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The report first identifies and assesses options for collecting or calculating preliminary data (or ‘early estimates’) on annual energy consumption for EU Member States and the EU as a whole for the year t-1 (i.e. currently 2015) within eight to nine months of the end of the year.
The second part of the report focuses on producing the early estimates for the year 2015 both for the EU as a whole and for each EU Member State on the basis of the methodologies developed. This involves the calculation of early estimates of energy balances, of the renewable energy share in gross final energy consumption and in gross electricity generation.
The main goal of this report is to map and explain the sources of finance and corresponding clean energy investment opportunities that are interacting in the EU's clean energy finance landscape. Suggestions on how to usefully incorporate such findings in existing macro-economic models are then provided.
This case study examines the resilience of the EU economy to energy supply shocks and provides comparisons with six other global regions. Trends in the EU and other global regions are reviewed for key indicators that measure aspects of resilience to energy supply shocks. The case study then proceeds to present the results of new econometric analysis of the degree of substitutability between energy and other production factors across EU sectors.
The objective of this study is thus to provide an in-depth analysis of the electricity infrastructure developments in that region (especially the need of new interconnections), to understand the barriers (administrative, permitting, regulatory and financing aspects) towards the deployment of these projects, and to provide recommendations to progress on PCIs deployment in this region.
This study assesses the potential role, cost and benefits of biogas, as well as the key barriers and drivers of biogas deployment in the EU until and beyond 2020.
These are the final results of a study of fuel consumption (WP1) and technologies (WP2) used in the heating/cooling sector in EU28+3 (Tender ENER/C2/2014-641). Analysis of scenarios up to 2020 and 2030 (WP3) and a related economic analysis (WP4) were also carried out together with the identification of obstacles, best practices and policy recommendations (WP5). The data set for WP1, WP2 and WP3 is also provided.
This study includes, inter alia, data collection and assessment of the progress in deployment of renewable energy sources at national and EU level, and an analysis of non-economic barriers and incentives for the deployment of renewables.
This report sets out the impacts of improvements in energy efficiency in buildings that could come about through the revision of the Energy Performance Buildings Directive (EPBD). It covers potential costs as well as benefits but shows that, for the EU as a whole and for most of its Member States, the benefits largely outweigh the costs. These benefits cover all three of the economic, social and environmental spheres.
The purpose of the study was to assess the notifications received from Member States about investment projects in energy infrastructure for accuracy and completeness by comparing them with independent sources. It covers the 2015 notifications exercise, but input from the three previous exercises was used as background. The analysis also contributed data on Member States that did not report to the Commission, in order to show an EU-wide, sector-specific overview of investments. It also considers research-based estimates of upcoming investments in energy infrastructure, quantified both in capacity and in monetary terms. The latter is not requested by Regulation 256. In sum, the study is a thorough update on both current and planned energy infrastructure at EU, Member State and sector levels. Its conclusion focuses on the added value of the information supplied by the Member States under this reporting scheme.
Despite existing public support programmes, many PCIs in energy infrastructure are still delayed because of obstacles in financing. Many projects are not reaching the bankability stage. Both investment volumes and project complexity often exceed the capacities of the involved transmission system operators (TSOs). For this study, four electricity and gas TSOs were selected to receive support in mastering their PCI-related financing challenges.