

Guidance

Evaluation of the Project Development Assistance implemented under the Intelligent Energy Europe

Energy Efficiency
01/2017

The study analyses the outputs, results and outcomes of Project Development Activities co-funded under the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme (IEE II) that aim to mobilise investments in sustainable energy at a local level. The analysis was performed via a deep data collection carried out in collaboration with the Managing Entities and 54 project beneficiaries across the EU.

Report | Executive summary

Study on low cost energy efficiency measures for low income households

Energy Efficiency
12/2016

This study identifies good practices in the delivery of low-cost energy efficiency measures, to low-income households in particular, and investigates how it may be possible to replicate them on a larger scale. In addition, the study considers the role that EU funds can have in financing schemes providing low-cost measures to low-income households and it provides some recommendations for the replication, design and delivery of such schemes.

Report | Brochure

Study on costs and benefits of energy efficiency obligation schemes

Energy Efficiency
12/2016

The study explores and presents findings on the costs and benefits of energy efficiency obligations schemes implemented under Article 7 of Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency. The data is presented for a number Member States, and the findings of this study were fed into the EED Review process.

Report

Review of the default primary energy factor (PEF) reflecting the estimated average EU generation efficiency referred to in Annex IV of Directive 2012/27/EU and possible extension of the approach to other energy carriers

Energy Efficiency
12/2016

This study has been a relevant input to the review of the primary energy factor (PEF) for electricity, in the context of the Energy Efficiency Directive 27/2012/EU. The authors focus on four calculation methods following exchange with the European Commission's services, Member States representatives and European associations.

Report

Study on evaluating the implementation of Article 7 of the Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency

Energy Efficiency
12/2016

According to Article 24(9) of Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency (EED), the Commission had to evaluate the implementation of Article 7 (on energy efficiency obligation schemes and alternative measures). Under Article 7 Member States are required to achieve end-use energy savings by end 2020. This study provides a quantitative assessment of how that obligation is being met and assesses whether the established framework allows the effective achievement of the required savings. The most commonly used policy measures are analysed in more detail and presented as cases studies in Appendix 4. This analysis fed into the evaluation and the impact assessment of the EED review.

Report

Case studies

Study on evaluating fiscal measures in the national policies and methodologies to implement Article 7 of the Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency

Energy Efficiency
12/2016

The study assesses the energy savings from fiscal measures notified under Article 7(9) of Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency (EED). It looks at energy and CO2 taxation measures in more detail for a limited number of Member States. A set of elements and aspects relevant for the methodologies applying to the fiscal measures is proposed in view of the implementation of Article 7.

Report

Study on Energy Efficiency in Enterprises: Library of typical energy audit recommendations, costs and savings

Energy Efficiency
08/2016

Under Article 8 of the Energy Efficiency Directive, Member States must promote the availability to all final customers of high quality energy audits. This report, presents a library of typical cost of energy audits and energy audit recommendations, costs and savings. These represent the most significant energy efficiency opportunities.

Report

Measure database

Study on Energy Efficiency in Enterprises: Report on the qualification of energy auditors in all Member States

Energy Efficiency
08/2016

Under Article 8 of the Energy Efficiency Directive, Member States must promote the availability to all final customers of high quality energy audits. This report describes how Member States put in place accreditation schemes for energy auditors. Best practices are also presented, as well as opportunities for harmonisation of qualification requirements across borders.

Report

Ecodesign impact accounting – Status January 2016

Energy Efficiency
07/2016

This study presents the updated results of a comprehensive accounting of the impacts of ecodesign and energy labelling measures on energy consumption, socio-economic impacts (jobs), industrial competitiveness (revenues) and technology development, over the period 1990-2050.

Study

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