The studies are subject to a disclaimer and copyright. The studies have been carried out for the European Commission and express the opinions of the organisations having undertaken them. The views have not been adopted or in any way approved by the European Commission and should not be relied upon as a statement of the European Commission's views. The European Commission does not guarantee the accuracy of the information given in the studies, nor does it accept responsibility for any use made thereof.
Copyright in these studies is held by the European Union. Persons wishing to use the contents of these studies (in whole or in part) for purposes other than their personal use are invited to submit a written request by electronic form.
Article 8 of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) addresses energy audits and energy management systems in the European Member States. This document is intended to provide practical guidance to Member States authorities responsible for the transposition and implementation of Article 8 and Annex VI requirements of the EED, including the establishment of transparent and non-discriminatory national minimum criteria for energy audits.
Energy poverty is a raising policy issue across the EU. To understand the extent and depth of the problem of affordability of energy services better indicators are needed. The report recommends four key indicators to measure the number of households in energy poverty. These indicators are tested and computed for the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain and Italy using currently available data.
The main purpose of this study is to examine the permit granting process for PCIs in the Member States and to assess their compliance with the specific schemes and requirements laid out in the TENE Reg.
The exploitation of wind energy resources from offshore generation in the North and Irish Sea represents an opportunity for the European Union to increase the share of renewable energy generation and, at the same time, support the economic growth and the creation of sustainable jobs.
Article 8 of the Energy Efficiency Directive addresses energy audits and energy management systems in the European Member States. This study provides an overview of the national implementation of Article 8 across the EU-28, covering the situation for both large enterprises and SMEs.
As set out in the technical specifications, the objectives of the project are to ‘collect and to analyse primarily legal information, as well as technical, environmental and economic data linked to carbon dioxide infrastructure, to develop necessary criteria and process for carbon dioxide (CO2) cross-border infrastructure projects at the EU-level’.
The overall objective of the assignment is to assess the investment requirements of the European TSOs in relation to their financing capabilities.
This study assesses effects and impacts of collective purchasing and other arrangements to improve outcomes for buyers in EU wholesale natural gas markets.
This document presents the results of a study in support of the review of the tyre labelling Regulation (EC) N° 1222/2009 that has assessed the effectiveness of this Regulation in terms of achieving market transformation and other relevant aspects, including the issues that should be assessed according to mandatory requirements in Article 14 of the Regulation, and the possibility of adaption of the grip grading of tyres, primarily regarding tyres designed to perform better in ice and/or snow.