Navigation path


Examples for grade conversion[5]:

1 Grade conversion based on two grade distribution tables from two reference groups belonging to different national grading systems:

Reference group A in Italy (Passing grades ranging from 18 to 30 cum laude)
Reference group/Field of study
: ISCED Code 023 Languages

Reference group B in France (Passing grades ranging from 10 to 20)
Reference group/Field of study
: ISCED Code 023 Languages

In this case, the percentage ranges of the grades overlap. The receiving institution should have decided in advance whether they will take the minimum, average or maximum comparable grade of overlapping ranges. Therefore, if the University of Rome had decided in advance that they would use the minimum or the average, the student's grade would be 27 and if they had decided that they would use the maximum, the student's grade would be 28.

2 Grade conversion based on two grade distribution tables from two reference groups belonging to different national grading systems:

Institution FHV in Austria[6] (Passing grades ranging from 1 to 4)

Reference group/Field of study: ISCED Code 071 Engineering and engineering trades

Institution University of Ghent in Belgium (Passing grades ranging from 10 to 20)

Reference group/Field of study: ISCED Code 071 Engineering and engineering trades

In this example a grade 2 (Good) from the institution in Austria would be transferred into a grade 13 in the institution in Belgium. A grade 11 from the institution in Belgium would be transferred into a grade 3 (Satisfactory) in Austria. In this case both institutions have decided to use the average in case of overlapping percentage ranges.

5. Please refer to the ECTS Guide website for further examples added.

6. University of Applied Sciences Vorarlberg (Fachhochschule Vorarlberg - FHV)

Examples for Programme Profiles and formulations of programme learning outcomes

The examples below show different ways of describing programme profiles and/or single course units. These are not absolute models to be followed, but examples of good practice, based on the recommendations of the ECTS Guide.


Description of the first cycle degree programme in Computer Engineering and learning outcomes for the course unit Physics I

Profile of the degree programme

The Bachelor's degree programme in Computer Engineering is designed to prepare students with a sound cultural background based on proficiency in different engineering areas and strong computer science expertise. Courses are intended to provide participants with the skills needed to design, install and maintain computer systems and computer networks, software applications, industrial automation systems, management information systems, integrated processing and control systems. The Computer Engineering graduate is mainly an Engineer as well as a good IT Professional.

Key learning outcomes

Graduates of the first cycle degree programme in Computer Engineering will be able to: design, install and maintain computer systems and computer networks, software applications, industrial automation systems, management information systems, integrated processing and control systems.

Occupational Profile/s of Graduates

Graduates of this degree are qualified to work inside information technology companies specialised in the computer hardware and software production and inside industrial automation industries as well as inside all kind of enterprises using information systems and computer networks for internal production and management processes. They will also be able work as freelancers or independent contractors mainly for the development of digital control systems for specific applications. Moreover, the Programme will provide the students with the necessary requirements for academic advancement in the computer engineering and automation field.

Single course unit: Physics I

Learning outcomes

The student who successfully completes the course will have the ability to master the basic concepts of physics both in Newtonian mechanics and in classical electromagnetism. He/she will be able to demonstrate a solid knowledge of the conservation laws and of the Maxwell equations whose application will allow him/her to solve basic problems of dynamics in mechanical systems and of fields configuration in problems of electromagnetism.

Assessment methods and criteria

Assessment methods

  • Final written exam
  • Final oral exam

The written exam is considered a threshold to access the final oral exam. A score of 15 points/30 is required to pass the written exam. Once the threshold is passed, the weight of the oral exam on the final score is about 70%.

Assessment criteria

The student will be assessed on his/her demonstrated ability to understand the main contents of the course and to adapt them to specific cases to solve problems. In the written exam (3 hours, 2 problems), the student must demonstrate his/her capability to deploy the basic concepts to find correct answers to a typical series of three questions per problem. During the oral exam (1/2h) the student must demonstrate the ability to put into practice and to execute, with critical awareness, the most important physics laws discussed in the course.

Description of the first cycle degree programme in History and learning outcomes for the course unit Modern History

Profile of the degree programme

The degree programme in History has the objective of preparing student for the practice of historical research, thanks to a solid knowledge of the great historiographical themes and debates and the acquisition of methodologies of the treatment and interpretation of the sources, and the use of a clear and rigorous language as appropriate to historiographical discourse. The learning experience is organised through cycles of lectures, seminars, workshops and laboratories. Alongside these activities, the students are able to attend conferences, workshops and meetings in order to have contact with scientific debate at national and international level. The degree programme has four tracks: Ancient History, Medieval History, Modern History and Contemporary History.

Key learning outcomes

Graduates of the first cycle degree programme in History will be able to demonstrate a critical understanding of the relationship between the present and the past; knowledge of and an ability to use the basic techniques of historical research; the ability to identify the relevant scientific literature, bibliography and sources to address a historiographical problem; the ability to communicate research results in various ways according to the target audience; a knowledge of and ability to use the main tools of other social and humanistic sciences, as well as history; a solid knowledge of the general lines of human history; specialised knowledge of one broad period of history (Ancient, Medieval, Modern/Contemporary); an ability to communicate in at least one language of the EU, in addition to Italian; as well as basic ICT competences for communicating, retrieving and elaborating on historiographical texts and data.

Occupational Profile/s of Graduates

Those holding the first cycle award (Laurea) in History are able to carry out various activities for public and private organisations, with responsibilities relating to coordinating and executing historical research, to preserving and valorising the cultural patrimony, especially as regards archives, libraries and material culture; to publishing, journalism and in the various contexts in which historical culture and its popularisation are useful, including public administration and international  cultural relations. Graduates can enter programmes for the preparation of teachers in the areas of History and Literature; they can compete for positions in the public sector linked to teaching, archive management, libraries and museums, parliamentary documentation and information services, and diplomatic careers.

Single course unit: Modern History

Learning outcomes

The student who completes the course successfully will be able to demonstrate a solid knowledge of the main processes and events in European and world history from the age of the geographic explorations to the Napoleonic period.

Furthermore he or she will be able to demonstrate up-to-date and specific knowledge of the Spanish Empire in a Mediterranean and Atlantic context, and of the historiographical problems relating to it; and will be able to read and analyse texts and documents from the period.

Assessment methods and criteria

Assessment methods

  •  Final oral exam
  •  Periodic written tests

Students who attend the lectures and participate in the discussions and analyses of documents may take periodic written exams, normally consisting of written answers in essay form to questions relating to the course material, which will be evaluated and taken into account in the final oral examination. Those who are unable to attend are evaluated only in the final oral examination.

Assessment criteria

The timing and the form of the periodic written exams for those who attend are discussed with the students during the lectures. The final oral examination aims to ascertain that the student is able to demonstrate knowledge of the course material and to discuss the chosen monographs critically and comprehensively.

Description of the first cyle degree programme Business Administration

Title of the programme:

Business Administration

Level of programme:

Professional Bachelor’s degree programme

Qualification awarded:

Enterprise and Establishment Manager

Level of qualification:

On successful graduation from the programme, the graduate obtains a Professional Bachelor’s Diploma and the qualification: ‘Enterprise and Establishment Manager’ which corresponds to the 5th professional qualification level and it corresponds to the level 6 of the Latvian Qualifications Framework (LQF) and European Qualifications Framework level 6.

Specific admission requirements:

Enrolment in the study programme, is organised according to the Enrolment Regulations of the School, which are endorsed by the Senate for each coming academic year.

Specific arrangements for recognition of prior learning:

For recognition of non-formal and informal learning there is a legal framework to promote and implement lifelong learning. On 10 January 2012, the Cabinet of Ministers issued ‘Rules of Procedure for Recognition of Learning outcomes in Prior Learning or professional experience’, Number 36. The procedural documents have been developed by the School and endorsed by the Senate. Lifelong learning activities have been designed to facilitate LLL. Programmes are designed with learning outcomes which ensures transparency and comparability. ECTS is applied to lifelong learning. General arrangements for the recognition of non-formal and informal learning are explained in the Rules of Procedure for the Recognition of Prior Learning which were endorsed by the Senate in 2012. The document explains the process, the criteria and the recognition.

Qualification requirements and regulations:

In order to obtain the professional Bachelor’s degree and qualification, the student has to fulfil the following programme requirements:

  • Acquire general and course specific course learning outcomes
  • Acquire optional course learning outcomes
  • Follow a company placement
  • Prepare and defend the Bachelor’s paper

Profile of the programme:

The programme equips students with the knowledge, skills and abilities to become competent managers – in changing socio-economic conditions. Students learn to apply their knowledge by managing processes, solving problems, and making decisions. The awarded qualification acknowledges that graduates are able to determine and formulate enterprise performance principles; to plan and manage work according to the business objectives; and to work with people and be ready to adapt in rapidly changing management environments. This is in accordance with the category 5 professional qualification level of the professional standard ‘Enterprise and Institutional Manager’ and corresponds to level 6 of both the Latvian Qualifications Framework (LQF) and the European Qualification Framework. The students acquire 240 ECTS (160 Latvian credits) in an international study environment. The students are eligible to study under Erasmus+ exchange programme. They also have the opportunity to study with international academic staff from partner universities. Organisation and management of internships is part of the programme.

Key learning outcomes:

In the programme, students will acquire the ability to comprehend economic development regularities and the processes of the national economy. They will learn to explain them, take part in substantive discussions and make decisions according to changing circumstances.

They will be able to apply the knowledge gained in entrepreneurship management according to operational and strategic aims. They will learn to follow the implementation process, and to make decisions and adjustments in order to improve operational and strategic activities.

Students should be able to carry out professional activity, formulate and analyse information and problems and find solutions in their profession, using a scientific approach.

Moreover, they will understand how to act ethically and to take responsibility for the impact of their professional conduct upon the environment and society.

Finally, students will feel comfortable assuming responsibility in a team setting while delegating and coordinating tasks. This includes planning and organising their work efficiently and dealing with conflict situations.

Occupational profiles of graduates with examples:

Graduates work in companies and institutions, both public and private, they work in small to medium sized companies as managers/ heads of departments.

Access to further studies:

The graduates of Professional Bachelor’s degree programme are eligible for further studies at Master degree programmes.

Single course unit: Consumer Behaviour in Global Markets

Learning outcomes:

  • The student is able to explain and apply the key terms, definitions and concepts relating to consumer behaviour.
  • The student can analyse consumer behaviour trends and apply them in the given consumer market.
  • The student is able to describe factors which influence the consumer’s decision about purchasing a product.
  • The student is able to assess the efficiency of different advertisements and other promotional activities as well as their impact on consumer behaviour.

Description of the second cycle degree programme in “Advanced Spectroscopy in Chemistry” and learning outcomes for the course unit “Mass Spectroscopy”

Profile of the degree programme:

The Master’s programme prepares students to become experts and develop international skills that prepare them for doctoral studies, and/or professional industrial careers in chemical analysis and characterisation of the structure of materials. A mobility scheme ensures that, in addition to high specialisation and access to state-of-the-art technologies, students will follow a common core curriculum of studies in different higher education institutions throughout Europe.

Key learning outcomes:

Students will acquire basic skills in:

  • chemical analysis
  • structural characterisation
  • imaging and molecular modelling
  • characterising fast reactions
  • quality control
  • materials

Students will acquire related skills in:

  • conducting research projects
  • decision-making in process management
  • foreign languages (presenting a scientific project in English, both orally and in writing)
  • conducting projects in an international and multicultural context
  • geographical mobility

Single course unit: Advanced Spectroscopy in Chemistry

Unit title: Mass Spectroscopy (Prof. XY).

Unit code: ASC 01 –LI semester I.

ECTS credits: 5 credits

Prerequisites: Bachelor in chemistry or equivalent

Course description:

The course covers aspects of molecular mass spectrometry including the most recent developments in instrumental design, techniques and understanding of mass spectral processes. The methods available for the introduction of analytical samples are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of these methods considered. The different types of mass analysers, their working principles and performances are discussed. Current software tools for data-dependent analysis and on-line techniques are described. Examples are presented of the application of mass spectrometric techniques in different areas of chemistry.


The aims of this unit are:

  • To build upon and extend the theoretical and instrumental concepts introduced during the Bachelor degree programme.
  • To develop the competence and confidence of the students in mass spectrometry.
  • To highlight modern advances in instrumentation and techniques within mass spectrometry.
  • To identify appropriate instrumentation for particular applications.

Learning outcomes:

After completing this unit the student should be able to:

  • Discuss in a comprehensive way the methods available for the introduction of samples to a mass spectrometer.
  • Identify methods for ionisation and their advantages and disadvantages.
  • Review critically the available types of mass analysers.
  • Discuss the use of software in obtaining and analysing mass spectral data.
  • Identify the most suitable instrumentation for specific applications and describe the extent and limitations of the data obtained.
  • Interpret mass spectral data and present the conclusions drawn in written and oral form.
  • Explain to non-specialists how mass spectrometry can be expected to provide valuable information in different areas of chemistry and related disciplines.

Teaching and learning activities:

Lectures and colloquia:  40 hours

Student centred learning:  90 hours

Total student effort: 130 hours

Assessment criteria:

Examination on completion of teaching period: written or oral (weighting 100%).


Mass Spectrometry, Principles and Applications, E. de Hoffmann and V. Stroobant, Wiley, Chichester, 2001.

Sample learning outcomes breakdown


Learning outcomes breakdown for the second cycle degree programme (Advanced Master) Marketing Analysis

Learning outcome 1: Competence in marketing analysis

LO 1.1 Developing complex marketing decision models based on customer relationship management theories.

LO 1.2 Integrating marketing decision systems in a real-life company setting.

LO 1.3 Independently and critically analysing business relevant issues using data mining and informatics.

LO 1.4 Creatively applying state-of-the-art data mining techniques on business relevant issues.

LO 1.5 Creatively applying state-of-the-art advanced market research methods on business relevant issues.

Learning outcome 2: Research competence

LO 2.1 Selecting and validating data mining techniques and statistical techniques to optimally model complex marketing problems.

LO 2.2 Translating complex marketing problems into a scientific research question.

LO 2.3 Applying a literature study in international, peer-reviewed journals to complex marketing problems.

LO 2.4 Validating the results of own research with scientific marketing literature.

LO 2.5 Leveraging the structure of complex data.

Learning outcome 3: Intellectual competence

LO 3.1 Mastering different programming languages and software tools as a means to create complex marketing decision models.

LO 3.2 Continuously expanding one’s own methodological competencies in an interactive manner.

LO 3.3  Independently drawing correct conclusions for complex marketing problems.

LO 3.4 Integrating competing views of different stakeholders into a single marketing solution.

Learning outcome 4: Competence in collaborating and communicating

LO 4.1 Scientifically correct reporting the relevant results of own marketing research.

LO 4.2 Executing a real-life business project in an international and interdisciplinary team with different levels of experience.

LO 4.3 Producing a professionally written report on complex marketing issues and their solutions.

LO 4.4 Performing a professional oral report on complex marketing issues and their solutions.

LO 4.5 Communicating marketing solutions to professionals and laymen in English.

LO 4.6 Making a significant individual contribution to a real-life business project.

Learning outcome 5: Societal competence

LO 5.1 Integrating consequences of new developments in data collection.

LO 5.2 Adjusting decision models to constraints and business objectives.