One in five adults in Europe have low literacy and numeracy skills, and even a university degree in the same subject is no guarantee of the same level of skills in different countries, according to the first comprehensive international Survey of Adult Skills published today by the OECD and European Commission.
The survey, also known as the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), was launched by Androulla Vassiliou, European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth, and Ángel Gurría, Secretary General of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). "The Survey of Adult Skills points to weaknesses in our education and training systems that must be addressed if we are to equip people with the high-level skills they need to succeed in life. It's not acceptable that that one fifth of our population has only low levels of skills. We have to fix this problem. There are no short-cuts. At EU and national level, we have to invest more efficiently in better education and better training."
The Survey's key findings:
- 20% of the EU working age population has low literacy and numeracy skills: the figure is higher among the unemployed who are likely to be caught in a 'low-skills trap' because they do little or no adult learning;
- 25% of adults lack the digital skills needed to effectively use ICT (addressing this is one of the objectives of the Commission's new Opening up Education initiative);
- There are striking differences between countries in skills provided through formal education: recent school leavers with an upper secondary qualification in some Member States have similar or better skills than higher education graduates in others;
- Lifelong learning policies must aim at sustaining skills over time given the gaps between generations revealed by the survey and the significant economic and social benefits of higher skills.
Differences between Member States
The evidence from the data collected by the OECD shows significant differences between Member States. Examples are given below:
- One adult in five has low literacy or numeracy skills in Ireland, France, Poland and the UK. This rises to almost one adult in three in Spain and Italy.
- More than 40% of the adult population in the Netherlands, Finland and Sweden have high problem solving skills in ICT environments, while almost one in five adults have no computer experience in Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Poland and Slovakia.
- Literacy scores from recent upper secondary school graduates in the Netherlands and Finland are close to or better than those of higher education graduates in Ireland, Spain, Italy, Cyprus and the UK (England/Northern Ireland).
- In Belgium (Flanders), Spain, France and Finland, the level of proficiency in literacy and numeracy among 25-34 year olds is significantly better than the generation aged 55-65.
The survey findings and their implications for education and training will be discussed with Member States to help identify actions to remedy weaknesses. The new Erasmus+ programme for education, training and youth will support projects aimed at developing and upgrading adult skills. The survey can also help Member States define priorities to finance from the 2014-2020 European Social Fund, which is a key source of investment in skills and training and can also improve access to training for vulnerable groups.