The European Commission’s view of the challenges that a European Information Society strategy up to 2010 needs to address are set out in a Commission communication adopted on 19 November 2004. This communication highlights the need to step up research and investment in information and communication technologies (ICT), and to promote their take-up throughout the economy. ICT should be more closely tailored to citizens’ needs and expectations, to enable them to participate more readily in socially fulfilling and culturally creative virtual communities. The challenges include social inclusion and citizenship, content and services, public services, skills and work, ICT as a key industry sector, interoperability of ICT networks and applications, trust and dependability and ICT for business processes. This communication is the starting point of a reflection process that will lead to the adoption of a new strategy during 2005.