Évaluation globale des besoins
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Why are needs assessments essential?
The European Commission's humanitarian aid seeks to address the needs of the most vulnerable people facing a crisis, in accordance with the principles of humanitarian aid of impartiality, neutrality and independence established by the European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid.
A needs-based approach ensures consistency in the allocation of resources to different countries according to their respective needs, regardless of pressures of any kind, and to guarantee the credibility and transparency of the European Commission's humanitarian aid.
How does ECHO ensure a needs-based approach?
To ensure a needs-based decision-making process the European Commission's Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection department (ECHO) has developed a framework for assessing and analysing needs in specific countries and crises. The first phase of this framework takes into account the following tools developed by ECHO:
- Global Vulnerability and Crisis Assessment (GVCA)
The Global Vulnerability and Crisis Assessment is tool based on national indicators and composite data that allows for a comparative analysis of countries and crises to identify the level of vulnerability / level of crisis.
The first component identifies the most vulnerable countries, where humanitarian needs are likely to be greater in the event of a disaster, using a vulnerability index; the second component identifies countries that are effectively in a humanitarian crisis situation corresponding to the ECHO intervention criteria, by means of a crisis index. Taken together, the two indices define the priorities for intervention.
- The Forgotten Crisis Assessment (FCA)
The Forgotten Crises Assessment is a methodology which identifies serious humanitarian crisis situations where the affected populations are not receiving enough international aid or even none at all.
The second phase of the framework focuses on sub-crisis context and response analysis. This analysis is carried out jointly by ECHO field experts and geographical desks. The two-phase assessment and analysis allow for the prioritisation of needs, informs the development of strategic plans (Humanitarian Implementation Plans - HIPs) and provides an evidence base for funding allocation.
What support does ECHO provide to evidence-based decision-making and needs assessment in the humanitarian sector?
ECHO supports the humanitarian sector in improving the capacities, quality and coordination of needs assessment approaches in various ways, such as:
Since 2007, ECHO has funded over €18 million for needs assessment initiatives with implementing partners such as the World Food Programme (WFP), UNFAO, UNOCHA, UNHCR, HelpAge International, CARE-UK, ACTED, Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC), Action Contre la Faim (ACF), Save the Children (UK), etc.