Due to its vulnerability to natural hazards and high levels of poverty, Haiti has limited capacity to cope with recurring emergencies caused by severe disasters, such as the 7.0 earthquake in 2010, recurrent hurricanes, and prolonged droughts worsened by the El Niño weather phenomenon.
Acute food insecurity and malnutrition, epidemics, and humanitarian needs generated by the ongoing migration crisis require sustained humanitarian assistance.
Haiti is facing critical food and nutritional insecurity, with 4.4 million Haitians acutely food insecure and 131 000 malnourished children, a consequence of prolonged drought and the impacts of hurricanes Matthew (2016) and Irma (2017). More than a year after hurricane Matthew made landfall on the Haitian coasts, over 140 000 affected households still do not have access to minimum earthquake and seismic-resistant homes and shelters, thus remaining highly vulnerable to future shocks.
In 2017, 13 747 suspected cholera cases and 159 associated fatalities were registered, and 995 new suspected cases and 9 associated fatalities have been recorded during the first trimester of 2018.
Humanitarian needs still persist in remaining IDP camps set up after the 2010 earthquake. Roughly 37 500 Haitians are still sheltered in camps, where access to water and basic services remains very limited. Additionally, about 230 000 Dominicans of Haitian descent are at risk of becoming stateless and deported to Haiti. Since June 2015, over 260 000 individuals have crossed the border from the Dominican Republic into Haiti, including over 4 000 unaccompanied minors.
Haiti is the largest beneficiary of the European Commission's humanitarian aid in Latin America and the Caribbean, with €388.35 million provided in assistance since 1994. EU aid brought relief to the victims of the 2010 earthquake and several major hurricanes. Aid also goes to tackling the cholera epidemic, droughts, the migration crisis, and strengthening local capacities to prepare for, and respond to, natural and epidemics hazards.
After the 2010 earthquake, the EU provided shelter, safe drinking water, healthcare, food and protection to five million people. €52.7 million addressed the cholera outbreak, targeting close to 3 million people.
Since 2014, €36.02 million has been allocated to address acute food and nutrition needs through cash transfers, provision of safe water, and livelihood support.
In 2016 and 2017, €19.755 million in emergency aid was allocated to cover immediate food, shelter, livelihood, water, nutrition, and the education needs of those most affected by hurricane Matthew. A priority remains the strengthening of the resilience of the most vulnerable, in particular in the face of recurring natural and epidemics hazards.
In 2018, €5 million will consolidate disaster risk reduction investments in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) preparedness, rapid response capacities, disaster-resistant shelter techniques, and drought preparedness. An additional €5 million will respond to acute food insecurity, shelter needs and the coordination across humanitarian operations.
Since 1998, the EU has invested €22.2 million in its disaster preparedness programme (DIPECHO) to set up early warning systems and to strengthen shelters and infrastructure to face recurring hurricanes, floods, and other natural hazards.