Eurydice and CRELL have released reports on teaching in Europe and the European Commission has issued a policy note based on their findings. Photo: Shutterstock.com / wavebreakmedia
Eurydice Brief: Early Leaving from Education and Training shows that collectively, member states are getting closer to the EU headline target: by 2020, the share of early leavers from education and training (aged 18-24) should be less than 10%.
The second round of applications for International Credit Mobility is now open. As announced in May, most National Agencies are opening a second round of applications under the 2015 call for International Credit Mobility. Photo: Shutterstock.com / pkchai
A new umbrella association, the Erasmus+ Students and Alumni Association (ESAA), has been created, to represent students from inside and outside Europe who take part in Erasmus+. Photo: Emka74 / Shutterstock.com
The scheme is now off the ground for students going to Spain to pursue a Master's course there, and Spanish students travelling abroad for a Master's course in Erasmus+ programme countries. The loans will be offered by the Spanish bank, Microbank. Photo: Shutterstock.com / Halfpoint
A new EUROSTAT publication finds that education is a key factor in determining well-being, career satisfaction and over all life satisfaction.
A set of recommendations regarding the use of digital cultural heritage in education and learning have been issued by policymakers from European Ministries of Education and Culture.
A new EU study recommends including film literacy in school curricula, and promoting the establishment of general rules for licensing schemes, contributing to a wider use of films and other audiovisual content in European schools. Photo: Maksim Kabakov / Shutterstock.com
DG EAC has published a call for Contract Agents for secretarial roles, as well as assistants for legal, communication, financial, policy and programme management support. The call closes on 04/06 at midday.
Ministers from national governments discussed achievements and developments in the area of education and training as well as how to improve political participation among young people. The outcomes of the Council are available in full. Photo: Botond Horvath / Shutterstock.com
On 13 May 2015, Education Ministers of the 47-country European Higher Education Area met in Yerevan for a two-day conference to discuss higher education systems, the Bologna process and student mobility.
With funds left over from the first round of applications, National Agencies in some Programme Countries will be opening a second round of applications under the 2015 call for International Credit Mobility – giving your institution the opportunity to apply for funding for mobility projects with higher education institutions across the globe.
The European Commission has produced a fact sheet(186 kB)
on how European education and youth policy can meet the challenge of radicalisation.
Launched in January 2015, the School Education Gateway website attracted almost 50,000 visitors in its first two months. The website helps teachers and other education stakeholders stay informed about European actions for schools.
The brief draws on key findings from the recent report on the Modernisation of Higher Education in Europe: Access, retention and employability and covers higher education systems in 34 European countries.
The second results from U-Multirank, the world's largest international university ranking, were published on 30 March 2015. U-Multirank covers more than 1,200 universities from over 80 countries.
A recent study, commissioned by the European Commission, looks at how African alumni who have studied in the European Union contribute to the development of higher education in Africa. The study aims to understand the role of EU-supported programmes in the this process.
The Commission has published a new call to support evidence-based policy making through studies in the fields of education, training, youth, research and innovation. Find out more about the call, which closes on 30 April, by visiting the call page on the website of DG EAC.
Under discussion will be how education and training can best meet the challenges of social inclusion, radicalisation and citizenship so brutally manifested in recent terrorist attacks.
New to Erasmus+ in 2015 is the Erasmus+ Master Loans Guarantee Scheme, initiated by the European Commission in cooperation with the European Investment Fund (EIF). As part of the implementation of this scheme on 13 February, the EIF launched a 'call for expression of interest' inviting banks to sign up to the new Erasmus+ Master Loans Guarantee Scheme.
Do all adults benefit equally from lifelong learning opportunities in Europe? What type of programmes exist for adults who do not have the skills or qualifications that match labour market and societal requirements? What do countries do to encourage adults to return to education and training? These are but some of the questions tackled in the new Eurydice report Adult Education and Training in Europe: Widening Access to Learning Opportunities.
By taking the Online Linguistic Support (OLS) language assessment, Erasmus+ participants will determine in an easy and simple way their proficiency in the language that they will use whilst studying, working or volunteering abroad.
A new website, the School Education Gateway, shall provide clear information on education initiatives across Europe. The website is aimed primarily at teachers and school staff, as well as education sector experts and organisations.
The Erasmus Mundus programme gives students from the whole world the chance to study in two or more European countries at Master's level. What do students and prospective students expect from a European masters programme, and how do Erasmus Mundus Masters Courses fulfil these expectations? Check out this year's Graduate Impact Survey.
At the Education and Youth Council of 12 December, Education Ministers will discuss the socio-economic benefits of education and training and highlight the opportunities presented by the Commission's new €315 bn Investment Plan at a time when many countries have cut their education and training budgets.
Time spent in education today is an investment for tomorrow says a new joint Eurydice/Cedefop report published this week. The report monitors developments across Europe and confirms that early leaving represents a complex challenge at individual, national and European levels.
Join the Facebook chat on Erasmus+ in the world on 25 November, 14.00 – 15.00 CET and find out more about worldwide opportunities for education, training and youth work.
HEInnovate, the self-assessment tool for encouraging institutional change and innovation in higher education institutions, celebrates one year. The release of an updated version of the tool marks the occasion.
The third annual Education and Training Monitor, published by the European Commission, charts the evolution of education and training systems across Europe.
The report, 'Northern Ireland in Europe', released early November represents a stock-taking of the results of the Northern Ireland Task Force in different policy fields. On education and training the region is encouraged to take "a more active participation in the Erasmus+ programme ... as an inspiration for innovative solutions and transnational cooperation".
On 1 November 2014 the Juncker Commission officially started its term of office, which will run until 31 October 2019. Mr Tibor Navracsics is the new Commissioner in charge of Education, Culture, Youth and Sport.
116 Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degrees are now inviting applications for scholarships for programmes starting in September 2015.
Check out the full list of opportunities, and visit a master programme's website for more information on its application requirements and timing.
Meet Poppy, the first completely open-source, 3D printed, humanoid robot. Poppy is a robot that anybody can build and program. That means it's not just a tool for scientists and engineers: the team of developers aims to make it part of vocational training in schools, giving students the opportunity to experiment. Photo: @Inria, H. Raguet
Il gruppo ad alto livello dell'Unione europea per la modernizzazione dell'istruzione superiore divulga in data odierna la sua relazione
sulle nuove forme di apprendimento e di insegnamento nelle università. Il gruppo, capeggiato dall'ex presidente dell'Irlanda Mary McAleese, formula 15 raccomandazioni che sottolineano la necessità di indirizzare meglio le risorse per promuovere lo sviluppo e l'impiego di metodologie più flessibili di apprendimento e di insegnamento digitale nell'istruzione superiore.
Tra i paesi europei permangono forti disparità nei livelli delle tasse universitarie, delle borse di studio e dei prestiti per gli studenti: è quanto emerge da una relazione pubblicata oggi dalla rete Eurydice della Commissione europea.
The Erasmus+ Programme Guide for the 2015 General Call for Proposals was published in English on 06/10/2014, with further language versions to follow at the end of October.
The Programme Guide provides detailed conditions for participating in the call for proposals, as well as information on the priorities for funding. It constitutes an integral part of the call for proposals.
In 2013/2014, teachers saw their salaries increase in 16 European countries (BE, DK, DE, EE, FR, HR, LU, HU, MT, AT, SK, FI, UK, NO, MK, TR) compared with the previous school year, according to a Eurydice report carried out for the European Commission.
On 24 September, the European Commission gathered some 50 stakeholders in Brussels to take stock of progress and achievements in the European Alliance for Apprenticeships, and discuss next steps in order strengthen this initiative.
VET schools and companies should work closer together. On 23-24 September, 340 stakeholders gathered at the European Business Forum on Vocational Training to discuss how to get there.
The first-ever Horizon Report Europe: 2014 Schools edition outlines the trends and technological developments that are likely to have an impact on education over the next five years and highlights the need to address low digital skills among school pupils and better use of information and communication technologies in teacher training.
The 6th International Conference on Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Africa, held in Bujumbura, Burundi 15-19 September, ended in a spirit of optimism. Although the quality of higher education in Africa is under severe pressure, mostly due to massively increased enrolments, many developments are underway that seem to be helping the continent onto the right track.
The future of EU studies is the focus of this year's annual Jean Monnet Conference, which takes place in Brussels on 1 and 2 October.
Hearings of the Commissioners-designate will take place at the European Parliament from 29 September to 7 October. Mr Tibor Navracsics, the nominee for the portfolio on education, culture, youth and citizenship, will appear in the Committee on Culture and Education on Wednesday, 1 October (18:00-21:00). Follow the hearing live on the European Parliament's website.
Destination moon - commencing countdown, engines on! If you have ever wondered what it's like to be a space astronaut or a forensic scientist helping to crack a murder mystery, then don't miss the annual European Researchers' Night on 26 September.
The Opening up Education initiative and the Open Education Europa portal look back on a successful first year. To mark the anniversary a new MOOCs Scoreboard and other web features have been released to give better access to Open Educational Resources and innovative ways of teaching and learning.
What is the plus in Erasmus+? On Wednesday 24 September, 14.00-15.00 CET, experts on the EU program for education, training, youth and sport participate in a chat on the Facebook page of Erasmus+.
Young people who study or train abroad not only gain knowledge in specific disciplines, but also strengthen key transversal skills which are highly valued by employers.
The European Commission welcomes the launch today of Education at a Glance 2014, the annual report by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on the state of play and challenges faced by national education systems.
The European Commission welcomed the launch of Education at a Glance 2014, the annual report by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on the state of play and challenges faced by national education systems.
Androulla Vassiliou, European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth, will pay an official visit to Mongolia from 7 to 9 September.
The European Union and China plan to work more closely together in education, culture and youth policy as well as new areas including gender equality and efforts to address violence against women.
Xavier Prats Monné is the new Director-General of DG Education and Culture as of 1 August 2014.
European Commissioner Androulla Vassiliou has written a letter to EU Education Ministers urging them to ensure that children have the opportunity to develop basic computer coding skills in school.
Le ultime statistiche relative a Erasmus pubblicate oggi dalla Commissione europea indicano che circa 270 000 studenti, una nuova cifra da record, hanno beneficiato di borse unionali per studiare o ricevere una formazione all'estero nel 2012-2013.
On 04/07/2014 the European Commission launched an open call for tenders to establish a network of experts on the social dimension of education and training.
The new European Tertiary Education Register (ETER) published its first results on 02/07/2014, providing detailed and comparable data on 2,250 higher education institutions across 36 countries (including all European Union member states), and a total of 16 million students.
The report provides a framework for understanding the structure of funding systems and financial flows through various administrative levels. It covers 27 of the 28 Member States, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Turkey. An abridged, "Highlights" version of the document is also available.
A new report published by the European Commission reveals that only eight European countries guarantee a legal right to early childhood education and care (ECEC) soon after a child's birth, and that the quality of ECEC may leave up to a quarter of children under six at risk of poverty or social exclusion.
On 26-27 June 2014, the ET2020 Working Group on VET met at the 'Campus des Métiers et de l'Entreprise' outside Paris to study and discuss ways to support small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to engage in apprenticeships. Building on the discussions, a policy guidance framework will be developed.
Commission calls for action as survey reveals more than 80% of teachers in the EU feel undervalued
Today in Lisbon, the President of the European Commission, José Manuel Barroso, joins the Prime Minister of Portugal, Pedro Passos Coelho, the Deputy Prime Minister of Portugal, Paulo Portas, the Nestlé Europe CEO Laurent Freixe and Nestlé’s business partners to sign up to the European Commission’s European Alliance for Apprenticeships.
Do changes in cost-sharing have an impact on the behaviour of students and higher education institutions? This report(1.56 Mb)
analyses the effects of different models of cost-sharing in higher education (the split between public and private contributions to higher education funding) on students and higher education institutions.
A new Eurobarometer survey on the 'European Area of Skills and Qualifications' (Special Eurobarometer 417 ) shows also that around a quarter (23%) of EU citizens feel that their education or training has not provided them with the skills to find a job in line with their qualifications.
Despite a long history, cooperation activities between businesses and universities in the field of education have a relatively low profile. However, there are signs that there is now an increasing recognition of the value to be gained from such collaborations.
A new Cedefop project, which will look into the apprenticeship systems of Lithuania and Malta, has been launched.
Not enough countries are using the information they collect on higher education to improve their universities and the opportunities they offer for students. This is shown in a Eurydice report published today.
European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, cedefop, press release on apprenticeships.
U-Multirank, launched today, is a new tool to compare universities.
At a time when several countries are faced with shortages of qualified teachers, a new study undertaken on behalf of the European Commission looks at what Member States could do to attract the best people into the profession.
EPALE, the Electronic Platform for Adult Learning in Europe, a new initiative funded by the European Commission is the latest development in the EU’s long-term commitment to promoting high quality adult learning in Europe.
A new study carried out for the European Commission shows success features of second chance schemes that could inspire mainstream education and training.
The Online Education and Training Monitor now includes a visualisation tool.
A call for proposals "KA3 - Support for Policy Reform/National Authorities for Apprenticeships" EACEA/13/2014 is open under the Erasmus+ programme.
Under the new Erasmus+ programme, the EU will offer Ukrainians more opportunities to benefit from grants for student mobility, academic cooperation, and youth exchanges.
For a new episode of “Generation Y”, Euronews went to Barcelona to meet Lucas and Mar, who both decided to go back into education after having dropped out earlier, to obtain a qualification that gives them better prospects in life.
A two day conference held in Athens, Greece outlined the opportunities for cooperation with the Western Balkans under Erasmus+, the EU's new education, training, youth and sport programme.
Member States must shift from a box-ticking approach and upgrade their quality systems if they want to improve the performance of universities and vocational colleges, according to two reports published by the European Commission today on quality assurance in higher education and vocational training.
The Open Education Challenge is about innovation in education. It is a new Europe-wide initiative that will give educational practitioners and innovators passionate about education a new opportunity to create, develop, strengthen and fund a startup in Europe.
The best public support systems for promoting and giving advice to higher education students about opportunities to study or train abroad are in Germany, Belgium, Spain, France and Italy, according to the first EU 'Mobility Scoreboard'.
Today, the Eurydice Network published a new report: Education and Training in Europe 2020 - Responses from the EU Member States.
Today the European Commission launched a consultation on the European Area of Skills and Qualifications, which will run until 15 April 2014.
Organisations wishing to bid for funding in 2014 through Erasmus+, the European Union's new programme for education, training, youth and sport, can start to prepare their grant applications from today.
The list of higher education institutions awarded with the Erasmus Charter for Higher Education has been published!
The European Commission welcomes the Council's adoption today of Erasmus+, the EU's new programme for education, training, youth and sport, with a budget of €14.7 billion over the next seven years - 40% higher than current levels.
Erasmus+, the new EU programme for education, training, youth and sport, due to begin in January, was approved today by the European Parliament.
Today, the European Commission, together with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), is launching a new online self-assessment tool for universities to measure how entrepreneurial they are.
Androulla Vassiliou, European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth, and Namsoo Seo, Minister of Education of the Republic of Korea, today signed an agreement to strengthen higher education partnerships between the European Union and Korea.
Sixteen Member States decreased their spending on education between 2008 and 2011, with six showing further significant budget decreases in 2012, according to the latest Education and Training Monitor released today by the European Commission.
Primary school in the Netherlands and Ireland starts at the age of 4 and finishes when children are 12 years old. Greece recently introduced changes in its secondary and post-secondary education structure. How is education currently organised in your country? How does one structure compare to another?
Erasmus+, the EU’s new programme for education, training, sport and youth, will provide more opportunities for students and staff in Eastern Partnership countries to study or train in the European Union – and vice versa.
On 18 October, the European Alliance for Apprenticeships gathered in Brussels to discuss ways to improve and expand high quality apprenticeships across Europe.
Two annually updated Eurydice reports will give you clear and simple answers to these questions in addition to providing you with a comparable, European-wide overview.
Androulla Vassiliou, the European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth, will highlight the increased European Union support which will be available from January under the new Erasmus+ programme when she visits the London Language Show on 18 October.
Too many EU students from under-represented groups leave higher education before completing their degrees, according to a Commission report published 17 October 2013. Students coming from poor socio-economic backgrounds are by far the most likely to drop out of higher education.
Androulla Vassiliou, European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth, will highlight the increased European Union support which will be available from January under the new Erasmus+ programme when she opens the 2013 European Education, Training and Youth Forum in Brussels tomorrow (17 October).
One in five adults in Europe have low literacy and numeracy skills, and even a university degree in the same subject is no guarantee of the same level of skills in different countries, according to the first comprehensive international Survey of Adult Skills published today by the OECD and European Commission.
More than 60% of nine year olds in the EU are in schools which are still not digitally equipped. The European Commission today unveils 'Opening up Education', an action plan to tackle this and other digital problems which are hampering schools and universities from delivering high quality education and the digital skills which 90% of jobs will require by 2020.
Through the Entrepreneurship 2020 Action Plan and the Rethinking Education Communication, the European Commission has emphasised the need to embed entrepreneurial learning in all sectors of education, and the central role played by teachers.
The Commission has proposed today adjustments to its proposal for the 2014 EU budget. The changes mainly reflect the political agreement reached on the Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) 2014-2020 between the leaders of the European Parliament, Council and Commission on 27-28 June.
Publication of the template for inter-institutional agreements between higher education institutions.
A new study shows that cross-border higher education affects only a very small minority of students within the EU, but it is on an upward curve.
The international higher education landscape is changing dramatically in shape and size, with greater competition from countries such as China and India. This calls for an overhaul in the way Europe's 4 000 universities operate - not only internationally, but also in how they deliver education to European students in their home countries.
Figures released today reveal that more than 3 million students have benefitted from EU Erasmus grants since the exchange scheme's launch in 1987.
The European Alliance for Apprenticeships is launched today by Commissioners Androulla Vassiliou (Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth) and László Andor (Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion) at the 2013 WorldSkills competition in Leipzig, Germany.
Vladslo is a small Belgian village, near Diksmuide, famous for his WWI German cemetery, the resting place of over twenty five thousand soldiers. Many visitors come to admire one of the most touching sculptures of all time that is located inside, the Grieving Parents, by Käthe Kollwitz.
On 17-18 June in Brussels, 200 stakeholders came together at the European Commission conference "We Mean Business – Trainees on the Move" to share experience on traineeships abroad for vocational training and higher education students.
The European Commission today welcomed the launch of Education at a Glance 2013, an annual report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) which analyses the education systems of the 34 OECD member countries, including 21 EU Member States, as well as Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia, Saudi Arabia and South Africa.
More students from Southern Mediterranean countries will benefit from the EU's new programme for education training and youth: this was the message from European Commissioner Androulla Vassiliou at a university 'summit' in Nicosia today.
The EU high-level group on modernisation of higher education publishes its first report today on improving the quality of teaching and learning in universities.
In the EU27, two thirds (66%) of all enterprises with ten or more employees provided vocational training to their staff in 2010, compared with 60% in 2005.
Cross-policy synergies are more effective in preventing or reducing the impact of multiple and cumulative disadvantage on people's educational experiences and outcomes, says a report published today by the European Commission.
After Serbia in December 2011, and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia in May 2012, on 24 May 2013 Montenegro signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) establishing its full participation, for the budget year 2013, in all the actions of the Lifelong Learning Programme which are not managed by National Agencies (except eTwinning).
The European Commission will confirm today its commitment to making education more equal and of a higher quality in the Development agenda beyond 2015 through continued financial support, during a High level event in Brussels.
Is the European Union's youth policy up to the job in today's difficult economic and social climate? Can the European Union do more to help sports organisations tackle doping? Will the proposed EU-US Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership affect the EU's commitment to cultural diversity?
More than eight in ten people involved in an EU-funded initiative aimed at encouraging innovative teaching methods and improved learning materials for children, say the scheme had a positive and lasting impact on them.
The European Commission's new initiatives to support the modernisation of education and training will be discussed at the Council of Europe Standing Conference of Ministers of Education in Helsinki, Finland, tomorrow (26 April).
Induction programmes designed to offer personalised support and advice for new teachers are now mandatory in 15 EU Member States (Austria, Cyprus, Estonia, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden and the UK) as well as in Croatia and Turkey, according to a European Commission report about the conditions of teachers and school leaders in 32 countries.
Partners in 11 countries have joined forces to launch the first pan-European 'MOOCs' (Massive Open Online Courses) initiative, with the support of the European Commission.
Students and teachers in Europe are keen to "go digital", computer numbers have doubled since 2006 and most schools are now "connected", but use of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) and digital skill levels are very uneven.
Androulla Vassiliou, Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth, will today present the Commission's forthcoming strategy for the internationalisation of higher education at the European University Association annual conference in Ghent, Belgium.
Thirty young leaders from the worlds of business, academia and research shared their inspiring ideas with policy-makers and business executives at the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) Foundation's Annual Innovation Forum in Brussels today.
The EU needs to attract talented non-EU students and researchers who can contribute to our growth and competitiveness with their knowledge and skills.
Investment in education fell in eight out of 25 Member States assessed as part of a European Commission study on the impact of the crisis on education budgets since 2010.
European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth Androulla Vassiliou will urge French higher education institutions to participate in U-Multirank, the new EU-backed university ranking, when she visits Paris on 18-19 March.
The best school twinning projects of the year will be honoured at the 2013 eTwinning Awards in Lisbon today.
European Commissioner for Education and Culture Androulla Vassiliou met the Oscar-winning actor Jeremy Irons to discuss his recent film documentary, Trashed, which highlights the huge impact of global waste on the environment and human health.
Commission President José Manuel Barroso today called on Europe's digital businesses, governments, training and education sectors to join a Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs to address up to 900 000 job vacancies expected to exist in Europe in Information and Communication technologies (ICT) by 2015.
The European Commission’s 'eTwinning' network, which has encouraged 100 000 schools in 33 European countries to talk to each other via the internet, will be extended from today to schools in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine.
The fight against youth unemployment, currently nearly 24% in the European Union, will be at the forefront of discussion at the Council for Education, Youth, Culture and Sport taking place in Brussels on 15 February.
Statement by Androulla Vassiliou, European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth, at the Education, Youth, Culture and Sport Council.
The European Commission has just published an independent study on the impact of the EU's eTwinning scheme.
On 8 February, the heads of state and government of all the EU member states (European Council) reached an agreement on the EU's long-term budget.
Companies increasingly must play an active role in training young people and helping them obtain the right skills needed on the labour market.
The number of young people not in education, employment or training is frightening (14 million Europeans aged 15-29).
The European Commission and UNESCO have called for joint action to reduce the number of young people and adults lacking basic reading and writing skills, both in Europe and world-wide, at a meeting in the European Parliament on 22 January.
Mediators from across Europe will discuss Roma peoples' integration into society through better communication with the non-Roma people at the ROMED Congress of Mediators in Brussels 17-18 January.
The public and private sectors need to work much closer together in the fight against youth unemployment and invest more in equipping young people with the skills and training they need.
This educational package of two DVDs - available for free and in the 22 languages on EU-Bookshop, is designed to be a resource for teachers of pupils in the 11-15 and 15-18 age groups.
Council Declaration on the European Alliance for Apprenticeships, 15 October 2013.
The European Alliance for Apprenticeships was launched on 2 July 2013 by Commissioners Androulla Vassiliou (Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth) and László Andor (Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion) at the 2013 WorldSkills competition in Leipzig, Germany.
The Peer Review explored two measures specifically designed to support the integration of disadvantaged young people into the German ‘dual training’ system (apprenticeship system) with a view to promoting smooth school to work transitions.
A Learning Exchange was held in Berlin on 5-6 September 2013. It was attended by a variety of stakeholders connected to or interested in the German dual system, from the following countries: Germany, Ireland, Italy, Spain and Portugal.