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ECFIN Publications about Labour markets

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From tertiary education to work in Italy: a difficult transition

From tertiary education to work in Italy: a difficult transition

June 2015

Author(s): Marco Montanari, Dino Pinelli, Roberta Torre                 

The country focus analyses difficult transition from tertiary education to work in Italy.

Topics: Structural policies, growth and development ; Labour markets

Series: Country Focus

 
Securing Poland’s economic success II: labour market and product specialisation – is there a link?

Securing Poland’s economic success II: labour market and product specialisation – is there a link?

April 2015

Author(s): Piotr Bogumil 

This country focus analyses the interlinkages between labour market institutions and product specialisation in Poland.

Topics: Structural policies, growth and development ; Labour markets ; EU Member State economies

Series: Country Focus

 
Emigration of the less-skilled: the role of incentives to work in Estonia

Emigration of the less-skilled: the role of incentives to work in Estonia

March 2015

Author(s): Jorge Durán, Baudouin Lamine, Erki Lõhmuste, Anneleen Vandeplas

Every year thousands of Estonians, most of them young with low or medium-level skills, leave Estonia to find better paid work abroad. Given Estonia’s small population and low birth rate, this significant loss of workers exacerbates the challenges posed by the ageing of its population. This paper evaluates policy options to help combat this trend by making local jobs more attractive.

Topics: Public finances ; Labour markets ; Economic crisis

Series: Country Focus

 
545 - The fiscal effects of work-related tax expenditures in Europe - Salvador Barrios, Serena Fatica, Diego Martinez, Gilles Mourre

545 - The fiscal effects of work-related tax expenditures in Europe - Salvador Barrios, Serena Fatica, Diego Martinez, Gilles Mourre

February 2015

Author(s): Salvador Barrios, Serena Fatica, Diego Martinez, Gilles Mourre

The paper assesses the fiscal impacts of marginal reforms to work-related tax expenditures in five EU countries.

Categories: Public finances Structural policies, growth and development; Labour markets 

Series: Economic Papers

 
544 - Precarious and less well-paid? Wage differences between permanent and fixed-term contracts across the EU countries - António Dias da Silva . Alessandro Turrini

544 - Precarious and less well-paid? Wage differences between permanent and fixed-term contracts across the EU countries - António Dias da Silva . Alessandro Turrini

February 2015

Author(s): António Dias da Silva and Alessandro Turrini

This paper analyses the main features of the wage differences between permanent and fixed-term workers and what sources are driving these differences, including the role of labour market institutions.

Categories: EU Member State economies; Labour markets

Series: Economic Papers

 
542 - Fiscal Devaluation: Efficiency and Equity - Matthias Burgert, Werner Roeger

542 - Fiscal Devaluation: Efficiency and Equity - Matthias Burgert, Werner Roeger

December 2014

This paper presents a quantitative model-based assessment of the potential impact of structural reforms in the EU Member States. By comparing structural indicators of labour and product markets, a gap is defined for each indicator relative to the 3 best performers. Scenarios are then simulated in which half the gap vis-à-vis best performance is closed, to avoid setting unrealistic and/or unattainable targets.

Categories: Structural policies, growth and development; Labour markets; Public finances

Series: Economic Papers

 
541 - The potential growth impact of structural reforms in the EU. A benchmarking exercise - Janos Varga, Jan in 't Veld

541 - The potential growth impact of structural reforms in the EU. A benchmarking exercise - Janos Varga, Jan in 't Veld

December 2014

This paper presents a quantitative model-based assessment of the potential impact of structural reforms in the EU Member States. By comparing structural indicators of labour and product markets, a gap is defined for each indicator relative to the 3 best performers. Scenarios are then simulated in which half the gap vis-à-vis best performance is closed, to avoid setting unrealistic and/or unattainable targets.

Categories: Structural policies, growth and development; Labour markets; Product markets

Series: Economic Papers

 
539 - Labour mobility and labour market adjustment in the EU - Alfonso Arpaia, Aron Kiss, Balazs Palvolgyi, Alessandro Turrini

539 - Labour mobility and labour market adjustment in the EU - Alfonso Arpaia, Aron Kiss, Balazs Palvolgyi, Alessandro Turrini

December 2014

This paper assesses the role of labour mobility in the EU as an adjustment mechanism. It presents stylised facts on mobility and migration at national and sub-national level, analyses the determinants of mobility flows by means of gravity equations, and studies the dynamic response of mobility to asymmetric demand shocks by means of vector auto regression (VAR) analysis in the vein of Blanchard and Katz (1992).

Categories: EU Member State economies ; Labour markets; The euro

Series: Economic Papers

 
10 - Wage adjustment in Spain: slow, inefficient and unfair?

10 - Wage adjustment in Spain: slow, inefficient and unfair?

November 2014

Our analysis of microeconomic data between 2008 and 2013 suggests that real aggregate wages in Spain fell by about 4.5% over the period 2008-2013. However, this aggregate figure masks a greater underlying reduction in individual wages, which occurred at the same time as changes in the composition of the employed population: as massive labour shedding was taking place, more tenured, more educated, and more qualified workers tended to be relatively less affected.

Categories: Economic crisis; Labour markets; Structural policies, growth and development

Series: Country Focus

 
522 - A Decade of Labour Market Reforms in the EU: Insights from the LABREF database - Alessandro Turrini, Gabor Koltay, Fabiana Pierini, Clarisse Goffard and Aron Kiss

522 - A Decade of Labour Market Reforms in the EU: Insights from the LABREF database - Alessandro Turrini, Gabor Koltay, Fabiana Pierini, Clarisse Goffard and Aron Kiss

July 2014

This paper analyses determinants and impact of labour market reforms in the European Union over the period of 2000-2011. The source of information on reforms is the LABREF database developed in DG ECFIN of the European Commission in cooperation with the Economic Policy Committee of the ECOFIN Council. The database collects information on measures adopted by EU Member States. Despite limitations of count data on reform events, the evidence permits a number of interesting insights.

Categories : EU Member State economies; Labour markets; Structural policies, growth and development

Series: Economic Papers

 
7 - The impact of the Spanish labour market reform on the on-the-job search rate

7 - The impact of the Spanish labour market reform on the on-the-job search rate

June 2014

This Country Focus finds that newly introduced reform of severance payment positively affects the search behaviour of employees hired under an open contract in Spain.

Categories : Structural policies, growth and development; Labour markets
Series : Country Focus

 

 
519 - International Capital Flows and the Boom-Bust Cycle in Spain - Jan in ‘t Veld, Robert Kollmann, Beatrice Pataracchia, Marco Ratto, Werner Roeger

519 - International Capital Flows and the Boom-Bust Cycle in Spain - Jan in ‘t Veld, Robert Kollmann, Beatrice Pataracchia, Marco Ratto, Werner Roeger

June 2014

We study the joint dynamics of foreign capital flows and real activity during the recent boom-bust cycle of the Spanish economy, using a three-country New Keynesian model with credit-constrained households and firms, a construction sector and a government. We estimate the model using 1995Q1-2013Q2 data for Spain, the rest of the Euro Area (REA) and the rest of the world.

Categories : Structural policies, growth and development; EU Member State economies; Financial markets
Series : Economic Papers

 
34 - The Role of Structural Reform for Adjustment and Growth

34 - The Role of Structural Reform for Adjustment and Growth

June 2014

This Economic Brief recapitulates some main insights on the role of structural reform for adjustment and growth in the EU.

Categories: Structural policies, growth and development, Product markets, Labour markets
Series: Economic Briefs

 
31 - Poverty developments in the EU after the crisis: a look at main drivers

31 - Poverty developments in the EU after the crisis: a look at main drivers

May 2014

Poverty increases were recorded mostly in terms of severe material deprivation and low work intensity rates starting from 2010 and were concentrated in those countries most severely hit by the crisis.

 
516 - What drives the German current account? And how does it affect other EU member states? - Robert Kollmann, Marco Ratto, Werner Roeger, Jan in’t Veld, Lukas Vogell

516 - What drives the German current account? And how does it affect other EU member states? - Robert Kollmann, Marco Ratto, Werner Roeger, Jan in’t Veld, Lukas Vogell

April 2014

We estimate a three-country model using 1995-2013 data for Germany, the Rest of the Euro Area (REA) and the Rest of the World (ROW) to analyze the determinants of Germany’s current account surplus after the launch of the Euro. The most important factors driving the German surplus were positive shocks to the German saving rate and to ROW demand for German exports, as well as German labour market reforms and other positive German aggregate supply shocks.

 
518 - The Puzzle of the Missing Greek Exports - Uwe Böwer, Vasiliki Michou, Christoph Ungerer

518 - The Puzzle of the Missing Greek Exports - Uwe Böwer, Vasiliki Michou, Christoph Ungerer

April 2014

Why is Greece such a surprisingly closed economy? We employ a gravity model of trade to explain the appallingly poor export performance of Greece and argue that weak institutional quality accounts for a large part of this shortfall.

Categories : Structural policies, growth and development; Labour markets; Product markets, Financial markets
Series :Economic Papers

 

Labour market developments in Europe, 2012

September 2012

The EU labour market in 2011 was marked by a sudden interruption of the recovery in employment started in 2010. Employment started falling in the mid of 2011 amid a reduction of job finding rates and a new process of job shedding concerning most of the EU, with job separations surging in a few countries. The current weakening of the labour market is mostly the result of worsening economic activity linked to the deterioration of the sovereign crisis amid an increasingly uncertain economic environment. The overall unemployment rate of the EU is currently heading towards nearly 10.5%, that of the euro area is about 11%, the highest rate since the start of EMU.

 

455 - Title Structural unemployment and its determinants - Fabrice Orlandi

May 2012

This Economic Paper identifies determinants of structural unemployment in 13 EU countries.

 

454 - Benchmarking Unemployment Benefit Systems - Klara Stovicek, Alessandro Turrini

May 2012

This paper proposes a methodology for benchmarking unemployment benefits systems, with a view to assess reform needs and priorities.

 

Labour market developments in Europe, 2011

August 2011

This report analyses labour market developments in Europe during the initial phase of the recovery from the major recession that followed the financial crisis. Despite growth resumed in 2010 in most EU countries, employment lagged behind. The muted response of employment to growth was largely the result of a considerable rebound in hours worked. At the end of 2010, working hours per worker were back to pre-crisis levels in many EU Members States and headcount employment started growing again, albeit timidly, and mostly for workers with temporary and part-time contracts.

In most EU countries, unemployment rates remained at the high levels reached since 2009, in a context of very resilient participation rates. Youth unemployment has reached record highs. Unemployment disparities within the EU and the euro area have grown markedly, and the most recent trends and projections indicate the divergence in unemployment rates are likely to persist and

 

13 - Post-crisis unemployment developments: US and EU approaching?

May 2011

This brief reviews the evolution of the US and the European labour markets since the beginning of the financial crisis.

In the US, the unemployment rate and the share of long-term unemployment grew very fast, during the crisis, thereby reaching levels close to those in the EU. Does that mean that the US labour market has split between jobs and permanent unemployment? In other words, is the US labour market in the process of becoming more "European" in terms of size, composition and dynamics? What would thus be the consequences in terms of outlook?

This brief analyses the unemployment response to the crisis in the US and Europe, also looking at the very different performance of labour markets across euro-area countries. In particular, while the Irish and Spanish labour markets suffered a burst of housing bubbles as the US that may have also aggravated labour mismatches, this was less a case in other EU countries, like Germany, Italy, Fran

 

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