Independent fiscal institutions are defined as non partisan public bodies, other than the central bank, government or parliament that prepare macroeconomic forecasts for the budget, monitor fiscal performance and/or advise the government on fiscal policy matters. These institutions are primarily financed by public funds and are functionally independent vis-à-vis fiscal authorities. Courts of Auditors are included in this definition if their activities go beyond the accounting control and cover any of the tasks mentioned above. In a number of EU Member States these institutions (also called fiscal councils) have proved to be instrumental in improving fiscal policy making by providing positive and/or normative analysis, assessments, and recommendations in the area of fiscal policy. In particular, fiscal institutions can provide macroeconomic forecasts for the budget preparation that do not suffer from the optimistic biases often found in official government forecasts; they may impartially monitor the implementation of budget plans and the respect of budgetary objectives; they may raise awareness about short and long-term costs and benefits of budgetary measures both among policy-makers and the public, and finally they can assess whether fiscal measures are appropriate in terms of respect of rules, sustainability of public finances, and stability-oriented fiscal policies.
The Commission services have compiled a broad set of information on national independent fiscal institutions in the EU countries through a comprehensive survey launched in 2006 across Member States. This survey compiled information related to the main characteristics of these domestic public bodies covering their mandates and functions, the composition of their governing boards, their formal status vis-à-vis government or parliament, and their media visibility and influence on public debates on fiscal policy. A first update of the database was made in 2008. Following the April 2009 Council Conclusions, it is being updated annually. The latest available information is from the 2011 update.