The 2013/14 schematic diagrams on the 'Structure of the European education systems' will give you easy answers to these questions. The diagrams show you what mainstream schooling looks like in 33 European countries and how different levels of education, from pre-primary to tertiary, are broken down. The diagrams also indicate the general ages of students and the programme duration for each level. Names of national institutions and study programmes are listed in the language of each country. The Eurydice publication covers 39 education systems in the 28 EU Member States, the EFTA countries (Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) as well as the candidate countries (Iceland and Turkey).
If you want more detailed information: Eurypedia is a unique website giving the most comprehensive and accurate picture of education systems and reforms in Europe.